Taste Aversion (taste + aversion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Taste Aversion

  • conditioned taste aversion

  • Selected Abstracts

    Association Between Ethanol and Sucrose Intake in the Laboratory Mouse: Exploration Via Congenic Strains and Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2000
    David A. Blizard
    Background: A substantial body of literature indicates that intakes of "sweet' solutions and ethanol are positively correlated across inbred strains of rats and mice but there has been speculation that the correlation is fortuitous and there is no agreement on the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results: We assessed the correlation between intake of sucrose and ethanol in congenic mice created by backcrossing alleles favoring sucrose intake from the BXD RI-5 strain into DBA/2J. In addition, to probe more specifically the interrelationship between intake of the two solutions, we examined aversion generalization from sucrose to ethanol in C57BL/6J mice. Among the congenic mice, a statistically significant product-moment correlation of r= 0.36 (p < 0.02) was found between 6-hr intake of sucrose corrected for differences in baseline water intake and preference for 10% ethanol presented in a 96-hr 2-bottle test. Furthermore, C57BL/6J male mice conditioned to avoid a 0.2 M sucrose solution generalized their aversion to a 10% ethanol solution presented in the same 2-bottle test, drinking 42.1 ± 9.38% (mean ± SE) of their total fluid intake from the ethanol tube, compared with the control group mean of 69.86 ± 8.84%. Conclusions: The positive association between intake of sucrose and ethanol in congenic mice provides strong evidence that the previously demonstrated genetic correlation between intake of these solutions is not the result of fortuitous fixation of unrelated alleles and provides suggestive evidence that, at least in the B6/D2 lineage, the genetic association between intakes of the two solutions reflects close linkage or the pleiotropic effects of the same genes. The demonstration that a conditioned taste aversion to sucrose generalized to ethanol in the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain is an extension of similar observations in outbred rats and specifically demonstrates that intake of the two solutions is controlled by some of the same physiologic or neurological processes and thus is consistent with the pleiotropic interpretation of the genetic correlation. [source]

    Domperidone interferes with conditioned disgust reactions but not taste avoidance evoked by a LiCl-paired taste in infant rats

    Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
    Abstract Rats exhibit taste avoidance and conditioned disgust reactions when stimulated with a tastant paired with lithium chloride (LiCl). Lithium-mediated activation of chemoreceptor nuclei at the brainstem appears to determine the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in adult rodents. Domperidone (DOM), an anti-emetic drug that does not cross the blood,brain barrier, was employed to analyze mechanisms underlying LiCl-mediated CTA in infant rats. On postnatal day 13 animals were given DOM followed by a pairing between intraoral saccharin and LiCl. Saccharin consumption at testing was lower in lithium-treated pups than in controls. DOM did not interfere with this LiCl-mediated taste avoidance but significantly decreased LiCl-mediated disgust reactions (head-shaking and wall climbing). Activation of the emetic system of the brainstem does not seem necessary for the acquisition of LiCl-mediated conditioned taste avoidance. Yet, these centers seem to be involved in the palatability shift resulting from taste-LiCl pairings. These results indicate an early dissociation between conditioned disgust reactions and conditioned taste avoidance. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 50: 343,352, 2008. [source]

    Brain mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase: relation to acetaldehyde aversion in low-alcohol-drinking (UChA) and high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Marķa elena Quintanilla
    Previous reports indicate that the low-drinker (UChA) rats, when compared to high-drinker (UChB) rats, display lower mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) activity due to a mutation of the Aldh2 gene. Because a later study found line differences in sensitivity to the aversive effects of acetaldehyde (AcH) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), which were not associated with the line difference detected in blood AcH levels, the present study examined the contribution of brain ALDH2 activity to AcH aversion in UChA and UChB rats. In experiment 1, we established the dose-response curves for AcH aversion (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg i.p.) in rats of both lines by using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm. The results confirm our previous finding that UChA and UChB rats presented marked differences in their AcH aversion thresholds, which were not associated with the line differences detected in blood AcH levels. In experiment 2, the possibility that the inhibition of the brain ALDH2 would lower the AcH aversion threshold in both lines was studied by determining the effect of cyanamide (10 mg/kg i.p.) pretreatment, an inhibitor of ALDH, on AcH aversion, blood AcH levels and brain ALDH2 activity. The finding that blocking the brain ALDH2 (52%) by cyanamide can make a non-aversive dose of AcH (25 mg/kg) aversive to UChA and UChB rats at blood AcH levels comparable to those induced by a non-aversive dose of AcH (100 mg/kg) in control UChB rats indicates that the line difference in AcH aversion is associated more with brain ALDH2 activity than with liver ALDH2 activity. [source]

