Tape

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Tape

  • adhesive tape
  • bicomponent tape
  • broselow tape
  • holter tape
  • red tape
  • tension-free vaginal tape
  • transobturator tape
  • vaginal tape

  • Terms modified by Tape

  • tape casting
  • tape stripping

  • Selected Abstracts


    A study of a training scheme for Macmillan nurses in Northern Ireland

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 2 2008
    BSocSc, Cert Ed., DipDN, Johnston Gail PhD
    Aim., To evaluate a one year training scheme for Macmillan Nurses. Background., The role of the clinical nurse specialist has evolved and expanded greatly over the past few years so that it now encompasses components far beyond the traditional nursing remit of direct clinical practice. While several studies have looked at the barriers and facilitators to this process for clinical nurse specialists in particular, none has looked at the benefits of a structured training scheme which involves both a theoretical and clinical component. Methods., Tape recorded, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of trainees who undertook the scheme, their practice-based facilitators and another person(s) involved in the trainee's support Analysis., Tapes were transcribed verbatim and each transcript anonymized to prevent identification of participants. Data were analysed thematically using the main headings of expectations, experience and impact and the structured prompts from the aide-memoir within these headings. Results., Results showed that the majority of respondents felt the scheme had been successful with one of the main achievements being that trainees were perceived to be adequately prepared to take on the role of a CNS on completion of the scheme. While the Role Development Programme was thought to provide a good academic structure for the scheme some participants thought that more theory on symptom control and communication skills and a placement in a specialist palliative care centre should also be included. Conclusion., The Macmillan Trainee Scheme has succeeded in its objectives to facilitate the transition from generalist to specialist nursing. It should be extended to include an induction and consolidation period and more theoretical input on communication skills and symptom control. Relevance to clinical practice., With these improvements, the scheme could be used as a standard model for training specialist practitioners and a means to address the current issues of workforce planning. [source]


    Asphyxiation by Occlusion of Nose and Mouth by Duct Tape: Two Unusual Suicides

    JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 6 2009
    Stephen DeRoux M.D.
    Abstract:, The most recent U.S. statistics (2005) determined that 22.2% of suicides are by suffocation. This number likely includes suicidal hanging. Based on previous reports the majority of nonhanging suicidal asphyxiations are accomplished by securing a plastic bag over the head. We report two instances of a far less common method of suicidal asphyxiation, occlusion of the nose and mouth by duct tape. One was a 47-year-old man with a history of paranoid schizophrenia with suicidal ideation and the other was a 52-year-old man who was depressed due to gambling debts. The value of scene investigation, including review of available video surveillance to determine the manner of death is highlighted. [source]


    Examination of Writings Concealed by Black Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Tape

    JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 5 2007
    Meenakshi Mahajan Ph.D.
    Abstract:, Examination of concealed writing is often a challenge for forensic document examiners. Although the published literature describes many techniques, these are often only successful when the writing has been concealed by pencil, pen, or by spreading inks of different tint or by smearing of the writing with colored fluids. When black pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) tape is used, these procedures are ineffective. The present report describes the use of a straight chain hydrocarbon to remove the PSA tape and allow a comparison of the concealed writing with that of a suspect. The use of the solvent had no observable effect on either the writing or the substrate. The procedure is rapid and easy to use and is also effective with other colored PSA tapes. [source]


    Rules, Red Tape, and Paperwork: The Archeology of State Control over Migrants

    JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    DAVID COOK MARTÍN
    How and with what consequences did state control over migration become acceptable and possible after the Great War? Existing studies have centered on core countries of immigration and thus underestimate the degree to which legitimate state capacities have developed in a political field spanning sending and receiving countries with similar designs on the same international migrants. Relying on archival research, and an examination of the migratory field constituted by two quintessential emigration countries (Italy and Spain), and a traditional immigration country (Argentina) since the mid-nineteenth century, this article argues that widespread acceptance of migration control as an administrative domain rightfully under states' purview, and the development of attendant capacities have derived from legal, organizational, and administrative mechanisms crafted by state actors in response to the challenges posed by mass migration. Concretely, these countries codified migration and nationality laws, built, took over, and revamped migration-related organizations, and administratively encaged mobile people through official paperwork. The nature of efforts to evade official checks on mobility implicitly signaled the acceptance of migration control as a bona fide administrative domain. In more routine migration management, states legitimate capacity has had unforeseen intermediate- and long-term consequences such as the subjection of migrants (and, because of ius sanguinis nationality laws, sometimes their descendants) to other states' administrative influence and the generation of conditions for dual citizenship. Study findings challenge scholarship that implicitly views states as constant factors conditioning migration flows, rather than as developing institutions with historically variable regulatory abilities and legitimacy. It extends current work by specifying mechanism used by state actors to establish migration as an accepted administrative domain. [source]


