Syndrome Scale (syndrome + scale)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Syndrome Scale

  • negative syndrome scale

  • Selected Abstracts

    Evaluation of a cognitive behaviourally oriented service for relapse prevention in schizophrenia

    S. Klingberg
    Klingberg S, Wittorf A, Fischer A, Jakob-Deters K, Buchkremer G, Wiedemann G. Evaluation of a cognitive behaviourally oriented service for relapse prevention in schizophrenia. Objective:, There is little work demonstrating the effectiveness of cognitive behaviourally oriented interventions in routine service settings. This pragmatic trial is designed to test the impact of a group treatment service on relapse rates under the conditions of routine health care. Method:, A total of 169 schizophrenia patients were randomly allocated either to a comprehensive cognitive behaviourally oriented service (CBOS) or to treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome is the time until the first relapse after discharge from hospital. Relapse was defined as an increase in positive or negative symptoms as assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Survival analysis has been conducted up to the 6-month assessment. Results:, The mean time to relapse after discharge from hospital in the CBOS group was significantly longer than in the TAU group (log rank test, P = 0.033). This was due to less exacerbations regarding negative symptoms in the CBOS condition (log rank test, P = 0.014). The number of social contacts was improved in the CBOS group only. Conclusion:, The CBOS intervention appears to be beneficial in reducing early negative symptom exacerbations. [source]

    Outcome of suicidal patients with schizophrenia: results from a naturalistic study

    R. Schennach-Wolff
    Schennach-Wolff R, Jäger M, Seemüller F, Obermeier M, Schmauss M, Laux G, Pfeiffer H, Naber D, Schmidt LG, Gaebel W, Klosterkötter J, Heuser I, Maier W, Lemke MR, Rüther E, Klingberg S, Gastpar M, Möller H-J, Riedel M. Outcome of suicidal patients with schizophrenia: results from a naturalistic study. Objective:, Purpose was to assess suicidality before and at the time of admission in patients with schizophrenia and compare outcome differences. Method:, Biweekly PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), HAMD (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and UKU (Udvalg for Klinske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale) ratings were evaluated in 339 in-patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders. Response was defined as an initial 20% PANSS total score reduction at discharge, remission was defined according to the proposed consensus criteria by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group. Results:, Suicidal patients (22%) scored significantly higher on the PANSS negative subscore, PANSS insight item and HAMD total score at admission and at discharge. They developed significantly more side effects. No differences were found concerning response and remission between the two patient subgroups. Conclusion:, Despite receiving significantly more antidepressants the suicidal patients suffered from significantly more depressive symptoms up to discharge, yet without differing regarding response and remission. [source]

    A 2-year follow-up of involuntary admission's influence upon adherence and outcome in first-episode psychosis

    S. Opjordsmoen
    Opjordsmoen S, Friis S, Melle I, Haahr U, Johannessen JO, Larsen TK, Røssberg JI, Rund BR, Simonsen E, Vaglum P, McGlashan TH. A 2-year follow-up of involuntary admission's influence upon adherence and outcome in first-episode psychosis. Objective:, To see, if voluntary admission for treatment in first-episode psychosis results in better adherence to treatment and more favourable outcome than involuntary admission. Method:, We compared consecutively first-admitted, hospitalised patients from a voluntary (n = 91) with an involuntary (n = 126) group as to psychopathology and functioning using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scales at baseline, after 3 months and at 2 year follow-up. Moreover, duration of supportive psychotherapy, medication and number of hospitalisations during the 2 years were measured. Results:, More women than men were admitted involuntarily. Voluntary patients had less psychopathology and better functioning than involuntary patients at baseline. No significant difference as to duration of psychotherapy and medication between groups was found. No significant difference was found as to psychopathology and functioning between voluntarily and involuntarily admitted patients at follow-up. Conclusion:, Legal admission status per se did not seem to influence treatment adherence and outcome. [source]

    Achieving symptomatic remission in out-patients with schizophrenia , a naturalistic study with quetiapine

    T. Wobrock
    Objective:, Symptomatic remission was defined as a score of mild or less on each of eight key schizophrenia symptoms on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-8). To evaluate the symptomatic remission criterion in clinical practice and to determine predictors for achieving symptomatic remission, a 12-week non-interventional study (NIS) with quetiapine was conducted in Germany. Method:, For the comparison of patients with and without symptomatic remission, sociodemographic and clinical variables of 693 patients were analyzed by logistic regression for their predictive value to achieve remission. Results:, Four hundred and four patients (58.3%) achieved symptomatic remission after 12 weeks' treatment with quetiapine. Remission was significantly predicted by a low degree of PANSS-8 total score, PANSS single items blunted affect (N1), social withdrawal (N4), lack of spontaneity (N6), mannerism and posturing (G5), and low disease severity (CGI-S) at baseline. Predictors of non-remission were older age, diagnosis of schizophrenic residuum, multiple previous episodes, longer duration of current episode, presence of concomitant diseases, and alcohol abuse. Conclusion:, This study demonstrated that the majority of schizophrenia out-patients achieved symptomatic remission after 12 weeks treatment and confirms the importance of managing negative symptoms in order to achieve disease remission. [source]

