Systems Development (systems + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Systems Development

  • information systems development


  • Selected Abstracts


    Pessimism, Computer Failure, and Information Systems Development in the Public Sector

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REVIEW, Issue 5 2007
    Shaun Goldfinch
    The majority of information systems developments are unsuccessful. The larger the development, the more likely it will be unsuccessful. Despite the persistence of this problem for decades and the expenditure of vast sums of money, computer failure has received surprisingly little attention in the public administration literature. This article outlines the problems of enthusiasm and the problems of control, as well as the overwhelming complexity, that make the failure of large developments almost inevitable. Rather than the positive view found in much of the public administration literature, the author suggests a pessimism when it comes to information systems development. Aims for information technology should be modest ones, and in many cases, the risks, uncertainties, and probability of failure mean that new investments in technology are not justified. The author argues for a public official as a recalcitrant, suspicious, and skeptical adopter of IT. [source]


    A flexible framework for consistency management

    CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 1 2002
    S. Weber
    Abstract Recent distributed shared memory (DSM) systems provide increasingly more support for the sharing of objects rather than portions of memory. However, like earlier DSM systems these distributed shared object systems (DSO) still force developers to use a single protocol, or a small set of given protocols, for the sharing of application objects. This limitation prevents the applications from optimizing their communication behaviour and results in unnecessary overhead. A current general trend in software systems development is towards customizable systems, for example frameworks, reflection, and aspect-oriented programming all aim to give the developer greater flexibility and control over the functionality and performance of their code. This paper describes a novel object-oriented framework that defines a DSM system in terms of a consistency model and an underlying coherency protocol. Different consistency models and coherency protocols can be used within a single application because they can be customized, by the application programmer, on a per-object basis. This allows application specific semantics to be exploited at a very fine level of granularity and with a resulting improvement in performance. The framework is implemented in JAVA and the speed-up obtained by a number of applications that use the framework is reported. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Customer Learning Processes, Strategy Selection, and Performance in Business-to-Business Service Firms,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 2 2004
    Debra Zahay
    ABSTRACT Learning about customers takes place through relevant dialogues with those customers, also known as customer relationship management (CRM). As relationships develop, information about the customer is gathered in the firm's customer information systems (CIS): the content, processes, and assets associated with gathering and moving customer information throughout the firm. This research develops a measure of CIS management capabilities based on learning organization theory and measured by the ability to get, store, move, and use information throughout the business unit. This measure is then used to analyze customer learning processes and associated performance in the context of marketing strategic decision making. This study of 209 business services firms finds that generic marketing strategy positioning (low-cost and differentiation) and the marketing tactics of personalization and customization are related to CIS development. Customer information systems development in turn is associated with higher levels of customer-based performance, which in turn is associated with increased business growth. Since the strongest association with customer-based performance is strategy selection, the long-term benefits of the knowledge gained from the CIS may be in the ability to assist in measuring customer-based performance, rather than in the ability to immediately contribute to performance. Finally, for these firms, customization and personalization are not directly associated with performance and thus may not be necessary to support every firm's marketing strategy. [source]


    The design process of expert systems development: some concerns

    EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 2 2006
    Mehdi Sagheb-Tehrani
    Abstract: A discussion is presented of why some expert systems that organizations have developed are not successful. The concept of design process plays a very significant role at the outset of the expert system development process. This concept has not been the subject of much debate and attention in expert systems development. From the author's point of view, one of the main issues is how the designer (knowledge engineer) thinks about the design process. In general, the designer's process is influenced by the knowledge engineer's conception. This paper endeavors to disclose some of the main factors related to the knowledge engineer's conception of the design process and an attempt is made to put forward a conceptual model of the expert system design process. This conceptual model is an initial step towards a successful implementation of expert system projects. [source]


    A taxonomy of political processes in systems development

    INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 5 2010
    Rajiv Sabherwal
    Abstract Significant resources invested in information system development (ISD) are wasted due to political manoeuvres. Prior research on ISD politics has contributed mainly through theoretical development and case studies. This has enhanced understanding of relevant concepts, political tactics and conditions facilitating politics. However, there is limited understanding of the different processes through which politics unfold. This paper uses 89 ISD projects to develop a taxonomy of political processes in ISD. The taxonomy includes three distinct processes: Tug of War, wherein multiple parties strive to gain project control; Obstacle Race, which involves efforts to resist and pursue the project; and Empire Building, wherein the project is used as an instrument to enhance political or resource bases. The taxonomy is explained using the non-proponents' view of the project and the balance of power between system's proponents and non-proponents. We also discuss the emergent taxonomy's implications for how politics can be managed and studied. [source]


