Taste Cells (taste + cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Liposome-mediated transfection of mature taste cells

Ana Marie Landin
Abstract The introduction and expression of exogenous DNA in neurons is valuable for analyzing a range of cellular and molecular processes in the periphery, e.g., the roles of transduction-related proteins, the impact of growth factors on development and differentiation, and the function of promoters specific to cell type. However, sensory receptor cells, particularly chemosensory cells, have been difficult to transfect. We have successfully introduced plasmids expressing green and Discosoma Red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed) into rat taste buds in primary culture. Transfection efficiency increased when delaminated taste epithelium was redigested with fresh protease, suggesting that a protective barrier of extracellular matrix surrounding taste cells may normally be present. Because taste buds are heterogeneous aggregates of cells, we used ,-gustducin, neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and neuronal ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase (PGP9.5), markers for defined subsets of mature taste cells, to demonstrate that liposome-mediated transfection targets multiple taste cell types. After testing eight commercially available lipids, we identified one, Transfast, that is most effective on taste cells. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of two common "promiscuous" promoters and one promoter that taste cells use endogenously. These studies should permit ex vivo strategies for studying development and cellular function in taste cells. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Neurobiol, 2005 [source]

Intralobular ducts of human major salivary glands contain leptin and its receptor

R. De Matteis
Abstract Leptin, a 16-kDa hormone, plays an important role in the control of food intake and in energy homeostasis both in rodents and in man. Leptin is mainly produced and secreted by adipocytes, but other tissues and gastric glands have also recently been shown to produce it in a dual (endocrine and exocrine) mode. In addition, a leptin receptor has been detected in taste cells of mouse circumvallate papillae and in rat intestinal epithelium. These data prompted us to carry out a detailed study of human salivary glands as potential leptin-producing organs. Biopsies of salivary glands (submandibular and parotid) obtained from male and female patients during surgery for different clinical indications were subjected to immunohistochemical study for the presence of leptin, its functional receptor, insulin and glucagon. The presence and cellular distribution of glucocorticoid receptor in leptin-secreting cells were also investigated. Double immunohistochemical staining (silver,gold intensification and avidin,biotin,peroxidase) was used for the visualization of glucocorticoid receptor and leptin labelling, respectively. The results show that intralobular duct cells of submandibular and parotid glands are immunoreactive for leptin, leptin receptor and glucagon but not for insulin. Leptin was also detected in some microglobules in whole saliva obtained from four healthy volunteers. Co-localization for leptin, leptin receptor and glucocorticoid receptor in the same cell type suggested a functional relationship between glucocorticoid hormone and leptin secretion also at the level of the salivary glands. [source]

Reduction of type II taste cells correlates with taste dysfunction after X-ray irradiation in mice

M. Yamazaki
J Oral Pathol Med (2010) 39: 212,218 Background:, Taste dysfunction that develops after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer impairs patients' quality of life. Although taste cells have been shown to degenerate after exposure to X-ray irradiation, the alteration in taste cell population is unclear. This study investigated the histopathological change of taste bud structure and the taste cell population in X-ray irradiated mice. Methods:, The head and neck region of C57BL/6J male mice was exposed to a single 15 Gy dose of X-ray irradiation and a chronological histopathological analysis of the circumvallate papilla was performed. Preference for sweet taste was measured using the two-bottle preference method. Results:, The histological analysis of the circumvallate papilla revealed that the basal cells had almost disappeared, but that there was not clear change in the spindle-shaped taste cells on day 4 after irradiation. The number of taste cells had decreased on day 8, and then remained unchanged until day 20, after which they increased and recovered to their original number by day 24. There was a more marked decrease in the number of ,-gustducin-positive type II taste cells than in the number of serotonin-positive type III taste cells. Preference for sweet taste measured by the two-bottle preference method was decreased in parallel with taste cell number. Conclusion:, These findings suggest that X-ray irradiation disrupts the basal cells, resulting in a decrease of the number of taste cells, particularly type II taste cells, which may be the cause of radiotherapy-induced taste dysfunction. [source]