    Definitions of response and remission in schizophrenia: recommendations for their use and their presentation

    S. Leucht
    Objective:, To review and make recommendations for the definition and presentation of the terms ,response' and ,remission' in schizophrenia. Method:, Selective review of publications on definitions of response and remission in schizophrenia. Results:, When the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) are used for definitions of response, a cut-off of at least 50% reduction of the baseline score should be used for acutely ill, non-refractory patients and a cut-off of at least 25% reduction for refractory patients. When percentage BPRS/PANSS reduction is calculated, the 18/30 points minimum scores meaning ,no symptoms' on the should be subtracted. In addition, responder rates from 0,100% could be presented in a table in steps of 25%. For large and simple practical trials, the Clinical Global Impression scale with suggested improvements could be used 1-7 scale. Conclusion:, To show how many patients are still symptomatic at the end of study and to show the overall amount of change in both remission and responder criteria should be presented. [source]

    Early intervention with second-generation antipsychotics in first-episode psychosis: results of an 8-week naturalistic study

    Richard C. Josiassen
    Abstract Objective: The objective was to compare short-term effectiveness of aripiprazole with three other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the treatment of first-episode psychosis. Method: In a naturalistic, ,single-blind' design, 60 subjects experiencing their first psychotic episode were treated for 8 weeks with aripiprazole (n = 19), risperidone (n = 16), olanzapine (n = 14) or quetiapine (n = 11). Medication and dosing decisions were made by treating psychiatrists, constrained to once-a-day dosing, low initial doses and no clozapine. Weekly ratings were obtained using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Simpson-Angus Rating Scale and Barnes Akathasia Rating Scale. Weight and vital signs were also collected weekly. Results: The group presented with severe psychotic symptoms (mean baseline PANSS total score of 105.2), which were reduced rapidly (P < 0.0005). The between-group and group by time interaction terms were non-significant. Similar reductions were seen across all PANSS sub-scales. At Week 1 the mean PANSS Activation Scale score was reduced more with olanzapine than in the other groups (P < 0.002). Few instances of extrapyramidal symptoms occurred; all were sporadic and did not require treatment. Group body weight increased by 7.3% over the study. Vital signs remained unchanged. Conclusions: Early intervention with low doses of four SGAs led to rapid symptom reduction in first-episode psychotic patients with severe psychopathology. Although no clear medication advantages were observed in the short term, longer duration studies with larger samples will be required for determining efficacy, rates of compliance, relapse prevention and diminished incidence of extrapyramidal signs and symptoms. [source]

    Interictal Psychoses in Comparison with Schizophrenia,A Prospective Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2007
    Yukari Tadokoro
    Summary Purpose: To prospectively investigate the incidence of interictal psychoses of epilepsy patients, and make a comparison between those with interictal psychoses and patients with schizophrenia in respect to their responses to antipsychotic drugs, as well as psychotic states. Methods: We undertook a two-part prospective investigation. In Part I, the psychotic episodes of 619 epilepsy patients were investigated, while 182 patients with psychotic syndromes were followed in Part II, of whom 59 were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 13 with epilepsy with interictal psychoses. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used for efficacy assessment. Results: The average annual incidence of interictal psychosis was 0.42% during the 56-month study period. A significant difference was found between patients with schizophrenia and epilepsy patients with interictal psychoses in respect to results on the negative subscale of the PANSS at the initial examination (mean scores of 18.1 and 13.2, respectively, p = 0.004). The response rates one year later for these groups were 27.1% and 53.8%, respectively, which showed a trend of better response to the antipsychotic medication by the epilepsy group (p = 0.098). Initial and maximum doses of antipsychotic drugs used for epilepsy patients with interictal psychoses were significantly lower than those used for patients with schizophrenia (p = 0.008 and p = 0.006, respectively). Conclusions: Schizophrenia and epileptic psychosis showed different symptom profiles. On average, epilepsy patients with interictal psychoses achieved higher remission rates with lower doses of antipsychotic drugs as compared to patients with schizophrenia in the present 1-year follow-up study. [source]

    Neurocognition and its influencing factors in the treatment of schizophrenia,effects of aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone

