Tax

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Tax

  • capital gain tax
  • carbon tax
  • commodity tax
  • consumption tax
  • dividend tax
  • emission tax
  • employment tax
  • environmental tax
  • estate tax
  • export tax
  • flat tax
  • gain tax
  • german tax
  • government tax
  • income tax
  • labour tax
  • lower tax
  • optimal tax
  • payroll tax
  • personal income tax
  • pollution tax
  • property tax
  • sales tax
  • services tax
  • transaction tax
  • wage tax

  • Terms modified by Tax

  • tax asset
  • tax authority
  • tax base
  • tax benefit
  • tax break
  • tax burden
  • tax change
  • tax collection
  • tax competition
  • tax compliance
  • tax cost
  • tax credit
  • tax cut
  • tax difference
  • tax effects
  • tax evasion
  • tax exemption
  • tax expenditure
  • tax harmonization
  • tax incentive
  • tax increase
  • tax law
  • tax legislation
  • tax liability
  • tax payment
  • tax policy
  • tax rate
  • tax reduction
  • tax regime
  • tax relief
  • tax return
  • tax revenue
  • tax scenario
  • tax schedule
  • tax scheme
  • tax shield
  • tax smoothing
  • tax structure
  • tax system
  • tax treatment

  • Selected Abstracts


    Functional studies of an evolutionarily conserved, cytochrome b5 domain protein reveal a specific role in axonemal organisation and the general phenomenon of post-division axonemal growth in trypanosomes

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 1 2009
    Helen Farr
    Abstract Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are highly conserved structures composed of a canonical 9+2 microtubule axoneme. Several recent proteomic studies of cilia and flagella have been published, including a proteome of the flagellum of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Comparing proteomes reveals many novel proteins that appear to be widely conserved in evolution. Amongst these, we found a previously uncharacterised protein which localised to the axoneme in T. brucei, and therefore named it Trypanosome Axonemal protein (TAX)-2. Ablation of the protein using RNA interference in the procyclic form of the parasite has no effect on growth but causes a reduction in motility. Using transmission electron microscopy, various structural defects were seen in some axonemes, most frequently with microtubule doublets missing from the 9+2 arrangement. RNAi knockdown of TAX-2 expression in the bloodstream form of the parasite caused defects in growth and cytokinesis, a further example of the effects caused by loss of flagellar function in bloodstream form T. brucei. In procyclic cells we used a new set of vectors to ablate protein expression in cells expressing a GFP:TAX-2 fusion protein, which enabled us to easily quantify protein reduction and visualise axonemes made before and after RNAi induction. This establishes a useful generic technique but also revealed a specific observation that the new flagellum on the daughter trypanosome continues growth after cytokinesis. Our results provide evidence for TAX-2 function within the axoneme, where we suggest that it is involved in processes linking the outer doublet microtubules and the central pair. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    THE REPORT OF THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY TAX REFORM COMMISSION

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2007
    Article first published online: 15 JUN 200
    Four economists give their views on the economics and political economy of the Conservative Party Tax Reform Commission Report. [source]


    TAXING LAND VALUE IS JUST ANOTHER QUESTIONABLE TAX

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2006
    Oliver Marc Hartwich
    There has recently been much public debate about the introduction of a land value tax. To its supporters such a tax promises to achieve several goals simultaneously. On closer inspection, however, the arguments in favour of land value taxation are not convincing. On the contrary, the economic foundations on which proponents of this tax rely are dubious, and there are significant legal, moral and practical problems with land value taxation. [source]


    GORDON BROWN COUNTS DEAD CHILDREN: THE TRUE IMPACT OF INHERITANCE TAX

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2006
    Cliff Pratten
    In the Budget and the supporting documents Gordon Brown and the Treasury reported that only 6% of estates pay Inheritance Tax and that the tax is a fair and targeted system. This article shows that for several reasons the tax affects far more than 6% of the community, is iniquitous and poorly targeted. [source]


    LOWER TAX NOT FLAT TAX IS THE ANSWER

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2005
    Tim Congdon
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    TAX AND THE DIVISION OF LABOUR

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2003
    Terry Arthur
    All taxes drive a wedge between the prices consumers pay and prices producers receive, thus promoting inefficient ,do-it-yourself'(DIY) work - not just at home but also in the workplace. [source]