    Genetic reductions of ,-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and amyloid-, ameliorate impairment of conditioned taste aversion memory in 5XFAD Alzheimer's disease model mice

    Latha Devi
    Abstract Although transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recapitulate amyloid-, (A,)-related pathologies and cognitive impairments, previous studies have mainly evaluated their hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunctions using behavioral tasks such as the water maze and fear conditioning. However, multiple memory systems become impaired in AD as the disease progresses and it is important to test whether other forms of memory are affected in AD models. This study was designed to use conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and contextual fear conditioning paradigms to compare the phenotypes of hippocampus-independent and -dependent memory functions, respectively, in 5XFAD amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mice that harbor five familial AD mutations. Although both types of memory were significantly impaired in 5XFAD mice, the onset of CTA memory deficits (,9 months of age) was delayed compared with that of contextual memory deficits (,6 months of age). Furthermore, 5XFAD mice that were genetically engineered to have reduced levels of ,-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) (BACE1+/,·5XFAD) exhibited improved CTA memory, which was equivalent to the performance of wild-type controls. Importantly, elevated levels of cerebral ,-secretase-cleaved C-terminal fragment (C99) and A, peptides in 5XFAD mice were significantly reduced in BACE1+/,·5XFAD mice. Furthermore, A, deposition in the insular cortex and basolateral amygdala, two brain regions that are critically involved in CTA performance, was also reduced in BACE1+/,·5XFAD compared with 5XFAD mice. Our findings indicate that the CTA paradigm is useful for evaluating a hippocampus-independent form of memory defect in AD model mice, which is sensitive to rescue by partial reductions of the ,-secretase BACE1 and consequently of cerebral A,. [source]

    Effects of insular cortex lesions on conditioned taste aversion and latent inhibition in the rat

    Christopher Roman
    Abstract The present study tested the hypothesis that lesions of the insular cortex of the rat retard the acquisition of conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) because of an impairment in the detection of the novelty of taste stimuli. Demonstrating the expected latent inhibition effect, nonlesioned control subjects acquired CTAs more rapidly when the conditioned stimulus (0.15% sodium saccharin) was novel rather than familiar (achieved by pre-exposure to the to-be-conditioned taste cue). However, rats with insular cortex lesions acquired taste aversions at the same slow rate regardless of whether the saccharin was novel or familiar. The pattern of behavioural deficits obtained cannot be interpreted as disruptions of taste detection or stimulus intensity, but is consistent with the view that insular cortex lesions disrupt taste neophobia, a dysfunction that consequently retards CTA acquisition because of a latent inhibition-like effect. [source]

    Role of cortical cannabinoid CB1 receptor in conditioned taste aversion memory

    Tali Kobilo
    Abstract The brain endocannabinoid system has been shown to play a role in memory, though the extent to which this role generalizes over different types and processes of memory is not yet determined. Here we show that the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) plays differential roles in acquisition, extinction and reconsolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory in the rat insular cortex, which contains the taste cortex. Activation of the CB1 receptor in the insular cortex inhibits acquisition and reconsolidation but not extinction, whereas blockade of the CB1 receptor promotes memory and blocks extinction of CTA, while having no apparent effect on reconsolidation. The CB1 ligands used in this study were incapable of substituting the unconditioned stimulus in CTA training. All in all, the data raise the possibility that the state of activity of the CB1 receptor in the insular cortex contributes to the encoding of hedonic valence that enters into association with taste items. [source]

    Previous experience of withdrawal from chronic diazepam ameliorates the aversiveness of precipitated withdrawal and reduces withdrawal-induced c-fos expression in nucleus accumbens