    User involvement in developing mobile and temporarily interconnected systems

    INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2010
    Ola Henfridsson
    Abstract Information systems (IS) research on user involvement has primarily theorized relationships between developers, managers and users in systems development. However, so far, marginal attention has been paid to differences in user involvement practices between information systems. This paper explores user involvement in developing mobile and temporarily interconnected systems (MTIS). We refer to MTIS as heterogeneous systems that rely on network technologies for increasing the ubiquity of information services for users on the move. Such systems are becoming increasingly important in leveraging, e.g. car infotainment, supply chain management and wireless e-commerce. With particular emphasis on the nature of MTIS and its implications for user involvement, the paper analyses the systems development process of an action research project. The findings suggest that user involvement practices need to be adapted to accommodate features of this class of systems. Being an early attempt to trace the implications of technology features such as use context switches and temporary system relationships, the paper contributes to the development of an updated theory of the user role in an era of increased system complexity and stakeholder ambiguity. [source]


    IT project managers' construction of successful project management practice: a repertory grid investigation

    INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Nannette P. Napier
    Abstract Although effective project management is critical to the success of information technology (IT) projects, little empirical research has investigated skill requirements for IT project managers (PMs). This study addressed this gap by asking 19 practicing IT PMs to describe the skills that successful IT PMs exhibit. A semi-structured interview method known as the repertory grid (RepGrid) technique was used to elicit these skills. Nine skill categories emerged: client management, communication, general management, leadership, personal integrity, planning and control, problem solving, systems development and team development. Our study complements existing research by providing a richer understanding of several skills that were narrowly defined (client management, planning and control, and problem solving) and by introducing two new skill categories that had not been previously discussed (personal integrity and team development). Analysis of the individual RepGrids revealed four distinct ways in which study participants combined skill categories to form archetypes of effective IT PMs. We describe these four IT PM archetypes , General Manager, Problem Solver, Client Representative and Balanced Manager , and discuss how this knowledge can be useful for practitioners, researchers and educators. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research. [source]


    Persistent problems and practices in information systems development

    INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2007
    Karlheinz Kautz
    Abstract.,This paper identifies and discusses the persistent problems and development practices of information systems development (ISD). A critical examination and comparison of past times',traditional' and present-day ,web-based' development shows that contemporary ISD can be seen as an accentuated evolution , rather than a revolution , of well-known challenges and solutions. On this basis, (1) diversity; (2) knowledge; and (3) structure are identified as inherent and interrelated problems, while the practices for coping with these three challenges are (a) organization and specialization; (b) constant verbal communication and negotiation; and (c) pragmatic application of certain development methods and methodical concepts. We conclude that more research on the occurrence and interaction of problems and practices at, and between, different contextual levels (e.g. the business environment, company, project, team and individual levels) is needed to understand and assess (the gap between) ,observed practice' and ,good practice' across the many types of Web and non-Web ISD projects conducted today. We outline a possible research agenda to investigate these issues. [source]


    Short cycle time systems development

    INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2004
    Richard Baskerville
    Abstract. An analysis of two studies in the US and Denmark reveals that short cycle time systems development is a new form that can be clearly distinguished among other forms. The distinction consists of a package of five systems development practices. These practices include a focus on completion speed, release-oriented parallel prototyping, adherence to a fixed architecture, negotiable quality, and an ideal workforce. The package is consistent with amethodical development concepts. Systems are not built in a single project that completes with a delivery, but rather are continually ,growing' to adapt to an organizational emergence. [source]