    BEYOND TAX: THE NEED FOR RESEARCH ON ALCOHOL PRICING POLICIES

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    FRANK J. CHALOUPKA
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    AUSTRALIAN EARLY RETIREMENT TAX BIASES PRIOR TO JULY 2007 AND THE LIKELY EFFECTS OF TAX REFORM ON RETIREMENT PLANS

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 3 2008
    BRUCE FELMINGHAM
    We develop a simulation model explaining the accrual of retirement wealth gained from working one year beyond retirement and from this calculate an implicit tax rate on the additional year's work. We find that the pre-July 2007 Australian tax on retirement benefits was biased in favour of ages 59 and less, while the implicit rate was positive on retirement past 59. We also use the results of a national survey of 2,500 households (ASRAM SURVEY) to determine the likely response to the tax changes implemented in July 2007 and find that half those sampled are either very likely or likely to change their expected retirement dates in response to the tax changes. [source]


    TAX REFORM: A DIFFERENT VIEW

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 2 2007
    GEOFFREY KINGSTON
    The mainstream view of tax reformers in Australia is that dropping our top personal tax rate closer to our corporate rate is the best way to use persistent budget surpluses in order to promote national prosperity. Yet the international evidence suggests that dropping our corporate rate would be more effective in lifting output and wages. Prominent tax reformers have tended to go along with recent measures that will shield the elderly from most direct taxation. Further down the track, however, questions will arise about whether the young are bearing an inordinate share of the tax burden. [source]


    QUANTIFYING THE LAFFER CURVE ON THE CONTINUED ACTIVITY TAX IN A DYNASTIC FRAMEWORK,

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2008
    Jean-Olivier Hairault
    It is argued that the tax on continued activity should be removed by implementing actuarially fair schemes. However, these schemes cannot fund the expected Social Security (SS) deficit. This article proposes to give individuals a fraction of the actuarially fair incentives in the case of postponed retirement. SS faces a trade-off between giving enough incentives to make individuals delay retirement and giving little increase in pensions in order to help finance its expected deficit. This trade-off is captured by a Laffer curve. Finally, when the SS system aims to maximize welfare, the optimal tax on postponed retirement is still strictly positive. [source]


    MARGINAL COMMODITY TAX REFORMS: A SURVEY

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 4 2007
    Alessandro Santoro
    Abstract As noted 30 years ago by Martin Feldstein, optimal taxes may be useless for practical purposes and emphasis should instead be placed on the possibility of enhancing welfare by reforming existing tax rates. In this perspective, marginal commodity tax reforms are gaining increasing attention due to political and economic constraints on large reforms of direct (or indirect) taxation. In this paper, we summarize the main features and results of the literature on marginal commodity tax reforms pioneered by Ahmad and Stern, further developed by Yitzhaki and Thirsk and recently reinterpreted by Makdissi and Wodon. We establish new links to other fields of research, namely the literature on the use of equivalence scales and on poverty measurement. We also critically examine some issues associated with the implementation of marginal tax reforms with special reference to the calculation of welfare weights and revenue effects. Finally, we suggest directions for future research on poverty-reducing commodity tax reforms. [source]


    EXTERNALITIES AND PARTIAL TAX REFORM: DOES IT MAKE SENSE TO TAX ROAD FREIGHT (BUT NOT PASSENGER) TRANSPORT?,

    JOURNAL OF REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
    Edward Calthrop
    ABSTRACT Externalities such as pollution and road congestion are jointly produced by the use of intermediate inputs by firms and the consumption of final goods by households. To cope with such externalities, policy proposals often suggest partial tax reforms. This paper uses a simple general equilibrium model to explore the effects of a reform of taxes on freight transport in a second-best setting. The theoretical model shows that the welfare effect of higher freight taxes is positive, unless passenger transport is severely under-taxed and the tax reform attracts substantially more passenger transport. Moreover, the optimal freight tax may be below or above marginal external cost. Budgetary neutral tax reform exercises with a numerical simulation model for the U.K. suggest that, under a wide variety of parameter values, higher freight transport taxes are indeed welfare increasing. The welfare gain of freight tax reform rises with the level of the passenger tax, but the optimal freight tax declines at higher taxes on passenger transport. Substantial net benefits of tax reform are obtained only under labor tax recycling of the revenues. [source]