    Organic Distributions in Dried Alumina Green Tape

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 2 2001
    Jau-Ho Jean
    Distributions of organic binder (poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB)) and plasticizer (dibutyl phthalate (DBP)) in alumina green tape dried at different temperatures are studied. More PVB and DBP are observed on the bottom (Mylar side) than on the top surface (air side) of the green tape. Inside the green tape, however, PVB distribution, which remains relatively unchanged with drying temperature in the range of 30°,80°C, increases with distance from the bottom to the top. In contrast, the DBP concentration remains relatively unchanged with the depth of green tape when the drying temperature is <50°C. At 80°C, however, a significant drop in DBP concentration near the top surface of green tape is found. Mathematical analysis using the finite difference method is completed to describe the PVB distribution in alumina green tape, and the results show reasonable agreement with experimental observations. [source]


    The Impact of Time on Parent Perspectives on the Barriers to Services and the Service Needs of Youths in the Juvenile Justice System

    JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 2 2003
    GREGORY J. BENNER PH.D.
    ABSTRACT The purposes of this study were: 1) to assess the overall perspectives of parents (N=115) of youths in the juvenile justice system on the barriers to and services needs of youths in the juvenile justice system; and 2) to assess the strength of the relationship between duration of time the youth has been involved in the juvenile justice system and parent perceptions of barriers and service needs. The top service need was case management. Statistically significant moderate negative correlations were found between duration of time in the juvenile justice system and Total Barrier score, and all composite barrier scores (i.e., Mismatch, Red Tape, and Inaccessibility). Statistically significant small negative correlations were found between duration of time in the juvenile justice system and the Total Service Needs score and two composite scores: Substance Abuse Services and Out-of-Home Services. [source]


    An Organizational Echelon Analysis of the Determinants of Red Tape in Public Organizations

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REVIEW, Issue 6 2008
    Richard M. Walker
    This article adopts an organizational echelon approach to the study of red tape in public organizations and argues that the nature and extent of red tape will vary at different levels of the organizational hierarchy. These propositions are tested with a multiple-informant survey using a lagged model. The empirical results across the three organizational echelons sampled indicate modest variations in the levels of perceived red tape and major variations in its determinants. Results from the more senior managers uphold prior research findings and hypotheses on the determinants of red tape. This is not surprising because earlier studies typically sampled senior executives. Yet the lower down the organizational hierarchy one travels, the more red tape officials perceive and the more multifaceted the findings on determinants become. The authors conclude that prior empirical work is likely to have underestimated the extent of red tape in public organizations, and oversimplified its determinants. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. [source]


    Suburethral slingplasty evaluation study in North Queensland, Australia: The SUSPEND trial

    AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Yik Nyok LIM
    Abstract Objective:, To compare the safety and efficacy of three types of suburethral slings for the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence. Methods:, Following ethics approval, 195 (3 × 65) patients with urodynamic stress incontinence were randomly assigned to undergo suburethral slingplasty with the Tension-free Vaginal Tape (TVT; Gynecare, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA), Intravaginal Sling (IVS; Tyco Healthcare, Mansfield, MA, USA), or Suprapubic Arc Sling (SPARC; American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN, USA). The patients were blinded to the type of sling implanted. Main outcome measures were:, (1) operative and short-term complications; (2) pre- and postoperative symptomatology; and (3) pre- and postoperative urodynamic findings. Results:, There was a statistically significant increased rate of sling protrusion (13.1% vs. 3.3% and 1.7%; P = 0.04) in the SPARC group when compared to TVT and IVS. Otherwise, there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the incidences of other operative complications, patients' main subjective outcomes, satisfaction rates, or postoperative urodynamic findings. The overall objective stress incontinence cure rates were 87.9%, 81.5% and 72.4% for the TVT, IVS, SPARC groups respectively (P = 0.11). Conclusions:, All three slings appear quite successful for the treatment of stress incontinence. The SPARC tapes showed more sling protrusion complications and a trend towards lower objective cure rates; probably as a result of the insertion method used in this study which favoured a loose SPARC sling placement. The authors recommend that the SPARC slings be left tighter than TVT, or for the cough test to be carried out. [source]


