Tax Incentives (tax + incentive)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Tax incentives and fertility in Canada: quantum vs tempo effects

CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2007
Daniel Parent
Abstract., Using inter-jurisdictional differences in the implementation of the Family Allowance Program in Canada in the mid-1970s, this paper first shows that Quebec families with two or more children prior to being exposed to the program responded quite strongly to the added incentives in the short run relative to women in other Canadian provinces. Tracking down the cohorts across Censuses, we find that the same group of Quebec families subsequently showed a decrease in fertility relative to the rest of Canada, leaving ultimate family size unaffected. These results are consistent with the program having generated only a timing effect. Utilisant les différences entre juridictions dans la mise en ,uvre du programme d'allocations familiales au Canada au milieu des années 70, ce mémoire montre d'abord que les familles québécoises qui avaient deux enfants ou plus avant d'être exposées au programme ont répondu très fortement aux incitations additionnelles à court terme en comparaison avec ce qui s'est passé dans les autres provinces canadiennes. En suivant les cohortes à travers les recensements, on montre que ce même groupe de familles du Québec a, par la suite, subi un déclin de fécondité par rapport au reste du Canada, ce qui a eu pour effet de laisser la taille de la famille ultimement non affectée d'une manière relative. Ces résultats sont cohérents avec la conclusion que le programme a seulement eu un effet sur le profil temporel de la fécondité. [source]


The Impact of Financial and Tax Reporting Incentives on Option Grants to Canadian CEOs,

CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTING RESEARCH, Issue 2 2000
KENNETH J. KLASSEN
Abstract This study explores the effects of financial and tax reporting incentives on options granted to chief executive officers in Canada. Extant studies with a similar objective (Yermack 1995; Matsunaga 1995) explore predominantly nonqualified U.S. option grants that are deductible to the extent that the options are in the money at the time of exercise. In contrast, Canadian firms do not get a tax deduction for their stock option grants at any time. In both countries, no expense is recorded for financial reporting purposes. As a result, the financial reporting and tax reporting trade-off is more pronounced in the Canadian setting of this study compared with the U.S. setting. We measure option granting behavior as the ratio of the Black-Scholes value of stock option grants to the sum of cash compensation and the value of stock option grants. Using a sample of 806 firm-year observations during the period 1993-95, we find that observed option grants are significantly correlated with proxies for short-run financial reporting incentives. We also find evidence that option granting behavior is correlated with proxies for tax incentives. [source]


Distributional Implications of Tax Relief on Voluntary Private Pensions in Spain,

FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 2 2007
José-Ignacio Antón
Using taxation statistics, this paper explores the distributional implications of tax relief on private pensions in Spain in 2002. For this purpose, the author suggests a decomposition of the Kakwani index and its generalisations that allows us to distinguish between the regressivity caused by targeting and that due to benefits allocation among recipients. This paper finds that these tax incentives are regressive - mainly for the latter reason - and have negative although small distributional effects. Finally, this work presents several proposals for reform of the current system and simulates their implications for equity. [source]


Changes in the demand for private medical insurance following a shift in tax incentives

HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2008
Marisol Rodríguez
Abstract The 1998 Spanish reform of the Personal Income Tax eliminated the 15% deduction for private medical expenditures including payments on private health insurance (PHI) policies. To avoid an undesired increase in the demand for publicly funded health care, tax incentives to buy PHI were not completely removed but basically shifted from individual to group employer-paid policies. In a unique fiscal experiment, at the same time that the tax relief for individually purchased policies was abolished, the government provided for tax allowances on policies taken out through employment. Using a bivariate probit model on data from National Health Surveys, we estimate the impact of said reform on the demand for PHI and the changes occurred within it. Our findings indicate that the total probability of buying PHI was not significantly affected by the reform. Indeed, the fall in the demand for individual policies (by 10% between 1997 and 2001) was offset by an increase in the demand for group employer-paid ones. We also briefly discuss the welfare effects on the state budget, the industry and society at large. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A NEW WAY OF REVITALIZING DISTRESSED URBAN COMMUNITIES?

JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 5 2006
ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE FEDERAL EMPOWERMENT ZONE PROGRAM
ABSTRACT:,The Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community Initiative of 1993 offered targeted funding and tax incentives to distressed urban and rural communities. This initiative required a community-involvement component, setting it apart from more traditional economic development initiatives of the Reagan and Bush administrations. Using reports required by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and census data, this study examines the programmatic emphases of four of the original six urban zones and evaluates the overall impact of zone programs on socioeconomic trends. These trends are evaluated by matching zone-designated census tracts to nonzone tracts through a propensity-score matching model using 1990 census data. Trends in poverty and other socioeconomic outcomes are measured by 1990,2000 change at the census tract level for individual zones, as well as across all zones using a series of fixed-effect models. Findings indicate that community building and involvement initiatives received the least amount of funding. Traditional economic development programs received the most emphasis but this did not translate into positive socioeconomic outcomes. With the exception of a few isolated incidences where individual zones fared better than comparison areas, zone initiatives had little impact. [source]