    M. Riedel
    Abstract Background To examine influencing variables of neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia and to predict cognition during antipsychotic treatment. Methods Data were obtained from patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia participating in two double-blind and one open label trial comparing the effects of different atypical antipsychotics on cognition. In total, 129 patients were enrolled in this analysis. Cognitive function was assessed at admission, week 4 and 8. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed weekly using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Simpson Angus Sale (SAS). Patients were treated with aripirazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. Regression analysis including mixed effect models was performed. Results A significant improvement in all cognitive domains was observed from baseline to week 8. Regarding the antipsychotic treatment applied quetiapine seemed to achieve the most favourable cognitive improvement. Negative and depressive symptoms, the patient's age and the concomitant and antipsychotic treatment applied were observed to significantly influence and predict neurocognition. Conclusion The results may indicate that schizophrenia is a static disorder with trait and state dependent cognitive components especially in the memory domains. The influence of negative and depressive symptoms should be considered in daily clinical routine. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Long-term safety and efficacy of long-acting risperidone in elderly psychotic patients

    Werner Kissling
    Abstract This subgroup analysis of the 6-month, open-label Switch to Risperidone Microspheres (StoRMi) trial evaluated long-term safety and efficacy of a direct conversion to risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) in 52 elderly patients (,65 years) with psychosis stabilized on oral or depot antipsychotic. Study outcomes included adverse events, movement disorder severity, psychiatric symptoms, functional ability, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale at endpoint was the primary efficacy measure. The most common dosage of RLAI used at endpoint was 25,mg every 14 days (60%). The trial was completed by 81% of patients, with six patients discontinuing treatment due to an adverse event. Tolerability was good and most side effects were mild to moderate. Serious adverse events occurred in 11 patients. Two of these (suicidal attempt, n,=,1; exacerbation of disease, n,=,1) were considered possibly related to RLAI. Conversion to RLAI resulted in significant improvements in movement disorder severity, psychiatric symptoms, functional status and patient satisfaction. Mean PANSS total decreased by 15.8 at endpoint, with 23 patients (46.9%) experiencing a ,20% improvement. This post-hoc analysis supports that RLAI is well tolerated and safe in elderly patients with psychotic illnesses switched from stable antipsychotic regimens, and suggests possible efficacy, although inferences are limited. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Iloperidone for schizophrenia: a review of the efficacy and safety profile for this newly commercialised second-generation antipsychotic

    L. Citrome
    Summary Objective:, The aim of the study was to describe the efficacy and safety of iloperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia. Data sources:, The pivotal registration trials were accessed by querying, and for the search term ,iloperidone'. Study selection:, Four published primary reports of phase III studies were identified as well as preclinical animal and receptor affinity studies that describe potential mechanisms of action and pharmacogenomic studies that identify potential genetic biomarkers for efficacy and tolerability. Product labelling provided additional data. Data extraction:, Descriptions of the principal results and calculation of number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) for relevant dichotomous outcomes were extracted from the study reports. Additional safety outcomes subject to NNH analysis were obtained from product labelling. Data synthesis:, Iloperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic agent indicated for the acute treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Iloperidone has been evaluated in several double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials. The oral formulation has demonstrated efficacy in reducing the symptoms of acute schizophrenia at fixed daily doses ranging from 12 to 24 mg. Data reported for categorical definitions of response using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were limited to one study and specifically to rates of achieving a , 20% decrease in the positive subscale from baseline; significantly more patients receiving iloperidone 24 mg/day (72%) than placebo (52%) met this criterion, yielding a NNT of five. Iloperidone should be titrated slowly to avoid orthostatic hypotension, potentially delaying the achievement of a therapeutic dose level. There appears to be a dose relationship for adverse events such as dizziness, somnolence and dry mouth; for example NNH vs. placebo for somnolence was 25 for iloperidone 10,16 mg/day and 10 for 20,24 mg/day. There is a possibility of a therapeutic dose response as well. Iloperidone is essentially free of extra-pyramidal side effects. Iloperidone is associated with weight gain comparable with risperidone. Long-term double-blind maintenance studies have demonstrated iloperidone's non-inferiority to haloperidol for relapse prevention. Product labelling includes a warning about the potential for QT interval prolongation. At present there are no efficacy studies available that are powered to directly compare iloperidone with other second-generation antipsychotics. The development of a depot formulation of iloperidone as well as efforts to identify genetic biomarkers for prediction of both efficacy and tolerability are in progress. Conclusions:, Aside from paliperidone, iloperidone is the first new second-generation antipsychotic to be commercialised in the USA since 2002. From the limited registration data, iloperidone appears to be relatively well tolerated once titrated to a therapeutic level and can be a useful option to consider. The development of a depot formulation and potential for genetic biomarkers may make this agent compelling. Further comparisons with other available agents among patients with schizophrenia in the ,real world' are needed. [source]