    Reducing the Compliance Burden of Non-profit Organisations: Cutting Red Tape

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, Issue 1 2009
    Myles McGregor-Lowndes
    Australian governments now rely on the non-profit sector to provide essential services. Yet, anecdotally, the compliance burden imposed by governments consumes scarce service delivery resources. This study quantifies the cost of government generated paperwork for Queensland non-profit organisations. Fourteen non-profits kept logs to record government paperwork over 12 months. The non-profits also provided their experiences of government paperwork and in particular grant submission and reporting processes. The study finds that government grant paperwork forms the bulk of a non-profits total paperwork burden with grant submissions being the most costly to complete. Costs are clearly regressive with small non-profits bearing a significantly higher burden. Governments need to lead the way and empower the non-profit sector by reducing this administrative burden and releasing the funds for direct service provision. [source]


    Internationalizing the Broselow Tape: How Reliable Is Weight Estimation in Indian Children

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 5 2008
    Naresh Ramarajan AB
    Abstract Objectives:, The Broselow pediatric emergency weight estimation tape is an accurate method of estimating children's weights based on height,weight correlations and determining standardized medication dosages and equipment sizes using color-coded zones. The study objective was to determine the accuracy of the Broselow tape in the Indian pediatric population. Methods:, The authors conducted a 6-week prospective cross-sectional study of 548 children at a government pediatric hospital in Chennai, India, in three weight-based groups: <10 kg (n = 175), 10,18 kg (n = 197), and >18 kg (n = 176). Measured weight was compared to Broselow-predicted weight, and the percentage difference was calculated. Accuracy was defined as agreement on Broselow color-coded zones, as well as agreement within 10% between the measured and Broselow-predicted weights. A cross-validated correction factor was also derived. Results:, The mean percentage differences were ,2.4, ,11.3, and ,12.9% for each weight-based group. The Broselow color-coded zone agreement was 70.8% in children weighing less than 10 kg, but only 56.3% in the 10- to 18-kg group and 37.5% in the >18-kg group. Agreement within 10% was 52.6% for the <10-kg group, but only 44.7% for the 10- to 18-kg group and 33.5% for the >18-kg group. Application of a 10% weight-correction factor improved the percentages to 77.1% for the 10- to 18-kg group and 63.0% for the >18-kg group. Conclusions:, The Broselow tape overestimates weight by more than 10% in Indian children >10 kg. Weight overestimation increases the risk of medical errors due to incorrect dosing or equipment selection. Applying a 10% weight-correction factor may be advisable. [source]


    Can the Broselow Tape Be Used to Estimate Weight and Endotracheal Tube Size in Korean Children?

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 5 2007
    Hye Young Jang MD
    BackgroundThe Broselow pediatric emergency tape (BT) was developed to provide a length-based estimate of body weight and equipment size during resuscitation. ObjectivesTo conduct a validation study on the use of the BT in Korean children. MethodsAnesthesia records from children were retrospectively reviewed. The measured weights of the subjects were compared with the BT weight estimates by using Bland-Altman analysis. The accuracy of the BT and age-based formula in predicting the endotracheal tube (ETT) size were also compared. The authors drew a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve to evaluate the cutoff height that would be acceptable for the application of BT without error in Korean children. ResultsA total of 665 children (mean [± SD] age, 5.1 [± 3.3] years, 61.8% male) were enrolled. The average measured weight of the Korean children was 1.54 kg heavier than the BT estimates (95% CI = 1.24 to 1.85 kg). The BT estimates showed better agreement with the actually used ETT sizes than did the age-based formula estimates (86.9% vs. 34.9%, p < 0.001). The cutoff height of the ROC curve was 127.15 cm. When the BT was used in children who were shorter than the cutoff height, 98.8% of the enrolled children's estimated weights were within the limits of agreement. ConclusionsThe BT can be used in Korean children as a helpful adjunct during resuscitation to estimate the weight and ETT size. [source]


    The Use of the Broselow Tape in Pediatric Resuscitation

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 5 2007
    Robert C. Luten MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Comparison of Outcomes of Two Skills-teaching Methods on Lay-rescuers' Acquisition of Infant Basic Life Support Skills