    GROWTH AND WELFARE EFFECTS OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL TAX-BASED PUBLIC PENSION REFORM,

    THE JAPANESE ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2007
    TETSUO ONO
    This paper presents an overlapping generations model in which: (i) firms create emissions as by-products of production; and (ii) tax revenue from the working young is transferred to the retired elderly as pay-as-you-go pension benefits. The paper focuses on a replacement ratio, which measures the proportion of after tax work earnings replaced by the public pension, and considers a replacement ratio neutral reform in which the newly introduced environmental tax is devoted to cutting the social security tax, keeping the replacement ratio unchanged. It is shown that the reform may improve growth, environmental quality and the nonenvironmental utility of every generation. [source]


    ON THE PATH OF AN OIL PIGOVIAN TAX,

    THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL, Issue 5 2009
    ANTOINE BELGODERE, Article first published online: 14 JUL 200
    This paper studies optimal climate policy in the presence of oil rents. Several authors have found that, according to Hotelling's rule, in the long run, the optimal ad valorem tax must decrease. However, if the pollution is a stock and if environmental concerns impose stopping the resource extraction before its exhaustion, we show that an ad valorem tax defined over the rent cannot decentralize the optimum. In this case, an increasing per-unit tax can decentralize the optimum. Such a tax implies the disappearance of the Hotelling rent. Thus, the extraction problem reduces to a pollution-control problem. [source]


    PROFIT TAX AND FIRM MOBILITY IN A THREE-COUNTRY MODEL

    AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC PAPERS, Issue 2 2010
    WATARU JOHDO
    We construct a three-country model that incorporates international relocation by imperfectly competitive firms and examine both the effects of each country's profit tax reduction on the consumption and welfare of all countries, and the incentive for the countries to decrease the profit tax. In such a model, both the terms of trade and international relocation of firms offer the key to understanding the impacts of one country's profit tax policy. In particular, we note that the relocation of firms from the other two countries is positively related to the wage incomes of the third country through a shift in labour demand, and the terms-of-trade improvement is not only positively related to the wage incomes, but also negatively related to profit incomes through a shift in world consumption demand. We show that (i) in a three-country world economy, regardless of the reduction's source, the profit tax reduction of each country leads to relocation of firms away from foreign countries toward its own economy and deteriorates the terms of trade of its economy and (ii) this becomes a ,beggar-thy-neighbour' policy in the sense that it lowers the welfare of the other foreign countries. [source]


    Enzymatic stability of 2,-ethylcarbonate-linked paclitaxel in serum and conversion to paclitaxel by rabbit liver carboxylesterase for use in prodrug/enzyme therapy

    BIOPHARMACEUTICS AND DRUG DISPOSITION, Issue 5 2008
    Tadatoshi Tanino
    Abstract In prodrug/enzyme therapy for cancer, information on the sensitivity of hydrolytic enzymes to prodrug is required to reduce adverse effects of the parental drug and to find the activating enzyme. The aim of this study was to characterize the enzymatic stability of 2,-ethylcarbonate-linked paclitaxel (TAX-2,-Et) in the sera of several different species including humans. TAX-2,-Et disposition in serum was kinetically analysed using models with hydrolytic and/or degradation processes. To further evaluate the capability of liver carboxylesterases (CESs) in TAX-2,-Et hydrolysis, a CES isolated from rabbit liver (Ra-CES) was utilized as a model enzyme. Rat serum provided rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of TAX-2,-Et with a half-life of 4 min. The degradation of paclitaxel (TAX) (degradation rate constant, 0.16,h,1) was accompanied by the formation of an unknown compound. The conversion to TAX was almost completely inhibited by phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride (PMSF) and bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP). In human and rabbit sera, the degradation rate constant of TAX-2,-Et was 5.1,,10,2 and 0.15,h,1, respectively, when excepting hydrolysis. The degradation products had the same molecular weight as TAX-2,-Et. The amount of TAX produced accounted for only 8,11% of the decrease in TAX-2,-Et after a 9 h exposure to rabbit or human serum. PMSF, but not BNPP, inhibited more than 90% of the TAX production in a 1.5,h incubation with human or rabbit serum. Ra-CES enzyme converted TAX-2,-Et to TAX with Vmax and Km of 74.713.8 nmol/min/mg protein and 8.82.8 M, respectively. These results indicate that TAX-2,-Et is sensitive to serum CESs, but not cholinesterases. However, serum CESs show species-dependent hydrolysis of TAX-2,-Et. Although human serum allows the slow release of TAX, TAX-2,-Et is expected to reduce the side-effects of TAX. The Ra-CES enzyme is capable of hydrolysing TAX-2,-Et, which may be beneficial for the development of a TAX-2,-Et/enzyme therapy strategy for ovarian cancer. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    2135: Influence of Hsp90 and HDAC inhibition and tubulin acetylation on perinuclear protein aggregation in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2010
    K KAARNIRANTA
    Purpose Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are continually exposed to oxidative stress that contributes to protein misfolding, aggregation and functional abnormalities during aging. The protein aggregates formed at the cell periphery are delivered along the microtubulus network by dynein dependent retrograde trafficking to a juxtanuclear location. Methods Cellular organelles were analysed by transmission electron microscopy of ARPE-19 cells exposed 5 M MG-132, 0.25 M geldanamycin (GA), 1 M trichostatin A (TSA), 1 M taxol (TAX) or 5 M nocodazole (NOC) for 24 hours. In addition, the cells were treated simultaneously with GA or TSA or TAX or NOC and MG-132 up to 24 hours. Ubiquitin, Hsp90, Hsp70, acetylated tubulin and Hsc70 protein levels were analyzed by western blotting. Results Hsp90 inhibition by geldanamycin can effectively suppress proteasome inhibitor, MG-132 ,induced protein aggregation in a way that is an independent of HDAC inhibition, or the tubulin acetylation levels in ARPE-19 cells. However, the tubulin acetylation and polymerization state affects the localization of the proteasome-inhibitor ,induced aggregation. Conclusion Hsp90 inhibition is effectively related to regulation of protein aggregation that is independent of HDAC inhibition or tubulin acetylation levels in the RPE cells. Our findings open new perspectives for understanding the pathogenesis of protein aggregation in retinal cells and can be useful for the development of therapeutic treatments to prevent retinal cell deterioration. [source]