    Contribution of PTSD/POW history to behavioral disturbances in dementia

    Swapna Verma
    Abstract As many World War II and Korean Conflict veterans suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) grow older, increasing numbers will be diagnosed with dementia. We retrospectively analyzed patients with dementia, comparing the behavioral disturbances of those with PTSD to those without PTSD. We hypothesized that due to the additive effect of the neurobiological and behavioral changes associated with PTSD and dementia, the dementia with PTSD group would show more agitation and disinhibition than the dementia without PTSD group. Sixteen patients with diagnoses of dementia and PTSD were matched on age and Mini-Mental States Examination (MMSE) scores to 16 patients with dementia without PTSD. Demographic characteristics, co-morbid diagnoses, global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), and paranoid items of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS) were assessed. The patients with diagnoses of dementia with PTSD did not differ significantly in their clinical presentation, hospital course, and condition at discharge from patients with dementia without PTSD. Chi-square analysis showed that significantly more subjects in the PTSD group were prescribed anti-depressants compared to the non-PTSD group. Interestingly, within the PTSD group, the subgroup of patients who were former prisoners of war had a significantly higher mean score for paranoia and significantly less verbal agitation. This pilot study reveals that a diagnosis of PTSD alone is not sufficient to influence behavior in veterans with dementia; however, we also present provocative results that patients with more severe trauma (POW) do have changes in their behavior. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Validity and reliability of the Polish version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

    gorzata Rzewuska Assistant Professor
    Abstract This study presents the results of a training course on using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for the assessment of mental status. The agreements between ratings produced by 418 physicians (psychiatrists) were evaluated and compared with standard ratings. In this way it was possible to supplement some of the listed symptoms with comments, which may help to increase agreement between results obtained through raters' assessments and standard ratings. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Sleep Apnea, Delirium, Depressed Mood, Cognition, and ADL Ability After Stroke

    Olov Sandberg MD
    OBJECTIVES: The incidence of sleep apnea and stroke increases with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of sleep apnea after stroke and its relationship to delirium, depressed mood, cognitive functioning, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), and psychiatric and behavior symptoms. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit. PARTICIPANTS:133 patients (78 women and 55 men, mean age 77.1 ± 7.7 years) consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit. MEASUREMENTS: All patients underwent overnight respiratory sleep recordings at 23 ± 7 days (range 11 to 41 days) after suffering a stroke. The patients were assessed using the Organic Brain Syndrome Scale, Montgomery-Åsberg-Depression-Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Barthel-ADL Index. Sleep apnea was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 10 or more. RESULTS: The median of the AHI for the studied sample (N = 133) was 13 (range 0,79; interquartile range 6,28). Fifty-nine percent fulfilled the criteria for sleep apnea; 52% with first-ever stroke had sleep apnea. More patients with sleep apnea than without were delirious, depressed, or more ADL-dependent. Sleep apnea patients also had a higher frequency of ischemic heart disease and had more often suffered from an earlier cerebral infarction. Multivariate analysis showed that obesity, low ADL scores, ischemic heart disease, and depressed mood were independently associated with sleep apnea. Low ADL scores, apnea-related hypoxemia, body mass index ,27, and impaired vision were independently associated with delirium. The presence of sleep apnea was not associated with any specific type of stroke or location of the brain lesion. CONCLUSIONS:Sleep apnea is common in stroke patients and is associated with delirium, depressed mood, latency in reaction and in response to verbal stimuli, and impaired ADL ability. We suggest a trial investigating whether delirium, depressed mood, and ADL ability improve with nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment of sleep apnea in stroke patients. [source]

    Alterations of liver function test in patients treated with antipsychotics

    M. Teresa Garcia-Unzueta
    Abstract The prevalence of alterations of liver function tests in patients treated with a wide range of antypsychotics is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of antipsychotics on liver function tests in a population of schizophrenic outpatients. Concentrations of AST, ALT, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, and bilirubin were determined in 54 patients fitting DSM-IV criteria of schizophrenia, and the same number of sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. Assessments included the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in addition to treatment related variables. Transaminases concentrations were slightly elevated in study patients compared to healthy controls, but without statistical significance. Alkaline phosphatase showed higher values in schizophrenic patients. Albumin and bilirubin were lower in study patients. Liver function tests abnormalities were found in about 10% of schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics. Treatment with depot phenotiazines induces alteration in these tests more frequently than treatment with other antipsychotics. PANSS negative subscale scores directly correlated with alkaline phosphatase and inversely correlated with albumin. A substantial number of patients in treatment with antipsychotic drugs present alterations of liver function tests. Both pharmacological and clinical factors could be related with these alterations. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 17:216,218, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The reliability and validity of general psychotic rating scales with people with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities: an empirical investigation