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 9 2010
    Itai Shavit MD
    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:979,986 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine if lay-rescuers' acquisition of infant basic life support (BLS) skills would be better when skills teaching consisted of videotaping practice and providing feedback on performances, compared to conventional skills-teaching and feedback methods. Methods:, This pilot-exploratory, single-blind, prospective, controlled, randomized study was conducted on November 12, 2007, at the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion,Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. The population under study consisted of all first-year medical students enrolled in the 2007,2008 year. BLS training is part of their mandatory introductory course in emergency medicine. Twenty-three students with previous BLS training were excluded. The remaining 71 were randomized into four and then two groups, with final allocation to an intervention and control group of 18 and 16 students, respectively. All the students participated in infant BLS classroom teaching. Those in the intervention group practiced skills acquisition independently, and four were videotaped while practicing. Tapes were reviewed by the group and feedback was provided. Controls practiced using conventional teaching and feedback methods. After 3 hours, all subjects were videotaped performing an unassisted, lone-rescuer, infant BLS resuscitation scenario. A skills assessment tool was developed. It consisted of 25 checklist items, grouped into four sections: 6 points for "categories" (with specific actions in six categories), 14 points for "scoring" (of accuracy of performance of each action), 4 points for "sequence" (of actions within a category), and 1 point for "order" of resuscitation (complete and well-sequenced categories). Two blinded expert raters were given a workshop on the use of the scoring tool. They further refined it to increase scoring consistency. The main outcome of the study was defined as evidence of better skills acquisition in overall skills in the four sections and in the specific skills sets for actions in any individual category. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results:, Means and mean percentages were greater in the intervention group in all four sections compared to controls: categories (5.72 [95.33%] and 4.69 [92.66%]), scoring (10.57 [75.50%] and 7.41 [43.59%]), sequence (2.28 [57.00%] and 1.66 [41.50%]), and order of resuscitation (0.96 [96.00%] and 0.19 [19.00%]). The means and mean percentages of the actions (skill sets) in the intervention group were also larger than those of controls in five out of six categories: assessing responsiveness (1.69 [84.50%] and 1.13 [56.50%]), breathing technique (1.69 [93.00%] and 1.13 [47.20%]), chest compression technique (3.19 [77.50%] and 1.84 [46.00%]), activating emergency medical services (EMS) (3.00 [100.00%] and 2.81 [84.50%]), and resuming cardiopulmonary resuscitation (0.97 [97.00%] and 0.47 [47.00%]). These results demonstrate better performance in the intervention group. Conclusions:, The use of videotaped practice and feedback for the acquisition of overall infant BLS skills and of specific skill sets is effective. Observation and participation in the feedback and assessment of nonexperts attempting infant BLS skills appeared to improve the ability of this group of students to perform the task. [source]


    Dynamic pharyngeal collapse in racehorses

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue S36 2006
    A. G. BOYLE
    Summary Reason for performing study: Dynamic pharyngeal collapse (PC) is a condition seen in racehorses that can be career-ending. Objectives: To characterise and grade PC and describe the effects of PC on athletic performance. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for 828 horses, of which 49 (6%) records were identified as horses with a primary diagnosis of PC. Tapes of video-endoscopy of the pharynx during exercise were reviewed. Each video recording was assigned a grade (0,4) reflecting the degree of PC and a classification for severity of upper airway obstruction. Earnings per race prior to diagnosis of PC were compared to earnings per race after diagnosis of PC for all horses, as well as performance index (PI). Available exercising arterial blood gases were reviewed for horses with PC. Results: There were 35 (80%) Thoroughbreds (TB), and 9 (20%) Standardbreds (STD). 32 (73%) had a history of making an upper respiratory noise. 4 (9%) grade 1 PC, 8 (18%) grade 2 PC, 26 (59%) grade 3 PC, and 6 (14%) grade 4 PC. Seven (16%) horses were classified as mild PC, 18 (41%) as low-moderate PC, 14 (32%) as high-moderate PC, and 5 (11%) as severe PC. Of 30 horses 11 had abnormally decreased PaO2 and 8 horses had abnormally elevated PaCO2. A significant decrease was found in earnings per race prediagnosis when compared to post diagnosis earnings per race in horses ?4 years of age (P = 0.003). A significant decrease was also observed for earnings per race prediagnosis when compared to post diagnosis earnings per race in horses with grade 3 PC (P = 0.03) No significant differences were observed in PI before or after diagnosis of PC. Conclusions: There was a trend for PC to be observed in more TB than STD, and more males than females compared to the general hospital population. Horses with PC significant had decreases in arterial oxygenation. Racing records after a diagnosis of PC in all horses ?4 years of age suggesting that older horses have a guarded prognosis for continued success. Potential relevance: This study provides a classification system for dynamic pharyngeal collapse and suggests that older racehorses (?4 years of age) diagnosed with PC and all horses with grade 3 PC have a poor prognosis for return to previous level of performance. [source]


    Synthesis of Doubly Strapped meso,meso -Linked Porphyrin Arrays and Triply Linked Conjugated Porphyrin Tapes

