Ban

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Ban

  • complete smoking ban
  • smoking ban


  • Selected Abstracts


    WELFARE IMPACT OF A BAN ON CHILD LABOR

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2010
    JORGE SOARES
    This article presents a new rationale for imposing restrictions on child labor. In a standard overlapping generation model where parental altruism results in transfers that children allocate to consumption and education, the Nash-Cournot equilibrium results in suboptimal levels of parental transfers and does not maximize the average level of utility of currently living agents. A ban on child labor decreases children's income and generates an increase in parental transfers bringing their levels closer to the optimum, raising children's welfare as well as average welfare in the short run and in the long run. Moreover, the inability to work allows children to allocate more time to education, and it leads to an increase in human capital. Besides, to increase transfers, parents decrease savings and hence physical capital accumulation. When prices are flexible, these effects diminish the positive welfare impact of the ban on child labor. (JEL D91, E21) [source]


    THE DEMAND FOR CASINO GAMING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO A SMOKING BAN

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 2 2008
    RICHARD THALHEIMER
    This study adds to the limited literature on the demand for casino gaming. The major focus is on the effect of a statewide smoking ban. A system of slot machine demand equations, one each for the three Delaware racinos (racetrack casinos), was developed. The number of slot machines at a racino, at competing in-state racinos, and income were significant demand determinants. Competing out-of-state gaming venues had insignificant effects on gaming demand over the study period. The smoking ban had a significant negative impact on demand, which was not significantly different across the three racinos. The smoking ban reduced gaming demand 15.9%. (JEL L83) [source]


    Insight into the free-radical-scavenging mechanism of hydroxyl-substituent Schiff bases in the free-radical-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes

    CELL BIOCHEMISTRY AND FUNCTION, Issue 6 2007
    You-Zhi Tang
    Abstract This work aimed to explore the mechanism by which hydroxyl-substituent Schiff bases scavenge free-radicals. Thus, four Schiff bases, that is benzylidene aniline (BAN), 2-(phenyliminomethyl)phenol (BAH), 4-benzimidoylphenol (PBH) and 2-benzimidoylphenol (OBH), were applied to protect human erythrocytes against 2,2,-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH)-induced hemolysis. The results revealed that the OH attached to the ortho -position of methylene in Schiff base scavenges 1.46 radicals per molecule, the OH attached to the para -position of the N atom scavenges 2.94 radicals and the OH attached to the ortho -position of the N atom scavenges 3.63 radicals. In addition, four Schiff bases were used together with some familiar antioxidants, such as 6-hydroxyl-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl chroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox), L -ascorbic acid (VC), ,-tocopherol (TOH) and L -ascorbyl-6-laurate (VC-12) in AAPH-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes. It was found that, except for BAN+VC-12, BAH,+,VC-12, OBH,+,VC-12 and PBH+TOH, all the other combinations protected erythrocytes more perfectly than when used individually. This result demonstrated that a promotive protection existed between Schiff base and other antioxidants and this improved their ability to scavenge free-radicals. Finally, IC50 values of the aforementioned Schiff bases together with 2-((o -hydroxylphenylimino) methyl)phenol (OSAP) and 2-((p -hydroxylphenylimino)methyl)phenol (PSAP) were determined by reaction with two radical species, that is, 2,2,-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical (ABTS+·) and 2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The results implied that the molecular framework of a Schiff base and an OH attached to the ortho -position of methylene were apt to reduce radicals, but the OH attached to the aniline ring in a Schiff base was prone to scavenge radicals directly. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF SMOKING BANS ON RESTAURANTS AND PUBS

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2008
    Barrie Craven
    The United Kingdom has recently enacted smoking bans in public places such as restaurants and pubs. Public health advocates argue that bans are necessary because non-smokers need protection from second-hand smoke. Advocates also claim that bans do not exert harm on owners because of a vast empirical literature showing that restaurants and bars in the United States never suffer harm following bans. This paper examines whether these claims are true by developing a model within the Coasian framework whereby owners of businesses have incentives to deal with smoking disputes between smokers and non-smokers. Our model demonstrates that it is incorrect to argue that smoking bans are necessary because the private market has no method of attempting to solve smoking problems. It also predicts that bans exert different effects on different businesses: some will be unaffected while others will experience losses or gains. Our literature review reveals that predictions of differential effects are consistent with the empirical evidence. [source]


    Determinants of Voter Support for a Five-Year Ban on the Cultivation of Genetically Modified Crops in Switzerland

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2008
    Felix Schläpfer
    D62; D72; Q26 Abstract While much effort has been devoted to estimating market premiums for non-genetically modified (GM) food, the results of such research are largely silent about the preferences for the public good aspects, or externalities, of GM food production. For public goods, the closest substitute of private consumption decisions is voting on referenda. In November 2005, 55.7% of 2 million Swiss voters approved a five-year moratorium (ban) on the commercial cultivation of GM plants in Switzerland. The present study examines how individual voting decisions were determined by: (i) socioeconomic characteristics; (ii) political preference/ideology; and (iii) agreement with a series of arguments in favour and against the use of GM plants in Swiss agriculture. The analysis is based on the data of the regular voter survey undertaken after the national-level voting in Switzerland. The results suggest that current concerns about the use of genetically engineered plants in agriculture may not automatically decrease with higher levels of education/knowledge and generational change. Furthermore, analysis of voter motives suggests that public support for a ban on GM crops may be even larger in other countries, where industrial interests in crop biotechnology are less pronounced. [source]