Stimulation of investment in international energy through Nigerian tax exemption laws

OPEC ENERGY REVIEW, Issue 1 2002
Uche Jack Osimiri
This article assesses the impact of recent tax exemption legislation as a vehicle for the attraction of investment in the quest for the development of international energy in Nigeria, particularly oil and gas. It seeks to argue that generous tax incentives are the most successful method of inducement of foreign investors, judging from the rising profile in the expansion of investment in the gas sector and the attendant increase in world trade. It attempts to assert that tax incentives alone, without the combination of other favourable factors, like political stability, observance of the rule of law and deregulation or trade liberalisation, cannot produce the desired result of local industrialisation and integration into the world economy. [source]


Evaluating the Relative Impact of Fiscal Incentives and Trade Policies on the Returns to Manufacturing in Taiwan, 1955,1995,

ASIAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 1 2007
Glenn P. Jenkins
H25; F13; O12 In the present paper, an integrated cash flow model is developed to examine the relative impact of tax incentives, financial subsidies, and macroeconomic variables on the profitability of industrial investments. It allows for the variables in the model to interact with each other. An application of the model is carried out for Taiwan, which has implemented a variety of fiscal incentives over the past 40 years. The principal policy conclusion is that trade and macroeconomic policies are much more important than income tax incentives or subsidized finance policies in determining the success of Taiwan's industrialization process. The effects of all of the fiscal incentives are found to be much smaller than those of the trade policies or the fundamental trends in macroeconomic variables such as the movement of the real exchange rate and the real wage rate. [source]


Europäische Ansätze für Energieeffizienz-Monitoring auf der Basis von Energieausweis-Daten

BAUPHYSIK, Issue 3 2009
Tobias Loga Dipl.-Phys.
Energieeinsparung; Gebäudebestand Abstract Das DATAMINE-Projekt wurde angesichts des Bedarfs nach konkreten Daten über den tatsächlichen energetischen Zustand des europäischen Gebäudebestands und die bestehenden Potentiale zur Energieeinsparung und CO2-Emissionsminderung ins Leben gerufen. Diese Daten sollen längerfristig helfen, das politische Instrumentenbündel (ordnungsrechtliche, steuerliche, Förder-Maßnahmen, Informationsvermittlung) so zu gestalten, dass es wirkungsvoll und kosteneffizient ist. Entsprechend dem DATAMINE-Konzept basieren die Informationen auf Energieausweisen, die gemäß EU-Gebäuderichtlinie ausgestellt werden, sobald ein Gebäude gebaut, verkauft oder vermietet wird. Im Rahmen des DATAMINE-Projekts wurden in zwölf Ländern Feldversuche mit größeren Gebäudedaten-Sammlungen durchgeführt, jeder mit unterschiedlichen Analysezielen. Dabei nutzte jedes Land die gleiche Datenstruktur für die Sammlung seiner Energieausweis-Daten, die im Vorfeld gemeinsam entwickelt worden war. Diese lässt sich auf die verschiedenen Zertifizierungssysteme anwenden, die die europäischen Länder auf Grund der Unterschiede in Informationsbedürfnissen, Gebäudearten und Klima entwickelt haben. Rund 19.000 Datensätze wurden im gemeinsamen DATAMINE-Format gesammelt. In einem Ländervergleich konnten verschiedene Energieeffizienz-Indikatoren gegenübergestellt werden. Das Ergebnis der Analysen ergibt einen genaueren Einblick in den aktuellen Stand der energetischen Modernisierung spezifischer Gebäudegruppen in den beteiligten Ländern. Schließlich wurden Schlussfolgerungen in Bezug auf die Entwicklung von Monitoringsystemen in jedem Land und auf EU-Ebene gezogen. European attempt at energy performance monitoring based on data collections and certification schemes. The launch of the DATAMINE project has been driven by the need for concrete data on the actual energy performance of the European building stock as well as the potential energy savings and CO2 reductions. In the longer term data can help develop tailored, cost-efficient complementary measures to energy performance legislation, such as soft loans and tax incentives. DATAMINE aims to construct a knowledge base using the information on the energy performance certificates issued when buildings are constructed, sold or rented. In the framework of DATAMINE test projects were carried out on large samples of buildings in 12 countries, each with individual monitoring targets. In each country the same data structure was used for data collection which had been developed at the forefront. Full allowance is made for the Europe-wide differences in certification schemes, since each country has a scheme tailored to its specific needs, building stock and climate. Around 19,000 datasets have been collected in the common DATAMINE format. Cross-country analysis of the collected data was performed comparing different energy performance indicators. The result of the evaluation activities gives a clearer insight into the current state of refurbishment of specific building subsets in each country. Finally conclusions were drawn regarding the development of monitoring systems in each country and on EU level. [source]