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 14 2006
    Toshiaki Ikeda
    Abstract 1,10-Dioxydecamethylene doubly strapped ZnII -porphyrin S1 was prepared and treated with AgPF6 to give meso,meso -linked porphyrin oligomers Sn (n = 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12), which were converted to triply linked porphyrin tapes TSn by meso,meso, -dibromo meso,meso -linked porphyrin arrays BSn and meso,meso, -diphenyl meso,meso -linked porphyrin arrays PSn. The structures of S1 and S2 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Characteristically, Sn exhibit sharp Q(0,0) absorption and fluorescence bands. Low energy Q-band-like absorption bands of TSn are progressively red-shifted with an increase in the number of porphyrins without saturation behavior of conjugation. The double straps suppress ,,, stacking to some extent as seen from partial preservation of vibration structures in the Q-band-like bands of TS4 and TS6 and improve the chemical stabilities of longer tapes such as TS8 and TS12. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]


    Templated Self-Assembly: Formation of Folded Structures by Relaxation of Pre-stressed, Planar Tapes,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 5 2005
    M. Boncheva
    A strategy for the formation of three-dimensional (3D) structures based on the spontaneous folding of elastomeric tapes is described. These tapes are fabricated in crimped, quasi-3D forms, and carry metal features supporting liquid solder. Self-assembly based on capillary interactions between drops of liquid solder results in folding of the tapes into structures that have quasi- and true 3D topology (see Figure). [source]


    A study of a training scheme for Macmillan nurses in Northern Ireland

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 2 2008
    BSocSc, Cert Ed., DipDN, Johnston Gail PhD
    Aim., To evaluate a one year training scheme for Macmillan Nurses. Background., The role of the clinical nurse specialist has evolved and expanded greatly over the past few years so that it now encompasses components far beyond the traditional nursing remit of direct clinical practice. While several studies have looked at the barriers and facilitators to this process for clinical nurse specialists in particular, none has looked at the benefits of a structured training scheme which involves both a theoretical and clinical component. Methods., Tape recorded, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of trainees who undertook the scheme, their practice-based facilitators and another person(s) involved in the trainee's support Analysis., Tapes were transcribed verbatim and each transcript anonymized to prevent identification of participants. Data were analysed thematically using the main headings of expectations, experience and impact and the structured prompts from the aide-memoir within these headings. Results., Results showed that the majority of respondents felt the scheme had been successful with one of the main achievements being that trainees were perceived to be adequately prepared to take on the role of a CNS on completion of the scheme. While the Role Development Programme was thought to provide a good academic structure for the scheme some participants thought that more theory on symptom control and communication skills and a placement in a specialist palliative care centre should also be included. Conclusion., The Macmillan Trainee Scheme has succeeded in its objectives to facilitate the transition from generalist to specialist nursing. It should be extended to include an induction and consolidation period and more theoretical input on communication skills and symptom control. Relevance to clinical practice., With these improvements, the scheme could be used as a standard model for training specialist practitioners and a means to address the current issues of workforce planning. [source]


    A Novel Concept for Highly Oriented Carbon Nanotube Composite Tapes or Fibres with High Strength and Electrical Conductivity

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 11 2009
    Hua Deng
    Abstract A new concept is described for the creation of multifunctional polymer nanocomposite tapes (or fibres) that combines high stiffness and strength with good electrical properties and a low percolation threshold of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The concept is based on a bicomponent tape (or fibre) construction consisting of a highly oriented polymer core and a conductive polymer composite (CPC) skin based on a polymer with a lower melting temperature than the core, enabling thermal annealing of these skins to improve conductivity through a dynamic percolation process while retaining the properties of the core and hence those of the tape (or fibre). The percolation threshold in the CPC skins of the highly drawn conductive bicomponent tapes could be decreased from 5.3 to 1.1,wt.-% after annealing. [source]


    Storegga tsunami sand in peat below the Tapes beach ridge at Harøy, western Norway, and its possible relation to an early Stone Age settlement

    BOREAS, Issue 3 2003
    STEIN BONDEVIK
    One of the early problems with the Storegga tsunami deposit was how to distinguish it from deposits of the midHolocene (Tapes) transgression. An excavation on Harøy, an island on the outermost western coast of Norway, shows a distinct, clean sand bed embedded in peat and clearly separated from the overlying Tapes beach deposits. This sand bed continues in the peat landwards of the beach ridge for at least 60 m. Radiocarbon dates of the peat show that the sand was deposited some time between 6900 and 7700 yr BP. The sedimentary structures of the bed, the 14C dates, and the fact that this is the only sand bed in the peat, suggest that the sand bed was deposited by a short-lived event, the Storegga tsunami. On the neighbouring island, Fjørtoft, a Stone Age settlement, dated to 7500 yr BP, was discovered in the early 1970s. The settlement was found underneath a sand bed that later had been covered by the Tapes beach ridge deposits. When discovered, the sand covering the settlement was inferred as eolian sand. However, this investigation shows that the Storegga tsunami deposited a widespread sand bed on the land surface around this time with a similar grain size distribution to eolian sand. It is therefore suggested that the sand bed covering this settlement was deposited from the Storegga tsunami. Both the stratigraphy and 14C dates demonstrate that the Tapes transgression maximum was reached well after the Storegga tsunami on Harøy, between 6500 and 6100 yr BP. [source]


