Taurine Levels (taurine + level)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Differential Increase in Taurine Levels by Low-Dose Ethanol in the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum Revealed by Microdialysis With On-Line Capillary Electrophoresis

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2004
A Smith
Ethanol increases taurine efflux in the nucleus accumbens or ventral striatum (VS), a dopaminergic terminal region involved in positive reinforcement. However, this has been found only at ethanol doses above 1 g/kg intraperitoneally, which is higher than what most rats will self-administer. We used a sensitive on-line assay of microdialysate content to test whether lower doses of ethanol selectively increase taurine efflux in VS as opposed to other dopaminergic regions not involved in reinforcement (e.g., dorsal striatum; DS). Adult male rats with microdialysis probes in VS or DS were injected with ethanol (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg intraperitoneally), and the amino acid content of the dialysate was measured every 11 sec using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection. In VS, 0.5 g/kg ethanol significantly increased taurine levels by 20% for 10 min. A similar increase was seen after 1 g/kg ethanol, which lasted for about 20 min after injection. A two-phased taurine efflux was observed with the 2.0 g/kg dose, where taurine was increased by 2-fold after 5 min but it remained elevated by 30% for at least 60 min. In contrast, DS exhibited much smaller dose-related increases in taurine. Glycine, glutamate, serine, and ,-aminobutyric acid were not systematically affected by lower doses of ethanol; however, 2 g/kg slowly decreased these amino acids in both brain regions during the hour after injection. These data implicate a possible role of taurine in the mechanism of action of ethanol in the VS. The high sensitivity and time resolution afforded by capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection will be useful for detecting subtle changes of neuronally active amino acids levels due to low doses of ethanol. [source]


Taurine deficiency is a cause of vigabatrin-induced retinal phototoxicity,

ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Firas Jammoul MD
Objective Although vigabatrin irreversibly constricts the visual field, it remains a potent therapy for infantile spasms and a third-line drug for refractory epilepsies. In albino animals, this drug induces a reduction in retinal cell function, retinal disorganization, and cone photoreceptor damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the light dependence of the vigabatrin-elicited retinal toxicity and to screen for molecules preventing this secondary effect of vigabatrin. Methods Rats and mice were treated daily with 40 and 3mg vigabatrin, respectively. Retinal cell lesions were demonstrated by assessing cell function with electroretinogram measurements, and quantifying retinal disorganization, gliosis, and cone cell densities. Results Vigabatrin-elicited retinal lesions were prevented by maintaining animals in darkness during treatment. Different mechanisms including taurine deficiency were reported to produce such phototoxicity; we therefore measured amino acid plasma levels in vigabatrin-treated animals. Taurine levels were 67% lower in vigabatrin-treated animals than in control animals. Taurine supplementation reduced all components of retinal lesions in both rats and mice. Among six vigabatrin-treated infants, the taurine plasma level was found to be below normal in three patients and undetectable in two patients. Interpretation These results indicate that vigabatrin generates a taurine deficiency responsible for its retinal phototoxicity. Future studies will investigate whether cotreatment with taurine and vigabatrin can limit epileptic seizures without inducing the constriction of the visual field. Patients taking vigabatrin could gain immediate benefit from reduced light exposures and dietetic advice on taurine-rich foods. Ann Neurol 2009;65:98,107 [source]


Effects of some synthetic kynurenines on brain amino acids and nitric oxide after pentylenetetrazole administration to rats

JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2004
Leila Bikjdaouene
Abstract:, We have previously proven that some synthetic kynurenines behave as antagonists of the N-methyl- d -aspartate receptor inhibiting neuronal subtype of nitric oxide synthase activity. We now investigate the anticonvulsant activity of four of these kynurenines in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-treated rats. The rats were treated with each kynurenine (10,160 mg/kg, s.c.) 30 min before PTZ administration (100 mg/kg, s.c.). Then, latency, duration and intensity of the first seizure and the percent animal survival were noted. PTZ-induced death was counteracted by high doses of kynurenines. Latency of the first seizure was significantly increased and its intensity reduced at the same doses, whereas the duration of the first seizure significantly decreased with doses of 20 mg/kg in most of the kynurenines tested. Three hours after PTZ administration, the surviving animals were sacrificed and the levels of brain amino acids and nitrite were measured. PTZ administration increased glutamate, glutamine, serine and taurine levels in different brain areas. High doses of kynurenines generally counteracted the effects of PTZ on excitatory amino acids, but they also reduced inhibitory aminoacids. However, the most consistent effect of kynurenines was the dose-dependent reduction of brain nitrite levels induced by PTZ. These results reveal a new family of anticonvulsant drugs that affect mainly to nitric oxide production in the brain. [source]


Differential Increase in Taurine Levels by Low-Dose Ethanol in the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum Revealed by Microdialysis With On-Line Capillary Electrophoresis

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2004
A Smith
Ethanol increases taurine efflux in the nucleus accumbens or ventral striatum (VS), a dopaminergic terminal region involved in positive reinforcement. However, this has been found only at ethanol doses above 1 g/kg intraperitoneally, which is higher than what most rats will self-administer. We used a sensitive on-line assay of microdialysate content to test whether lower doses of ethanol selectively increase taurine efflux in VS as opposed to other dopaminergic regions not involved in reinforcement (e.g., dorsal striatum; DS). Adult male rats with microdialysis probes in VS or DS were injected with ethanol (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg intraperitoneally), and the amino acid content of the dialysate was measured every 11 sec using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection. In VS, 0.5 g/kg ethanol significantly increased taurine levels by 20% for 10 min. A similar increase was seen after 1 g/kg ethanol, which lasted for about 20 min after injection. A two-phased taurine efflux was observed with the 2.0 g/kg dose, where taurine was increased by 2-fold after 5 min but it remained elevated by 30% for at least 60 min. In contrast, DS exhibited much smaller dose-related increases in taurine. Glycine, glutamate, serine, and ,-aminobutyric acid were not systematically affected by lower doses of ethanol; however, 2 g/kg slowly decreased these amino acids in both brain regions during the hour after injection. These data implicate a possible role of taurine in the mechanism of action of ethanol in the VS. The high sensitivity and time resolution afforded by capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection will be useful for detecting subtle changes of neuronally active amino acids levels due to low doses of ethanol. [source]