    CAN SOFT DRINK TAXES REDUCE POPULATION WEIGHT?

    CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 1 2010
    JASON M. FLETCHER
    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the United States. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exceptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude.(JEL I18, H75) [source]


    EMPLOYMENT TAXES: WHERE ARE WE GOING?

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2003
    John Whiting
    Employment taxes have become more complicated over time, and too much of an administrative burden is now placed on employers, especially smaller ones. Combining PAYE and NIC has the potential for big simplification of the system. My basic thesis is that circumstances have changed dramatically, and so must the system, because all is not well in the employment taxes area. [source]


    THE ILLUSORY TAX BASE: WHY TAXES ON CAPITAL ARE COUNTERPRODUCTIVE

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2003
    Barry Bracewell-Milnes
    Taxes on capital are economically and socially counterproductive. The economy and society would benefit from their abolition. The obstacle to their abolition is not financial or economic but a failure of political will. This article looks at taxes on capital from an economic perspective: how do they differ from other taxes, what costs do they impose on the economy, and what are the consequences of their abolition? And, even if they are a failure economically, can they be justified socially or politically? [source]


    PRICE AND EFFICIENCY EFFECTS OF TAXES AND SUBSIDIES FOR AUSTRALIAN HOUSING

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 2 2007
    PETER ABELSON
    This paper quantifies the major subsidies and taxes that affect housing, the impacts on house prices and housing consumption, and the efficiency effects. Private housing receives an estimated net subsidy of $6.3 billion per annum. Most of this subsidy accrues to homeowners, who as a group receive about an 8% subsidy on imputed gross rentals. The rental sector receives a subsidy of approximately 0.4% of rents. On plausible (unitary elasticity) demand and supply assumptions, the homeowner subsidy increases all housing prices by about 2% and total housing consumption by about 2%, with the rise in consumption by home owners more than offsetting the fall in consumption by renters. The housing subsidy produces an estimated deadweight loss from expenditure on renovations of about $100 million per annum. However, contrary to previous work, the paper finds that the housing subsidy produces welfare gains from expenditure on new housing in the order of $187 million a year. This arises because the subsidy offsets the over-regulated supply of new housing. Transaction taxes on housing have a separate deadweight loss of $375 million per annum. Also, the unequal treatment of homeowners and renters creates a small annual deadweight loss. [source]


    [Commentary] ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE TAXES, PRICES AND DRINKING

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2009
    FRANK J. CHALOUPKA
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THE EFFECTS OF TAXES ON LABOUR IN A DYNAMIC EFFICIENCY WAGE MODEL,