    Photoresponsive Self-Assembly and Self-Organization of Hydrogen-Bonded Supramolecular Tapes

    CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 15 2006
    Shiki Yagai Dr.
    Abstract Self-assembling building blocks that are readily functionalizable and capable of achieving programmed hierarchical organization have enabled us to create various functional nanomaterials. We have previously demonstrated that N,N, -disubstituted 4,6-diaminopyrimidin-2(1,H)-one (DAP), a guanine,cytosine hybridized molecule, is a versatile building block for the creation of tapelike supramolecular polymer species in solution. In the current study, DAP was functionalized with azobenzene side chains. 1H NMR, UV/Vis, and dynamic light scattering studies confirmed the presence of nanometer-scale tapelike supramolecular polymers in alkane solvents at micromolar regimes. At higher concentrations (millimolar regimes), the supramolecular polymers hierarchically organized into lamellar superstructures to form organogels, as shown by X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy. Remarkably, the azobenzene side chains are photoisomerizable even in the supramolecular polymers, owing to their loosely packed state supported by the rigid hydrogen-bonded scaffold, enabling us to establish photocontrollable supramolecular polymerization and higher order organization of the tapelike supramolecular polymers into lamellar superstructures. [source]


    Clinical and demographic determinants of heart rate variability in patients post myocardial infarction: Insights from the cardiac arrhythmia suppression trial (CAST)

    CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Phyllis K. Stein PH.D.
    Abstract Background: Clinical and demographic determinants of heart rate variability (HRV), an almost universal predictor of increased mortality, have not been systematically investigated in patients post myocardial infarction (MI). Hypothesis: The study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between pretreatment clinical and demographic variables and HRV in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST). Methods: CAST patients were post MI and had , 6 ventricular premature complexes/h on pretreatment recording. Patients in this substudy (n = 769) had usable pretreatment and suppression tapes and were successfully randomized on the first antiarrhythmic treatment. Tapes were rescanned; only time domain HRV was reported because many tapes lacked the calibrated timing signal needed for accurate frequency domain analysis. Independent predictors of HRV were determined by stepwise selection. Results: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) after the qualifying MI was the strongest determinant of HRV. The markedly decreased HRV associated with CABG was not associated with increased mortality. Ejection fraction and diabetes were also independent predictors of HRV. Other predictors for some indices of HRV included beta-blocker use, gender, time from MI to Holter, history of CABG before the qualifying MI, and systolic blood pressure. Decreased HRV did not predict mortality for the entire group. For patients without CABG or diabetes, decreased standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDANN) predicted mortality. Clinical and demographic factors accounted for 31% of the variance in the average of normal-to-normal intervals (AVGNN) and 13,26% of the variance in other HRV indices. Conclusions: Heart rate variability post MI is largely independent of clinical and demographic factors. Antecedent CABG dramatically reduces HRV. Recognition of this is necessary to prevent misclassification of risk in patients post infarct. [source]


    An in vivo model to evaluate the efficacy of barrier creams on the level of skin penetration of chemicals

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2006
    Alexa Teichmann
    The reservoir function and the barrier function are important properties of the skin. The reservoir function is dependent on the barrier function which, however, needs support by protective measures, in particular under working conditions. Barrier creams represent a possibility to protect the skin. In the present study, a method was developed to investigate the effectiveness of reservoir closure by different formulations. Patent Blue V in water was used as a model penetrant. Its penetration, with and without barrier cream treatment, was analyzed by tape stripping in combination with UV/VIS spectroscopic measurements. The investigations showed that the stratum corneum represents a reservoir for topically applied Patent Blue V in water. Furthermore, the barrier investigations showed that vaseline and bees wax form a 100% barrier on the skin surface. The third barrier cream, containing waxes and surfactant, only partially showed a protective effect against the penetration of Patent Blue V in water. Strong interindividual differences were observed for this barrier product. In conclusion, it was assumed that the application of barrier creams cannot replace other protective measures and should be maximally used to inhibit low-grade irritants or in combination with other protectants or in body areas where other protective measures are not applicable. [source]