    A model of information systems development project performance

    INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 4 2000
    Philip Yetton
    abstract. Performance in information systems development (ISD) projects can be critical to business success. But, while project performance has been the subject of much debate, there has been little empirical research into its determinants. A survey of IS projects in the UK and New Zealand is analysed to test hypotheses concerning performance in terms of both project completion and budget (time-cost) variances. Subsequently, a secondary analysis of the findings is used to build a more complete empirical model of project performance. The paper helps to develop the theory of IS development project performance and also has significant implications for practice. Discussion of the findings highlights the importance of project team dynamics, risk management, senior management support for strategic projects and user participation in ensuring successful IS project performance. [source]


    Transforming information systems development through computer-aided systems engineering (CASE): lessons from practice

    INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2000
    Tom Butler
    Abstract. In dealing with the challenges posed by the ongoing problem of developing and integrating an evermore complex and diverse range of information systems in a timely manner, practitioners continue to grapple with important issues such as increasing developer productivity and bringing quality improvements to the process and product of systems development. Many organizations have adopted computer-aided systems engineering (CASE) tools with such outcomes in mind. With few exceptions, previous research into the phenomenon of CASE adoption and use has been survey based in the main, and has resulted in some confusion over the benefits to be derived from the use of CASE tools within the systems development process. This paper extends previous work as part of an interpretive, case-based research strategy to examine the adoption and use of integrated CASE (I-CASE) in a single organization. Such an approach facilitates a deeper understanding of the impact that CASE exerts on the process and product of systems development. Based on the experience of practitioners in the organization studied, a set of recommendations is presented. The findings of this study also lend support to the view that an I-CASE development platform does indeed have the potential to exert a positive impact on the development process and its product. [source]


    Knowledge Transfer and Collaboration in Distributed U.S.-Thai Teams

    JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION, Issue 4 2005
    Saonee Sarker
    This article reports on a study that investigates factors influencing knowledge transfer in the context of cross-cultural distributed teams engaged in information systems development. The goal was to examine the validity of a four-factor framework of knowledge transfer (the "4 C Framework"), which proposes that capability, credibility, communication, and culture of the source significantly affects knowledge transfer. The framework is examined in the context of US-Thai distributed teams, as well as within the local subgroups. Results support the role of credibility and communication on knowledge transfer in the cross-cultural distributed teams, and within the local subgroups. Capability was not found to be related to knowledge transfer either in the distributed teams or within the local subgroups. Finally, culture of the source did affect knowledge transfer in the distributed teams, although in a direction opposite to that hypothesized. [source]


    Analyzing user interaction with the ViewFinder video retrieval system

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Dan Albertson
    This study investigates interactive video retrieval. The basis for this study is that user- and search task-centric research in video information retrieval can assist efforts for developing effective user interfaces and help complement the existing corpus of video retrieval research by providing evidence for the benefits of evaluating systems using such an approach. Accordingly, the results were collected and analyzed from the perspective of certain users and search tasks (i.e., information needs). The methodology of this study employed specially designed interactive search experiments to examine a number of different factors in a video retrieval context, including those that correspond to search tasks of a particular domain, interface features and functions, system effectiveness, and user interactions. The results indicated that the use and effectiveness of certain interface features and functions were dependent on the type of search task, while others were more consistent across the full experiment. Also included is a review of prior research pertaining to visual search tasks, systems development, and user interaction. ViewFinder, the prototype system used to carry out the interactive search experiments of this study, is fully described. [source]


    Managerial perceptions of project stability

    PROJECT MANAGEMENT JOURNAL, Issue 4 2008
    Stephen M. Swartz
    Abstract This research investigated the importance of stability (ability of schedules to absorb disruption) to project outcomes. Managers involved in aviation systems development were surveyed for their perceptions of importance and usefulness for project attributes and performance management measures. Traditional measures of cost, schedule, performance, and earned value were compared to proposed measures of stability. Stability and earned value had both importance and usefulness to the managers. Stability was perceived to be as important as the more common measures. Perceptions differed depending on program size, scope, and stage of completion and between managers depending on experience and certification level. [source]


    Pessimism, Computer Failure, and Information Systems Development in the Public Sector