    Sarah J. Dunworth
    Abstract Flumazenil (20 mg/kg, i.p.)-precipitated withdrawal from chronic treatment with diazepam (DZP, 15 mg/kg, s.c. in sesame oil for 21 days) resulted in a decreased seizure threshold to the convulsant, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), infused into the tail vein; withdrawal from 21-day chronic diazepam treatment, interspersed with two periods of drug withdrawal, resulted in a greater decrease in convulsant threshold. A separate experiment showed that consumption of a sucrose solution immediately prior to precipitated withdrawal resulted in a decreased subsequent consumption of the sucrose solution; no such evidence of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was seen in mice given prior experience of withdrawal. Thus, prior experience of withdrawal enhanced the effects of a subsequent precipitated withdrawal in increasing seizure sensitivity, but weakened the ability of this withdrawal to serve as an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). The weakening of the aversive properties of precipitated withdrawal may reflect habituation to the withdrawal stimulus, and was accompanied by a loss of the ability of withdrawal to induce c-fos expression in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, an area sensitive to both novel, and stressful, as well as rewarding stimuli. [source]

    Perception of sweet taste is important for voluntary alcohol consumption in mice

    Y. A. Blednov
    To directly evaluate the association between taste perception and alcohol intake, we used three different mutant mice, each lacking a gene expressed in taste buds and critical to taste transduction: ,-gustducin (Gnat3), Tas1r3 or Trpm5. Null mutant mice lacking any of these three genes showed lower preference score for alcohol and consumed less alcohol in a two-bottle choice test, as compared with wild-type littermates. These null mice also showed lower preference score for saccharin solutions than did wild-type littermates. In contrast, avoidance of quinine solutions was less in Gnat3 or Trpm5 knockout mice than in wild-type mice, whereas Tas1r3 null mice were not different from wild type in their response to quinine solutions. There were no differences in null vs. wild-type mice in their consumption of sodium chloride solutions. To determine the cause for reduction of ethanol intake, we studied other ethanol-induced behaviors known to be related to alcohol consumption. There were no differences between null and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, severity of acute ethanol withdrawal or conditioned place preference for ethanol. Weaker conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to alcohol in null mice may have been caused by weaker rewarding value of the conditioned stimulus (saccharin). When saccharin was replaced by sodium chloride, no differences in CTA to alcohol between knockout and wild-type mice were seen. Thus, deletion of any one of three different genes involved in detection of sweet taste leads to a substantial reduction of alcohol intake without any changes in pharmacological actions of ethanol. [source]

    Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication

    J. S. Rhodes
    Recently, we described a simple procedure, Drinking in the Dark (DID), in which C57BL/6J mice self-administer ethanol to a blood ethanol concentration (BEC) above 1 mg/ml. The test consists of replacing the water with 20% ethanol in the home cage for 4 h early during the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. Three experiments were conducted to explore this high ethanol drinking model further. In experiment 1, a microanalysis of C57BL/6J behavior showed that the pattern of ethanol drinking was different from routine water intake. In experiment 2, drinking impaired performance of C57BL/6J on the accelerating rotarod and balance beam. In experiment 3, 12 inbred strains were screened to estimate genetic influences on DID and correlations with other traits. Large, reliable differences in intake and BEC were detected among the strains, with C57BL/6J showing the highest values. Strain means were positively correlated with intake and BEC in the standard (24 h) and a limited (4 h) two-bottle ethanol vs. water test, but BECs reached higher levels for DID. Strain mean correlations with other traits in the Mouse Phenome Project database supported previously reported genetic relationships of high ethanol drinking with low chronic ethanol withdrawal severity and low ethanol-conditioned taste aversion. We extend these findings by showing that the correlation estimates remain relatively unchanged even after correcting for phylogenetic relatedness among the strains, thus relaxing the assumption that the strain means are statistically independent. We discuss applications of the model for finding genes that predispose pharmacologically significant drinking in mice. [source]

    Impaired spatial reference memory and increased exploratory behavior in P301L tau transgenic mice

    L. Pennanen
    The neuropathological hallmark shared between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and familial frontotemporal dementia (FTDP-17) are neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) which are composed of filamentous aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Their formation has been reproduced in transgenic mice, which express the FTDP-17-associated mutation P301L of tau. In these mice, tau aggregates are found in many brain areas including the hippocampus and the amygdala, both of which are characterized by NFT formation in AD. Previous studies using an amygdala-specific test battery revealed an increase in exploratory behavior and an accelerated extinction of conditioned taste aversion in these mice. Here, we assessed P301L mice in behavioral tests known to depend on an intact hippocampus. Morris water maze and Y-maze revealed intact spatial working memory but impairment in spatial reference memory at 6 and 11 months of age. In addition, a modest disinhibition of exploratory behavior at 6 months of age was confirmed in the open field and the elevated O-maze and was more pronounced during aging. [source]