    P30 Transparent plastic foils allow a short patch-test application time

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Bolli Bjarnason
    Objective:, To investigate whether application of allergic patch tests with transparent semi-occlusive adhesive plastic foils yields higher test sensitivity than when tapes are used. To study whether such foils compared to tapes allow a shorter application time of tests. Methods:, We applied different doses of budesonide printed on polyester squares and vehicle control squares to budesonide allergic subjects for 4 days. Each subject was tested with a set of tests both with a tape and a foil. We assessed all tests when they had been detached and additionally those applied with foils at earlier time points. All assessments were performed both visually and with a laser Doppler perfusion imaging technique. Results:, Test sensitivity is higher with foil applications than when tapes are used and the perfusion is higher with the foils in many cases. The foils allow detachment of visually positive tests before 48 hours in some subjects, regardless of dose. Conclusions:, Test applications with transparent semi-occlusive adhesive plastic foils is sensitive and should be considered for application of patch tests when a short application time is important as when tests are carried out with occupationally hazardous allergens or when test substances containing allergens are expected to be irritating. [source]


    Effects of preoccupation on interpersonal recall: a pilot study

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 1 2009
    Annukka Lehtonen Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether priming preoccupation (rumination) in healthy participants adversely affects the processing of interpersonal information. Methods: Sixty female undergraduates with moderate or marked preoccupation proneness (selected on the basis of their high preoccupation on eating, shape, and weight issues) were randomized to receive either a general preoccupation prime, a standardized preoccupation prime, or a control prime. Following the prime, participants watched an 8-min videotape of a family interaction and then were asked free recall questions about the tape. Results: Participants who received the general preoccupation prime scored lower than the other two groups in response to free recall questions regarding emotion-related topics. Conclusions: These findings suggest that when primed by everyday worries and concerns, individuals prone to preoccupation may have their capacity to recall emotion-related interpersonal information compromised. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The Kerf-Cut Dressing: Application of a Woodworking Technique for Efficient Postsurgical Wound Care

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 4 2005
    John Starling III BA
    Background. Simple surgical excision is one of the most common treatment methods in the dermatologist's armamentarium. We describe a precise postsurgical dressing technique that can be used for wound care of those patients whose treatment involves removal of lesions via cutaneous surgery. Objective. To devise a novel, precise, and effective dressing technique for postsurgical wound care. Materials and Methods. We describe the technique using common in-office instruments. Results and Conclusion. Wound dressings for lesions located on curved areas such as the ears, nose, cheeks, and chin often exhibit less than adequate adherence and stability. The kerf-cut dressing technique optimizes pliability of dressing tape, and this maximizes efficient and stable application of postsurgical wound dressings to curved areas of the body. JOHN STARLING III, BA, PURVISHA J. PATEL, MD, AND RON D. RASBERRY, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]


    The Laser-Assisted Neck Lift: Modifications in Technique and Postoperative Care to Improve Results

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 6 2002
    F. Richard Noodleman MD
    background. Conventional submental tumescent liposuction has proved disappointing for some patients with anterior neck laxity, ptotic platysma muscles, and increased subplatysmal fat. Many of these patients are facelift candidates but are unwilling to undergo this extensive procedure. We describe our hybrid approach, which offers consistently improved results and enhanced patient satisfaction. objective. To establish a sharper cervicomental angle by more completely removing subplatysmal fat. We also wished to achieve more consistent, smoother results, minimizing ripples, folds, and hematomas with a novel postoperative dressing system. methods. Extensive tumescent liposuction of the lower face, jowls, and anterior neck was performed. Following this, subplatysmal fat was removed by dissection, the platysma muscle was imbricated, and the CO2 laser utilized in a defocused, low-power mode to partially treat the dermal undersurface and underlying muscle. Our postoperative dressing included a 10 cm mineral oil polymer gel disc in the submental location, covered by tape, silicone foam, and a lower face and neck garment to provide both support and even compression over the entire neck for at least the first 24 hours. results. Results proved uniformly satisfying for most patients, even those in their senior years. Benefits included an improved cervicomental angle, a decrease in jowling, and a marked reduction in the laxity and wrinkling of the neck skin and horizontal neck creases. Problems related to postoperative rippling or folding of the redraped skin and hematoma formation were minimized. conclusion. Laser neck tightening combined with tumescent liposuction and an advanced postoperative dressing for superior support and uniform compression has resulted in consistently excellent outcomes with improved patient satisfaction. [source]


