Taste Receptor (taste + receptor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Taste Receptor

  • taste receptor cell

  • Selected Abstracts

    Peripheral coding of bitter taste in Drosophila

    Nicolas Meunier
    Abstract Taste receptors play a crucial role in detecting the presence of bitter compounds such as alkaloids, and help to prevent the ingestion of toxic food. In Drosophila, we show for the first time that several taste sensilla on the prothoracic legs detect bitter compounds both through the activation of specific taste neurons but also through inhibition of taste neurons activated by sugars and water. Each sensillum usually houses a cluster of four taste neurons classified according to their best stimulus (S for sugar, W for Water, L1 and L2 for salts). Using a new statistical approach based on the analysis of interspike intervals, we show that bitter compounds activate the L2 cell. Bitter-activated L2 cells were excited with a latency of at least 50 ms. Their sensitivity to bitter compounds was different between sensilla, suggesting that specific receptors to bitter compounds are differentially expressed among L2 cells. When presented in mixtures, bitter compounds inhibited the responses of S and W, but not the L1 cell. The inhibition was effective even in sensilla where bitter compounds did not activate the L2 cell, indicating that bitter compounds directly interact with the S and W cells. Interestingly, this inhibition occurred with latencies similar to the excitation of bitter-activated L2 cells. It suggests that the inhibition in the W and S cells shares similar transduction pathways with the excitation in the L2 cells. Combined with molecular approaches, the results presented here should provide a physiological basis to understand how bitter compounds are detected and discriminated. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 56: 139,152, 2003 [source]

    Construction of a taste-blind medaka fish and quantitative assay of its preference,aversion behavior

    Y. Aihara
    In vertebrates, the taste system provides information used in the regulation of food ingestion. In mammals, each cell group within the taste buds expresses either the T1R or the T2R taste receptor for preference,aversion discrimination. However, no such information is available regarding fish. We developed a novel system for quantitatively assaying taste preference,aversion in medaka fish. In this study, we prepared fluorescently labeled foods with fine cavities designed to retain tastants until they were bitten by the fish. The subjects were fed food containing a mixture of amino acids and inosine monophosphate (AN food), denatonium benzoate (DN food) or no tastant (NT food), and the amounts of ingested food were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Statistical analysis of the fluorescence intensities yielded quantitative measurements of AN food preference and DN food aversion. We then generated a transgenic fish expressing dominant-negative G,i2 both in T1R-expressing and in T2R-expressing cells. The feeding assay revealed that the transgenic fish was unable to show a preference for AN food and an aversion to DN food. The assay system was useful for evaluating taste-blind behaviors, and the results indicate that the two taste signaling pathways conveying preferable and aversive taste information are conserved in fish as well as in mammals. [source]

    The history of sweet taste: not exactly a piece of cake

    Pierandrea Temussi
    Abstract Understanding the molecular bases of sweet taste is of crucial importance not only in biotechnology but also for its medical implications, since an increasing number of people is affected by food-related diseases like, diabetes, hyperlipemia, caries, that are more or less directly linked to the secondary effects of sugar intake. Despite the interest paid to the field, it is only through the recent identification and functional expression of the receptor for sweet taste that new perspectives have been opened, drastically changing our approach to the development of new sweeteners. We shall give an overview of the field starting from the early days up to discussing the newest developments. After a review of early models of the active site, the mechanisms of interaction of small and macromolecular sweet molecules will be examined in the light of accurate modeling of the sweet taste receptor. The analysis of the homology models of all possible dimers allowed by combinations of the human T1R2 and T1R3 sequences of the sweet receptor and the closed (A) and open (B) conformations of the mGluR1 glutamate receptor shows that only ,type B' sites, either T1R2(B) and T1R3(B), can host the majority of small molecular weight sweeteners. Simultaneous binding to the A and B sites is not possible with two large sweeteners but is possible with a small molecule in site A and a large one in site B. This observation accounted for the first time for the peculiar phenomenon of synergy between some sweeteners. In addition to these two sites, the models showed an external binding site that can host sweet proteins. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Do G protein-coupled receptors expressed in human lingual epithelium interact with HPV11?

    Lukasz Durzy
    Abstract Human papillomaviruses infect epithelia but little is known about the nature of cell surface receptors interacting with the viral particles. It has been proposed that glycosaminoglycans and integrins may be involved in the attachment process. In the present study, the putative interactions of virus-like particles of human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV11), which present a tropism for nasopharyngeal epithelia, with olfactory and taste receptors expressed in the human lingual epithelium were studied. The L1 protein of HPV11 was produced in insect cells. The presence of L1 virus-like particles was analyzed by ELISA using monoclonal antibodies specific for full-size particles and by electron microscopy. Using immunofluorescence, it was observed that virus-like particles interacted with taste buds from murine tongue, with the tagged human olfactory receptor hJCG5 expressed in HEK-293 but not with the tagged taste receptor hT2R4. This therefore suggests that hJCG5 may be involved in the adsorption process of HPV11 to lingual epithelium serving as a so-called "adsorption-adhesive molecule." J. Med. Virol. 79:1545,1554, 2007. Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Morphology of the gular valve of the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti, 1768)

    J.F. Putterill
    Abstract The morphology of the gular valve of the Nile crocodile was studied on the heads of eight 2.5,3-year-old commercially raised Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). A description of the macroscopic and microscopic features of the gular valve is presented and the results are compared with published information on this species and other Crocodylia. The histological features are supplemented by information supplied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Anatomically, the dorsal and ventral components of the gular valve in the Nile crocodile form an efficient seal that effectively separates the oral and pharyngeal cavities consistent with the natural behavior and feeding habits of this animal. The gular valve is more complex in nature than superficial observations would suggest, with the dorsal and ventral folds being complemented by a series of smaller folds, particularly at the lateral fringes of the valve. Histologically, the surface epithelium of the valve demonstrates a transition from the typical stratified squamous epithelium of the oral cavity to that of the respiratory epithelium lining the pharyngeal cavity. The respiratory epithelium is characterized by the presence of ciliated cells and goblet cells and is accompanied by the appearance of large mucus-secreting glands in the underlying connective tissue. The transition between the two epithelial types is marked by the presence of a relatively prominent region where the stratified squamous epithelial cells undergo a gradual transformation into the typical elements of a respiratory epithelium. SEM graphically illustrated the extent of ciliation on both components of the gular valve as well as clearly defining the transition zones between the various types of surface epithelium present. No structures resembling taste receptors were observed in the mucosa of the gular valve. J. Morphol. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]