    C. Hatton
    Abstract Background Whilst assessment tools have been developed to diagnose schizophrenia in people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs), little attention has been paid to developing reliable and valid dimensional measures of psychotic experiences with this population. This study investigates the reliability and validity of two such measures developed for the general adult psychiatric population, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), with a population of adults with mild IDs. Method Sixty-two adults with mild IDs were interviewed using the PANSS and PSYRATS, and independently interviewed using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule , Adults with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD) to obtain psychiatric diagnoses to the criteria of the International Classification of Diseases , Tenth Revision (ICD-10). On the basis of ICD-10 diagnosis, participants were divided into three groups: psychosis (n = 11); other mental health problem (n = 14); no mental health problem (n = 37). PANSS and PSYRATS subscale scores were compared across these three groups and were correlated with PAS-ADD symptom scores across a number of PAS-ADD symptom domains. Results All PANSS and PSYRATS subscales showed adequate internal reliability, largely good test-retest reliability, and logical inter-correlations between subscales. The PANSS positive symptoms and the PSYRATS auditory hallucinations subscales differentiated between the psychosis group and the other groups; the PANSS general symptoms subscale differentiated between the psychosis and no mental health problem groups; and the PANSS negative symptoms and the PSYRATS delusions subscales did not differentiate between the three groups. Conclusions The PANSS and PSYRATS are promising measures for use with people with mild IDs and psychotic experiences, although further investigation of items relating to negative symptoms and delusions is warranted. [source]

    Relationship of psychopathological symptoms and cognitive function to subjective quality of life in patients with chronic schizophrenia

    Kenji Tomida md
    Aims:, The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent of the effects of psychopathological symptoms and cognitive function on quality of life (QOL) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Methods:, Data were obtained using the Japanese Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (JSQLS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) Keio version, and Continuous Performance Test (CPT) for 52 schizophrenia patients. Results:, Stepwise regression analysis showed that PANSS depression/anxiety factors predicted JSQLS psychosocial conditions and motivation/energy, and that WCST Categories Achieved predicted JSQLS symptoms/side-effects. Conclusions:, Psychopathological symptoms and cognitive function affect subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia. If the final goal is treatment that improves QOL in a manner that patients themselves are aware of, clinicians probably need to consider a treatment strategy that improves depression/anxiety symptom. [source]

    Subjective assessments of the quality of life, well-being and self-efficacy in patients with schizophrenia

    Bun Chino md
    Aim:, The present study examined three kinds of subjective assessment scales in the same patient group with schizophrenia to analyze the correlations among scores obtained in relation to the background data. Method:, Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia were examined with the 26-item short form of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHO-QOL 26), Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment: Short Japanese version (SWNS) and Self-Efficacy for Community Life scale (SECL) for subjective assessment scales, five kinds of neurocognitive tests, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for clinical symptom, Social Functioning Scale (SFS), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale for social functioning. Result:, The scores for delusions (components of positive syndrome), anxiety and depression (components of general psychopathology) on the PANSS significantly correlated with QoL and subjective well-being scores. In contrast, the scores for components of negative syndrome were not correlated with the subjective assessment scores. Furthermore, none of the clinical symptom scores were correlated with the score in self-efficacy scale. The SFS and GAF scores were significantly correlated with the subjective assessment scores. There were significant correlations among the scores on the three subjective assessment scales. Conclusion:, Each scale has different features and should be utilized depending upon the expected effect of treatment or the purpose of assessment. The treatments provided to patients must be directed at improving both psychological and social impairments, in order to enhance the social functioning and QoL of patients. [source]

    Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with relapse in schizophrenia

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to examine sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with relapse in schizophrenia. The study group consisted of a convenience sample of 40 schizophrenia patients (20 patients each in relapse and remission). Relapse and remission were defined based on clinical criteria (ICD-10 criteria, course since last episode, and duration of remission) and psychometric criteria (scores on Socio-Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale [SOFAS] and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia [PANSS]). The index group was evaluated after the occurrence of current relapse but within 6 months of its onset. Sociodemographic, current psychopathology (PANSS) and functioning (SOFAS), and other (mainly retrospective) variables were assessed with a specifically designed clinical profile sheet, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Lifetime version, Presumptive Stressful life Events Scale, and World Health Organization Life Chart Schedule for Assessment of Course and Outcome of Schizophrenia. Patients who had relapsed were more symptomatic and exhibited greater dysfunction in comparison to remitted patients. Relapse in schizophrenia was significantly associated with unemployment, number of psychotic episodes, side-effects of medication, and life events score. The present findings suggest that a severe illness (no. psychotic episodes, unemployment), psychological stress and inappropriate treatment (side-effects of medicines) may be causally related to relapse in schizophrenia. However, the possibility that these variables may be caused by relapse or may be explained by a common underlying variable needs to be assessed prospectively. [source]

    Can personality traits help us explain disability in chronic schizophrenia?