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REVIEW, Issue 5 2007
    Shaun Goldfinch
    The majority of information systems developments are unsuccessful. The larger the development, the more likely it will be unsuccessful. Despite the persistence of this problem for decades and the expenditure of vast sums of money, computer failure has received surprisingly little attention in the public administration literature. This article outlines the problems of enthusiasm and the problems of control, as well as the overwhelming complexity, that make the failure of large developments almost inevitable. Rather than the positive view found in much of the public administration literature, the author suggests a pessimism when it comes to information systems development. Aims for information technology should be modest ones, and in many cases, the risks, uncertainties, and probability of failure mean that new investments in technology are not justified. The author argues for a public official as a recalcitrant, suspicious, and skeptical adopter of IT. [source]


    Biorefinery systems , potential contributors to sustainable innovation

    BIOFUELS, BIOPRODUCTS AND BIOREFINING, Issue 3 2010
    Maria Wellisch
    Abstract Sustainable biorefineries have a critical role to play in our common future. The need to provide more goods using renewable resources, combined with advances in science and technology, has provided a receptive environment for biorefinery systems development. Biorefineries offer the promise of using fewer non-renewable resources, reducing CO2 emissions, creating new employment, and spurring innovation using clean and efficient technologies. Lessons are being learned from the establishment of first-generation biofuel operations. The factors that are key to answering the question of biorefinery sustainability include: the type of feedstock, the conversion technologies and their respective conversion and energy efficiencies, the types of products (including coproducts) that are manufactured, and what products are substituted by the bioproducts. The BIOPOL review of eight existing biorefineries indicates that new efficient biorefineries can revitalize existing industries and promote regional development, especially in the R&D area. Establishment can be facilitated if existing facilities are used, if there is at least one product which is immediately marketable, and if supportive policies are in place. Economic, environmental, and social dimensions need to be evaluated in an integrated sustainability assessment. Sustainability principles, criteria, and indicators are emerging for bioenergy, biofuels, and bioproducts. Practical assessment methodologies, including data systems, are critical for both sustainable design and to assure consumers, investors, and governments that they are doing the ,right thing' by purchasing a certain bioproduct. If designed using lifecycle thinking, biorefineries can be profitable, socially responsible, and produce goods with less environmental impact than conventional products , and potentially even be restorative!. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd [source]


    Core Curricular Elements for Fellowship Training in International Emergency Medicine

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 7 2010
    Jamil Bayram MD
    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:748,757 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to describe the common educational goals, curricular elements, and methods of evaluation used in international emergency medicine (IEM) fellowship training programs currently. IEM fellowship programs have been developed to provide formal training for emergency physicians (EPs) interested in pursuing careers in IEM. Those fellowships are variable in scope, objectives, and duration. Previously published articles have suggested a general curriculum structure for IEM fellowships. Methods:, A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases from 1950 to June 2008 was performed, combining the terms international, emergency medicine, and fellowship. Online curricula and descriptive materials from IEM fellowships listed by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) were reviewed. Knowledge and skill areas common to multiple programs were organized in discrete categories. IEM fellowship directors were contacted for input and feedback. Results:, Eight articles on IEM fellowships were identified. Two articles described a general structure for fellowship curriculum. Sixteen of 20 IEM fellowship programs had descriptive materials posted online. These information sources, plus input from seven fellowship program directors, yielded the following seven discrete knowledge and skill areas: 1) emergency medicine systems development, 2) humanitarian relief, 3) disaster management, 4) public health, 5) travel and field medicine, 6) program administration, and 7) academic skills. Conclusions:, While IEM fellowships vary with regard to objectives and structure, this article presents an overview of the current focus of IEM fellowship training curricula that could serve as a resource for IEM curriculum development at individual institutions. [source]


    Pessimism, Computer Failure, and Information Systems Development in the Public Sector

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REVIEW, Issue 5 2007
    Shaun Goldfinch
    The majority of information systems developments are unsuccessful. The larger the development, the more likely it will be unsuccessful. Despite the persistence of this problem for decades and the expenditure of vast sums of money, computer failure has received surprisingly little attention in the public administration literature. This article outlines the problems of enthusiasm and the problems of control, as well as the overwhelming complexity, that make the failure of large developments almost inevitable. Rather than the positive view found in much of the public administration literature, the author suggests a pessimism when it comes to information systems development. Aims for information technology should be modest ones, and in many cases, the risks, uncertainties, and probability of failure mean that new investments in technology are not justified. The author argues for a public official as a recalcitrant, suspicious, and skeptical adopter of IT. [source]