    Use of the Broselow Tape May Result in the Underresuscitation of Children

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 10 2006
    ACNP, Carolyn T. Nieman MSN
    Abstract Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the concordance of the Broselow tape with the measured heights and weights of a community-based population of children, especially in light of the increase in obesity in today's children. Methods The authors examined more than 7,500 children in a cross-sectional, descriptive study in two different cohorts of children to compare their actual weight with their predicted weight by a color-coded tape measure. Results In all patients, the percent agreement and , values of the Broselow color predicted by height versus the actual color by weight for the 2002A tape were 66.2% and 0.61, respectively. The concordance was best in infants, followed by school-age children, toddlers, and preschoolers (,= 0.66, 0.44, 0.39, and 0.39, respectively; percent agreement, 81.3%, 58.2%, 60.7%, and 64.0%, respectively). The tapes accurately predicted (within 10%) medication dosages for resuscitation in 55.3%,60.0% of the children. The number of children who were underdosed (by ,10%) exceeded those who were overdosed (by ,10%) by 2.5 to 4.4 times (p < 0.05). The tapes accurately predicted uncuffed endotracheal tube sizes when compared with age-based guidelines in 71% of the children, with undersizing (,0.5 mm) exceeding oversizing by threefold to fourfold (p < 0.05). Conclusions The Broselow tape color-coded system inaccurately predicted actual weight in one third of children. Caregivers need to take into consideration the accuracy of this device when estimating children's weight during the resuscitation of a child. [source]


    Digital Analysis of Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography: A Clinical Study Using an Air-Filled Agent in Normal Subjects

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2000
    EDWARD A. GEISER M.D., F.A.C.C.
    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether direct digital image analysis would allow improved detection of myocardial contrast. Eighteen normal subjects were recruited and separated into two groups. In group 1, the time-brightness curves of the left ventricular cavity and three myocardial perfusion beds were formed from digitized video tape, with output power and imaging time as secondary variables. In group 2, curves constructed from direct polar digital data were compared, with fundamental and second harmonic image formation as variables. In group 1 subjects, using fundamental imaging, the area under the curve in the left ventricular cavity increased slightly with intermittent imaging. No consistent myocardial opacification was identified. In group 2 subjects, using intermittent imaging, the area under the myocardial curve and peak intensity increased with high output second harmonic imaging in the left anterior descending and right coronary artery regions. Intermittent, second harmonic imaging and digital processing can demonstrate myocardial contrast even with an air-filled agent. [source]


    Fast Mapping of Gunshot Residues by Batch Injection Analysis with Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Lead at the Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 2 2005
    Adriana De, Donato
    Abstract The forensic analysis of lead in gunshot residues (GSR) sampled on the hands of potential shooters is rendered faster, simpler and less expensive by a new batch injection analysis (BIA) method, based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). A simple "J" shaped adaptor was designed to direct the flux of the analyte injected with a micropipettor onto the hanging mercury drop electrode of any commercial electrode stand. Sampling methods for GSR were compared and lifting with adhesive tape was elected for field use. The tapes are glued on polyethylene screens and stored in capped vials. Sampling with multiple strips provides coarse mapping of the distribution of lead on the shooter's hands. After a dissolution/extraction step with chloroform/aqueous 0.10,mol,L,1 HCl, 100,,L of the aqueous phase are injected during 25,s for accumulation of lead on the HMDE at ,0.60,V (vs. Ag/AgCl). A detection limit of 20,ng/mL of Pb(II), outreaching for GSR analysis, is reached without oxygen removal, at a frequency of 20 injections per hour. Results for sequences of shootings with a revolver and a pistol are presented. [source]


    Emergency weight estimation in Pacific Island and Maori children who are large-for-age

    EMERGENCY MEDICINE AUSTRALASIA, Issue 3 2005
    Lynn Theron
    Abstract Objective:, Methods to estimate weights of children requiring resuscitation appeared to underestimate the weight of Pacific Island and Maori children. This study sought to quantify differences between real and estimated weights, study links with ethnicity and derive a new estimation method for large-for-age children. Method:, Data were collected prospectively for 3 months. Weights were estimated by formulae described by Shann, Leffler, the Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) formula, the Oakley resuscitation chart and the Broselow tape. Results:, Of the 909 children included, 46% were of Pacific Island and 25% were of Maori origin. Differences between actual and estimated weights were significantly greater (P < 0.05) for the Pacific Island group using all methods of estimation. Maori differences were significantly greater than European differences using Oakley and Broselow methods (P < 0.05). The Broselow tape was the method most likely to underestimate weight in Pacific Island and Maori children. A new formula was derived from non-linear regression analysis, leading to a new chart. Conclusion:, Current emergency methods underestimate weight in Pacific Island and Maori children. We recommend a new chart for these children. [source]