    Abstract, Psychotic features have been considered the main determinant of psychosocial function in schizophrenia. However, other variables are likely to affect dysfunction in these patients. The authors' hypothesis is that personality traits in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia differ from traits found in the healthy population and may be associated with disability in this disorder. A total of 62 patients with schizophrenia were evaluated with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Psychotic features were measured with the help of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Disability was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS). A total of 43 healthy subjects were used as controls for personality measurements. Normative data for the study population was also used to evaluate results in patients. Patients with schizophrenia had higher levels of neuroticism (median in percentile 65) and lower levels of extraversion (median in percentile 25) than the healthy population. Results of the TPQ showed higher harm avoidance and lower reward dependence levels compared to the healthy population. After multiple regression tests, negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of disability in patients with schizophrenia. Neuroticism contributed independently to the DAS overall behavior and global judgement subscales scores (more negative symptoms and higher neuroticism resulted in worse functioning), but not to the social role subscale. Outpatients with chronic schizophrenia showed high levels of neuroticism, harm avoidance, and introversion. Neuroticism significantly contributes to the long-term deficits found in patients with schizophrenia. [source]

    Total antioxidant response in patients with schizophrenia

    Abstract, There is a large amount of convincing data demonstrating that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in initiation and development of many different forms of neuropsychiatric disorders. The levels of oxidants and antioxidants in schizophrenia have been evaluated. However, measurements of total antioxidant response (TAR) were not evaluated up to now. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to investigate plasma TAR levels in schizophrenia subtypes. A total of 76 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (SANS and SAPS, respectively) were applied to patients. TAR values were determined in the plasma of normal healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. Plasma TAR levels of each schizophrenia subtype were significantly lower than healthy controls (P < 0.01 for disorganized, residual and undifferentiated subtypes and P < 0.01 for paranoid subtype). When intragroup comparisons were performed, paranoid subtype had higher plasma TAR levels compared to other subtypes (P < 0.01). Accordingly, as a whole group, patients with schizophrenia had lower plasma TAR levels compared to controls. Plasma TAR levels were significantly and negatively correlated with SANS scores, and duration of illness was evaluated but not related to other parameters. Consequently, the present study further emphasizes the growing consideration that free radical damage may have an important etiopathogenetic role on the development of schizophrenia and suggests that decreased plasma total antioxidant levels may be related to the progression of illness. [source]

    Factors disturbing treatment for cancer in patients with schizophrenia

    Abstract Patients with schizophrenia who develop cancer often have a variety of complicated medical and psychiatric problems. Problems associated with receiving a diagnosis of cancer and with understanding or cooperating with medical treatment may develop. Research in managing and treating schizophrenia patients with cancer is scarce. Presented herein is the experience of the authors' consultation,liaison psychiatry service in treating patients with schizophrenia who have cancer, and discussion of the medical management of such cases. Fourteen patients were treated between April 1999 and March 2003 and included patients receiving consultation psychiatric services at Shimane University Hospital as well as patients referred from other psychiatric hospitals. These patients were divided into two groups based on whether they were amenable to cancer treatment or not. The treated group consisted of patients who accepted cancer treatment, and the untreated group consisted of patients who refused or interrupted the cancer treatment. The clinical course, clinical psychiatric symptoms, problems in understanding cancer, cancer treatment course and convalescence were retrospectively assessed. Psychiatric symptoms and state were measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The mean of the duration of schizophrenia in these two groups was not significantly different. The mean scores on measures of psychiatric symptoms in each group (treated and untreated) were as follows: BPRS, 45.3 ± 15.4 and 64.9 ± 9.2 (P < 0.05); positive symptoms scores on PANSS, 14.4 ± 8.8 and 20.6 ± 6.0 (NS); negative symptoms scores on PANSS, 20.6 ± 4.7 and 33.6 ± 4.4 (P < 0.01); and total scores on PANSS, 31.7 ± 7.0 and 48.6 ± 7.4 (P < 0.01). Patients with severe negative symptoms had greater difficulty understanding and cooperating with the cancer treatment. Regarding cancer stage, when cancer was discovered, the disease had already advanced and was no longer amenable to first-line treatment. Regarding notification of the diagnosis, it was rarely possible to give sufficiently early notice to patients in the untreated group. The important role of consultation,liaison psychiatrist in treating cancer patients is suggested. Some steps are proposed for managing schizophrenia patients with cancer who are not able to give informed consent. [source]

    A Comparative Study of the Sexual Function of Institutionalized Patients with Schizophrenia

    María José Acuña MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Sexual dysfunction occurs frequently in patients with schizophrenia. Aim., To assess the sexual function of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia and compare it to both that of noninstitutionalized schizophrenic patients as well as patients without any mental illness. Methods., A cross-sectional comparative analysis between three groups: Group A: 75 patients with schizophrenia and/or schizoaffective disorder according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) criteria, admitted into public psychiatric residential facilities; Group B: 41 patients with the same diagnosis who live in the community; Group C: 152 patients with no mental illness attended to by a Primary Care Medical Center. Main Outcome Measures., The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia and Changes in Sexual Function Questionnaire were used to complete the study. Results., When institutionalized patients were compared to the control group, the impairment of sexual function was identified in all areas except Arousal in women and the percentage of dysfunction in Desire-Interest for both sexes. The results for noninstitutionalized schizophrenic males indicated a deficit in Pleasure and Orgasm and in Pleasure and Desire-Frequency for females, when compared with the control group. The overall subscale indicated that 71.2% of males and 57.1% of females in the institutionalized group experienced sexual dysfunction compared with 10% of males and 50% of females in the noninstitutionalized group, and only 12.7% of women in the control group. Conclusions., Most areas of sexual function are impaired among patients with schizophrenia, especially among institutionalized patients. However, their percentage of sexual dysfunction associated with sexual thoughts or fantasies was similar to that of patients without mental illness. Acuña MJ, Martín JC, Graciani M, Cruces A, and Gotor F. A comparative study of the sexual function of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia. J Sex Med 2010;7:3414,3423. [source]

