Taste System (taste + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A novel Takeout-like protein expressed in the taste and olfactory organs of the blowfly, Phormia regina

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 18 2006
Kazuyo Fujikawa
In insects, the functional molecules responsible for the taste system are still obscure. The gene for a 28.5 kDa protein purified from taste sensilla of the blowfly Phormia regina belongs to a gene family that includes takeout of Drosophila melanogaster. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Phormia Takeout-like protein is most similar to the protein encoded by a member of the Drosophila takeout gene family, CG14661, whose expression and function have not been identified yet. Western blot analyses revealed that Phormia Takeout-like protein was exclusively expressed in antennae and labellum of the adult blowfly in both sexes. Immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated that Takeout-like protein was localized around the lamella structure of the auxiliary cells and in the sensillar lymph of the labellar taste sensillum. In antennae, Takeout-like protein was distributed at the base of the olfactory sensilla as well. No significant differences in Takeout-like protein expression were found between the sexes. Our results suggest that Phormia Takeout-like protein is involved in some early events concerned with chemoreception in both the taste and olfactory systems. [source]

Construction of a taste-blind medaka fish and quantitative assay of its preference,aversion behavior

Y. Aihara
In vertebrates, the taste system provides information used in the regulation of food ingestion. In mammals, each cell group within the taste buds expresses either the T1R or the T2R taste receptor for preference,aversion discrimination. However, no such information is available regarding fish. We developed a novel system for quantitatively assaying taste preference,aversion in medaka fish. In this study, we prepared fluorescently labeled foods with fine cavities designed to retain tastants until they were bitten by the fish. The subjects were fed food containing a mixture of amino acids and inosine monophosphate (AN food), denatonium benzoate (DN food) or no tastant (NT food), and the amounts of ingested food were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Statistical analysis of the fluorescence intensities yielded quantitative measurements of AN food preference and DN food aversion. We then generated a transgenic fish expressing dominant-negative G,i2 both in T1R-expressing and in T2R-expressing cells. The feeding assay revealed that the transgenic fish was unable to show a preference for AN food and an aversion to DN food. The assay system was useful for evaluating taste-blind behaviors, and the results indicate that the two taste signaling pathways conveying preferable and aversive taste information are conserved in fish as well as in mammals. [source]

Upregulation of intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 after unilateral nerve injury in the peripheral taste system

Melissa Ann Cavallin
Abstract In the peripheral taste system, activated macrophages are recruited to both sides of the tongue after unilateral sectioning of the chorda tympani nerve (CT). Neural degeneration elicits macrophage entry in other systems by upregulating vascular adhesion molecules. We hypothesized that CT sectioning leads to a bilateral increase in intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression on lingual vessels. To test this hypothesis, rats were euthanized at time points from 6 hr to 7 days post-sectioning. Frozen sections of tongue were processed for immunohistochemical staining for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Tongue homogenates from additional rats were analyzed with ELISA. ICAM-1 expression increases first on the denervated side of the tongue at 24 hr post-section and then on the uninjured side at 48 hr post-section. ICAM-1 remains elevated through Day 7 post-sectioning on both sides of the tongue. Dietary sodium restriction, which prevents the macrophage response to nerve sectioning, had no effect on ICAM-1 levels. VCAM-1+ vessels are increased on the denervated side of the tongue at 24,48 hr post-section in control-fed rats. However, dietary sodium restriction prevents the increase. These results indicate that vascular adhesion molecules are differentially regulated by CT sectioning. We suggest that macrophage entry, migration, and modulation of taste function are downstream of dynamic expression of adhesion molecules. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Recovery of two independent sweet taste systems during regeneration of the mouse chorda tympani nerve after nerve crush

Keiko Yasumatsu
Abstract In rodents, section of the taste nerve results in degeneration of the taste buds. Following regeneration of the cut taste nerve, however, the taste buds reappear. This phenomenon can be used to study the functional reformation of the peripheral neural system responsible for sweet taste. In this study we examined the recovery of sweet responses by the chorda tympani (CT) nerve after nerve crush as well as inhibition of these responses by gurmarin (Gur), a sweet response inhibitor. After about 2 weeks of CT nerve regeneration, no significant response to any taste stimuli could be observed. At 3 weeks, responses to sweet stimuli reappeared but were not significantly inhibited by Gur. At 4 weeks, Gur inhibition of sweet responses reached statistically significant levels. Thus, the Gur-sensitive (GS) component of the sweet response reappeared about 1 week later than the Gur-insensitive (GI) component. Moreover, single CT fibers responsive to sucrose could be classified into distinct GS and GI groups at 4 weeks. After 5 weeks or more, responses to sweet compounds before and after treatment with Gur became indistinguishable from responses in the intact group. During regeneration, the GS and GI components of the sucrose response could be distinguished based on their concentration-dependent responses to sucrose. These results suggest that mice have two different sweet-reception systems, distinguishable by their sensitivity to Gur (the GS and GI systems). These two sweet-reception systems may be reconstituted independently during regeneration of the mouse CT nerve. [source]