    Lack of neprilysin suffices to generate murine amyloid-like deposits in the brain and behavioral deficit in vivo

    Rime Madani
    Abstract Accumulation of the ,-amyloid peptide (A,) in the brain is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), leading to synaptic dysfunction, neuronal death, and memory impairment. The levels of neprilysin, a major A,-degrading enzyme, are decreased in AD brains and during aging. Because neprilysin cleaves A, in vivo, its down-regulation may contribute to the pathophysiology of AD. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of neprilysin deficiency on accumulation of murine A, in brains and associated pathologies in vivo by investigating neprilysin-deficient mice on biochemical, morphological, and behavioral levels. Aged neprilysin-deficient mice expressed physiological amyloid precursor protein (APP) levels and exhibited elevated brain A, concentrations and amyloid-like deposits in addition to signs of neuronal degeneration in their brains. Behaviorally, neprilysin-deficient mice acquired a significantly weaker conditioned taste aversion that extinguished faster than the aversion of age-matched controls. Our data establish that, under physiological APP expression levels, neprilysin deficiency is associated with increased A, accumulation in the brain and leads to deposition of amyloid-like structures in vivo as well as with signs of AD-like pathology and with behavioral deficits. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Helplessness in the Tail Suspension Test Is Associated with an Increase in Ethanol Intake and Its Rewarding Effect in Female Mice

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2005
    Yann Pelloux
    Background: Depression is frequently observed in drug abusers. However, depression may be a primary factor of predisposition to drug abuse or a consequence of drug abuse. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a preexisting depressive-like state/helplessness on subsequent alcohol responsiveness in mice. Methods: Male and female CD1 mice were selected according to their immobility time in the tail suspension test, and only mice with "high immobility" and "low immobility" time were retained. Using a two-bottle free-choice paradigm, these mice were given continuous access to tap water or solutions of ethanol (3,20% v/v), quinine (12.5,50 mg/liter), or sucrose (1,4% w/v). In female mice, rewarding and aversive effects of ethanol (1.5 and 3 g/kg, intraperitoneally) were also investigated using the conditioned place preference and the conditioned taste aversion paradigms. Results: Female mice were more immobile and drank more ethanol than male mice. No striking sex difference was observed in quinine consumption. Sucrose intake was higher in female than in male mice, whatever the solution concentration. At the 4% concentrated solution, a sucrose-induced increase in daily fluid intake was observed only in female mice. Female mice with high immobility time (HI) consumed more ethanol at the highest concentration than female mice with low immobility time (LI), whereas no difference was observed between HI and LI male mice. Moreover, whereas LI female mice failed to express place conditioning induced by the 3-g/kg dose of ethanol, HI female mice were strongly responsive to the rewarding effect of this high ethanol dose. Ethanol dose-dependently induced a conditioned taste aversion with a similar magnitude in both LI and HI female mice. Conclusions: The findings indicate that female CD1 mice tend to drink greater amounts of ethanol or sucrose solutions than male CD1 mice, suggesting that female mice may be a better model of excessive alcohol intake. Furthermore, no relationship was found between immobility scores and ethanol consumption in male mice. On the contrary, within female mice, HI mice consumed higher amounts of ethanol than LI mice probably because they experienced greater rewarding effects of ethanol. The present results support the hypothesis that depressive-like responses may predispose to ethanol abuse in female mice. [source]

    Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study

    A. Haksar
    Abstract Mentha spicata Linn. (mint), a herb well known for its gastroprotective properties in the traditional system of medicine has been shown to protect against radiation-induced lethality, and recently its constituents have been found to possess calcium channel antagonizing properties. The present study examined the behavioral radioprotective efficacy of mint oil (obtained from Mentha spicata), particularly in mitigating radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which has been proposed as a behavioral endpoint that is mediated by the toxic effects of gamma radiation on peripheral systems, primarily the gastrointestinal system in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of Mentha spicata oil 10% (v/v), 1 h before 2 Gy gamma radiation, was found to render significant radioprotection against CTA (p < 0.05), by blocking the saccharin avoidance response within 5 post-treatment observational days, with the highest saccharin intake being observed on day 5. This finding clearly demonstrates that gastroprotective and calcium channel antagonizing properties of Mentha spicata can be effectively utilized in preventing radiation-induced behavioral changes. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Behavioural responses of carnivorous marsupials (Planigale maculata) to toxic invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus)