    Effect of TGF- ,1 polymorphism on the susceptibility to schizophrenia and treatment response to atypical antipsychotic agent

    Hwa-Young Lee
    Lee H-Y, Kim Y-K. Effect of TGF- ,1 polymorphism on the susceptibility to schizophrenia and treatment response to atypical antipsychotic agent. Objective: Several studies have suggested that cytokine alterations could be related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF- ,1) is believed to be an important factor in regulation of inflammatory responses and to have anti-inflammatory effects. TGF- ,1 also has trophic effects on dopaminergic neurons. We tested the hypothesis TGF- ,1 is associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Methods: The polymorphisms at codon 10 (T869C) and codon 25 (G915C) of TGF- ,1 were analysed in 99 schizophrenia patients and 130 normal controls. At baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment, clinical symptoms were evaluated on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results: None of the subjects were polymorphic at codon 25. However, the C allele at codon 10 was more frequent in schizophrenia (p = 0.05). Although schizophrenia group showed a higher tendency of allele frequency in the subjects with C allele (p = 0.05), the allelic difference did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons (p = 0.1). PANSS scores showed no significant correlation with genotypes. The genotype distribution was not significantly different between responders and non-responders. However, the C allele was more frequent among responders (p = 0.03). Conclusion: These results suggest that the TGF- ,1 polymorphism is associated with therapeutic response to antipsychotics. However, further studies with larger numbers of subjects are needed to confirm the effect of TGF- ,1 in schizophrenia. [source]

    Effect of quetiapine on cognitive function in schizophrenia: a mismatch negativity potentials study

    Guo-zhen Yuan
    Objective:, The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of quetiapine on abnormalities of early auditory processing in patients with schizophrenia were reflected by mismatch negativity (MMN). Methods:, Subjects were 23 patients with schizophrenia and 23 controls. Psychopathology was rated in patients with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and after 4-week and after 8-week treatments with quetiapine. Auditory stimuli for event-related potentials consisted of 100 ms/1000 Hz standards, intermixed with 100 ms/1500 Hz frequency deviants and 250 ms/ 1000 Hz duration deviants. A stimulus onset asynchrony of each was 300 ms. Electroencephalograph was recorded at Fz. BESA 5.1.8 was used to perform data analysis. MMN waveforms were obtained by subtracting waveforms elicited by standards from those elicited by frequency- or duration-deviant stimuli. Results:, Quetiapine decreased all PANSS scores. Patients showed smaller mean amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN at baseline than did controls. A repeated measure analysis of variance with sessions (i.e. baseline and 4- and 8-week treatments) and MMN type (frequency versus duration) as within-subject factors revealed no significant MMN type or MMN type × session main effect for MMN amplitudes (for MMN type: F = 0.704, df = 1, p = 0.403; for MMN type × session: F = 0.299, df = 2, p = 0.796). Session main effect was significant (F = 3.576, df = 2, p = 0.031). Least square difference tests showed significant differences between MMN amplitudes at 8 weeks and those at both baseline (p = 0.025) and 4 weeks (p = 0.020). MMN amplitudes at 8 weeks were higher than those at baseline. Conclusions:, Quetiapine improved the amplitudes of MMN after the 8-week treatment. MMN offers objective evidence that treatment with the quetiapine may ameliorate preattentive deficits in schizophrenia. [source]

    Reducing delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture: a multi-factorial intervention study

    Background: There is an evident need for improved management of elderly patients with trauma in order to avoid common and troublesome complications such as delirium. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an implementation of a multi-factorial program including intensified pre-hospital and perioperative treatment and care could reduce the incidence of delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture, cognitively intact at admission to the hospital. In addition, we explored the factors that characterize patients who developed delirium. Methods: A prospective, quasi-experimental design was used. A total of 263 patients with hip fracture (,65 years), cognitively intact at admission, were consecutively included between April 2003 and April 2004. On 1 October 2003, a new program was introduced. All patients were screened for cognitive impairment within 30 min after admission to the emergency department using The Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). To screen for delirium, patients were tested within 4 h of admission and thereafter daily, using the Organic Brain Syndrome scale. Results: The number of patients who developed delirium during hospitalization was 74 (28.1%), with a decrease from 34% (45 of 132) in the control group to 22% (29 of 131) in the intervention group (P=0.031). Patients who developed delirium were statistically older, more often had >4 prescribed drugs at admission and scored less well in the SPMSQ test. Conclusion: The use of a multi-factorial intervention program in elderly hip fracture patients, lucid at admission, reduced the incidence of delirium during hospitalization by 35%. [source]

    Are multi family groups appropriate for patients with first episode psychosis?