    THE JAPANESE ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2004
    JOO RICARDO FARIA
    This paper studies the impact of wage and employment taxes in an intertemporal efficiency wage model. Cases with fixed, linear and quadratic adjustment costs associated with job creation are considered. In general, the model shows that an increase in the employment tax leads to an increase in unemployment, reducing job creation, and has ambiguous effect on wages; whereas an increase in the wage tax reduces wages and has ambiguous impact on unemployment and job creation. [source]


    TAXES, GROWTH AND THE CURRENT ACCOUNT TICK-CURVE EFFECT

    AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC PAPERS, Issue 1 2010
    CREINA DAY
    This paper examines the dynamic and long run effects of a shift from income taxes to consumption taxes in a growing small open economy. We introduce a government sector that maintains a balanced budget and expenditure at a constant proportion of domestic income to a small open economy Swan-Solow model. Our framework provides a previously unidentified dynamic effect that is robust to endogenising the savings rate. Lowering the income tax rate promotes economic growth and has a tick-curve effect on the current account balance, characterised by instantaneous deterioration, a period of recovery and gradual convergence to an improved position in the long run. [source]


    A COMPARISON OF THE POVERTY IMPACT OF TRANSFERS, TAXES AND MARKET INCOME ACROSS FIVE OECD COUNTRIES

    BULLETIN OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Issue 4 2010
    Sami Bibi
    D31; I32; I38 ABSTRACT This paper compares the poverty reduction impact of income sources, taxes and transfers across five OECD countries. Since the estimation of that impact can depend on the order in which the various income sources are introduced into the analysis, it is done by using the Shapley value. Estimates of the poverty reduction impact are presented in a normalized and unnormalized fashion, in order to take into account the total as well as the per dollar impacts. The methodology is applied to data from the Luxembourg Income Study database. [source]


    WELFARE IN THE NASH EQUILIBRIUM IN EXPORT TAXES UNDER BERTRAND DUOPOLY

    BULLETIN OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2008
    Roger Clarke
    F12; F13; L13 ABSTRACT In the Eaton and GrossmanQuarterly Journal of Economics, 101 (1986), pp. 383,406 model of export taxes under Bertrand duopoly, it is shown that welfare in the Nash equilibrium in export taxes is always higher than welfare under free trade for both countries. [source]


    Cancellation of Executive Stock Options: Tax and Accounting Income Considerations,

    CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTING RESEARCH, Issue 3 2003
    Amin Mawani
    Abstract Canadian firms face a trade-off between reporting higher accounting income and paying lower taxes that arises from their ability to cancel in-the-money executive stock options and making a substitute cash payment to the executive instead of issuing shares. Firms' trade-off hypotheses are operationalized in a multilateral framework and empirically tested using insider-trading data. The multilateral approach is designed to control for the incentive effects of alternative compensation schemes and to determine the cancellation payment that keeps the executive indifferent between receiving cash or shares. The results show that firms consider both taxes and financial reporting costs in determining their option cancellation behavior. [source]


    Tax and Education Policy in a Heterogeneous-Agent Economy: What Levels of Redistribution Maximize Growth and Efficiency?

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 2 2002
    Roland Bnabou
    This paper studies the effects of progressive income taxes and education finance in a dynamic heterogeneous-agent economy. Such redistributive policies entail distortions to labor supply and savings, but also serve as partial substitutes for missing credit and insurance markets. The resulting tradeoffs for growth and efficiency are explored, both theoretically and quantitatively, in a model that yields complete analytical solutions. Progressive education finance always leads to higher income growth than taxes and transfers, but at the cost of lower insurance. Overall efficiency is assessed using a new measure that properly reflects aggregate resources and idiosyncratic risks but, unlike a standard social welfare function, does not reward equality per se. Simulations using empirical parameter estimates show that the efficiency costs and benefits of redistribution are generally of the same order of magnitude, resulting in plausible values for the optimal rates. Aggregate income and aggregate welfare provide only crude lower and upper bounds around the true efficiency tradeoff. [source]


    THE REPORT OF THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY TAX REFORM COMMISSION

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2007
    Article first published online: 15 JUN 200
    Four economists give their views on the economics and political economy of the Conservative Party Tax Reform Commission Report. [source]


    GORDON BROWN COUNTS DEAD CHILDREN: THE TRUE IMPACT OF INHERITANCE TAX

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2006
    Cliff Pratten
    In the Budget and the supporting documents Gordon Brown and the Treasury reported that only 6% of estates pay Inheritance Tax and that the tax is a fair and targeted system. This article shows that for several reasons the tax affects far more than 6% of the community, is iniquitous and poorly targeted. [source]