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Abstract The arrival of a toxic invasive species may impose selection on local predators to avoid consuming it. Feeding responses may be modified via evolutionary changes to behaviour, or via phenotypic plasticity (e.g. learning, taste aversion). The recent arrival of cane toads (Bufo marinus) in the Northern Territory of Australia induced rapid aversion learning in a predatory marsupial (the common planigale, Planigale maculata). Here, we examine the responses of planigales to cane toads in north-eastern Queensland, where they have been sympatric for over 60 years, to investigate whether planigale responses to cane toads have been modified by long-term exposure. Responses to toads were broadly similar to those documented for toad-naļve predators. Most Queensland planigales seized (21 of 22) and partially consumed (11 of 22) the first toad they were offered, but were likely to ignore toads in subsequent trials. However, unlike their toad-naļve conspecifics from the Northern Territory, the Queensland planigales all survived ingestion of toad tissue without overt ill effects and continued to attack toads in a substantial proportion of subsequent trials. Our data suggest that (i) learning by these small predators is sufficiently rapid and effective that selection on behaviour has been weak; and (ii) physiological tolerance to toad toxins may be higher in planigales after 60 years (approximately 60 generations) of exposure to this toxic prey. [source]

    Effects of insular cortex lesions on conditioned taste aversion and latent inhibition in the rat

    Christopher Roman
    Abstract The present study tested the hypothesis that lesions of the insular cortex of the rat retard the acquisition of conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) because of an impairment in the detection of the novelty of taste stimuli. Demonstrating the expected latent inhibition effect, nonlesioned control subjects acquired CTAs more rapidly when the conditioned stimulus (0.15% sodium saccharin) was novel rather than familiar (achieved by pre-exposure to the to-be-conditioned taste cue). However, rats with insular cortex lesions acquired taste aversions at the same slow rate regardless of whether the saccharin was novel or familiar. The pattern of behavioural deficits obtained cannot be interpreted as disruptions of taste detection or stimulus intensity, but is consistent with the view that insular cortex lesions disrupt taste neophobia, a dysfunction that consequently retards CTA acquisition because of a latent inhibition-like effect. [source]

    Early Responsiveness to Stimuli Paired With Different Stages Within the State of Alcohol Intoxication

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2002
    Ricardo M. Pautassi
    Background: Infant rats quickly learn to avoid a sensory cue paired with alcohol as an unconditioned stimulus, particularly when the drug reaches peak blood concentrations. In this study, a tactile cue paired with the onset of alcohol intoxication preceded subsequent presentations of a gustatory conditioned stimulus (CS). The goal was to address the possibility of differential conditioning depending on when stimuli were introduced during the course of the toxic state. Methods: In experiment 1, rat pups received sequential presentations of a salient texture (sandpaper) and a gustatory cue (saccharin) while intoxicated with a 2.5 g/kg alcohol dose or after receiving saline. Texture location tests and saccharin intake assessments were then performed. A third modality of assessment was defined by a saccharin intake test while pups simultaneously experienced sandpaper. In experiment 2, alcohol-mediated conditioning was followed by tests similar to those of experiment 1, but after pups were re-exposed to either the tactile CS or the alcohol-unconditioned stimulus. Results: Conditioned taste aversions, due to pairing saccharin and the later stage of alcohol intoxication, were reliably established in both experiments. Also in both experiments, this excitatory aversive response was dramatically inhibited when the association between the texture CS and the earlier stage of alcohol intoxication was activated. There were no indications of conditioned motor responses to the tactile CS that might compete with intake behavior of saccharin or distort measurement of an appetitive memory derived from pairing the texture and the earlier stage of intoxication. Conclusions: Rat pups' expression of an association between a taste signaling aversive consequences of alcohol was eliminated by the presence of a tactile stimulus that originally had signaled the absence of aversive consequences of alcohol intoxication. The results suggest the interaction of inhibitory and excitatory conditioning involving the aversive properties of alcohol. [source]