    A 5-year naturalistic follow-up study
    Rossberg JI, Johannessen JO, Klungsoyr O, Opjordsmoen S, Evensen J, Fjell A, Haahr U, Joa I, Langeveld J, Larsen TK, Melle I, Rund BR, Simonsen E, ten Velden W, Vaglum P, Friis S, McGlashan T. Are multi family groups appropriate for patients with first episode psychosis? A 5-year naturalistic follow-up study. Objective:, To compare outcome over 5 years for patients who participated in multi family groups (MFGs) to those who refused or were not offered participation. Method:, Of 301 first episode psychotic patients aged 15,65 years, 147 participated in MFGs. Outcome was measured by drop-out rates, positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) symptom scores, and duration of psychotic episodes during the follow-up period. Results:, Multi family group participants had a significantly lower drop-out rates at 5-year follow-up than patients who did not participate. However, the MFG participants had significantly less improvement in PANSS positive and excitative symptoms and had significantly longer duration of psychotic symptoms during the follow-up period. Conclusion:, Multi family groups appear to increase the chance of retaining patients in a follow-up study, but adjustment of the programme may be necessary with first episode psychosis patients to meet their needs better. [source]

    An open study of risperidone liquid in the acute phase of schizophrenia

    Reiji Yoshimura
    Abstract An open-label study was performed to investigate the clinical efficacy and mechanisms of risperidone liquid in ameliorating positive symptoms in the acute phase of schizophrenia. Eighty-eight patients (M/F: 50/38; age: 18,74 years;, mean±SD =32±16 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and treated with risperidone liquid (14 patients also used lorazepam) were evaluated with regard to their clinical improvement and extrapyramidal side effects using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and the Simpson and Angus scale (SAS), while plasma concentrations of HVA and MHPG were analysed by HPLC-ECD before and 4 weeks after risperidone liquid administration. Patients showing a 50% or greater improvement in PANSS scores were defined as responders. An improvement in the PANSS scores related to excitement, hostility and poor impulse control was seen within 7 days after administration of risperidone liquid, and an improvement with regard to hallucinatory behaviour and uncooperativeness was seen within 14 days after its administration. Finally, 68% of patients were classified as responders 4 weeks after risperidone liquid administration. The scores of SAS were not changed after risperidone liquid administration. Pretreatment plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) levels in the responders (8.1±2.9,ng/ml) were higher than those in nonresponders (5.9±1.9,ng/ml). In addition, a negative correlation was seen between the changes in plasma HVA levels and the percentage of improvement in PANSS scores. On the other hand, there were no differences between pretreatment plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) levels and those of nonresponders. These results suggest that risperidone liquid is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of acute phase schizophrenic patients, and that efficacy is related to its affects on dopaminergic activity, not noradrenergic activity. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Pacific Islands Families Study: behavioral problems among two-year-old Pacific children living in New Zealand

    Janis Paterson
    Background:, The aim of this study was to determine (1) the prevalence of behavioral problems among two-year-old Pacific children living in New Zealand, (2) ethnic differences in behavioral problems, and (3) relationships between maternal and socio-demographic variables and problem child behavior. Methods:, Data were gathered from the Pacific Islands Families (PIF) Study. Mothers of a cohort of 1398 Pacific infants born in Auckland, New Zealand during 2000 were interviewed when the children were two years of age. Maternal reports (1028) of child behavior were obtained using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results:, In the PIF cohort, 15.6% of children were in the clinical range with one or more deviant scores from the seven syndrome scales, and 14% were in the borderline range. The prevalence rate of internalizing problems was 17.1% in the clinical range and 8.9% in the borderline range. The prevalence rate of externalizing problems was 6.6% in the clinical range and 13.7% in the borderline range. The prevalence rate of total problems was 14.2% in the clinical range and 9.6% in the borderline range. Discipline and maternal education were significantly associated with elevated externalizing scores. Household size, maternal education, cultural orientation, and number of years living in New Zealand were significantly associated with internalizing scores. Child ethnicity was significantly associated with internalizing, externalizing and total problem behavior scores. In the clinical range, child ethnicity and gender were significantly associated with the prevalence of problem behavior. Conclusions:, Cross-ethnicity differences in CBCL scores were found, which illustrates the diversity in the Pacific population in New Zealand. Such findings highlight the way in which preschool behavior problems may vary within specific cultural settings and underscore the need for in-depth research to explore these unique contexts. [source]