    The Bishops' Ban of 1599 and the Ideology of English Satire

    LITERATURE COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2010
    William R. Jones
    On June 1, 1599, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London banned the further printing of satires, epigrams, and unlicensed histories and plays. Furthermore, the order demanded the immediate recall and burning of specific works, many of which were verse imitations of the Roman satirist Juvenal. Although the order itself lacks specific motivational language, current explanations tend to foreground the potentially obscene and/or libelous nature of the recalled works. Comparatively little attention has been paid, however, to the internal ideologies of the banned satires themselves and to the dialogue between the satires and the cultural and political conditions that inspired them. Instead of an ad hoc response to any one particular transgression, this essay argues for the Ban as an attempt to stem the growing cultural influence of a particularly unorthodox mode of Juvenalian imitative satire expressed most forcefully in John Marston's banned work, The Scourge of Villanie. Marston's rejection of all established belief systems, especially the conservative literary traditions of native English and Horatian imitative satire, in favor of a highly individualistic and indecorous mode of social representation, was simply too ideologically destabilizing for the bishops to tolerate. In support of this reading, two relatively underexplored pieces of evidence are examined: first, the reprieve granted to Joseph Hall's imitative satire entitled Virgidemiarum, which attempts to negotiate an ideologically safe middle-ground between the radical Juvenalian mode and the conservative Horatian tradition; and second, the contemporary reflections on the bishops' prohibition within John Weever's 1599 Epigrams, his 1600 pastoral Faunus and Melliflora, and his 1601 direct attack on Marston in The Whipping of the Satyre. Weever's support of the bishops' actions derives from his identification of the banned Juvenalian mode as not merely morally offensive or personally defamatory, but as a tangible threat to the ideological stability of the English nation. [source]


    Minaret Ban Is a Blow for Tolerance

    NEW PERSPECTIVES QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2010
    AYAAN HIRSI ALI
    To the shock of the world, the mild-mannered Swiss have acted the most radically of any European country out of fear of Muslim immigrants by banning minarets. Was this a blow against tolerance, or for it? Is Islam a European religion, or is Europe a Christian club? Meanwhile, as Turkey becomes more confident in its regional power and Muslim identity it is shaking up some old friends. In this section, two of Europe's most prominent Muslim voices, the foreign minister of Sweden and a top Turkish official try to sort it out. [source]


    Host range, vector relationships and sequence comparison of a begomovirus infecting hibiscus in India

    ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    R. Rajeshwari
    Abstract Hibiscus leaf curl disease (HLCuD) occurs widely in India. Infected hibiscus plants show vein thickening, upward curling of leaves and enations on the abaxial leaf surface, reduction in leaf size and stunting. The commonly-occurring weeds (Ageratum conyzoides, Croton bonplandianum and Euphorbia geniculata), Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa and Nicotiana tabacum (var. Samsun, Xanthi), cotton and tomato were shown to be susceptible to HLCuD. One of the four species of hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) and 75 of the 101 commercial hybrids/varieties grown in the Bangalore area of southern India were also susceptible. Two virus isolates associated with HLCuD from Bangalore, South India (Ban), and Bhubaneswar, North India (Bhu), were detected serologically and by PCR-mediated amplification of virus genomes. The isolates were characterised by sequencing a fragment of DNA-A component (1288 nucleotides) and an associated satellite DNA molecule of 682 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses of these DNA-A sequences clustered them with Old World cotton-infecting begomoviruses and closest to Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV) at 95,97% DNA-A nucleotide identities. The 682-nucleotide satellite DNA molecules associated with the HLCuD samples Ban and Bhu shared 96.9% sequence identity with each other and maximum identity (93.1,93.9% over positions 158,682) with ,1350-nucleotide DNA-, satellite molecules associated with cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan and India (accession nos AJ298903, AJ316038). HLCuD in India, therefore, appears to be associated with strains of CLCuMV, a cotton-infecting begomovirus from Pakistan, which is transmitted in a persistent manner by Bemisia tabaci. [source]


    Lighting the Cavern: ,Alvar Aalto: Through the Eyes of Shigeru Ban'

    ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Issue 4 2007
    Michael Spens
    Abstract Michael Spens has an intimate working knowledge of the buildings of Alvar Aalto having supported a restoration programme for Aalto's Viipuri Library in Russia between 1993 and 1997, which involved professionals from Russia and Finland. Here he offers his thoughts on the recent Aalto exhibition at the Barbican. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    THE IMPACT OF PRICES AND CONTROL POLICIES ON CIGARETTE SMOKING AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS

    CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 2 2001
    C Czart
    Smoking among youths and young adults rose throughout the 1990s. Numerous policies were enacted to try to reverse this trend. However, little is known about the impact these policies have on the smoking behavior of young adults. This article uses a dichotomous indicator of daily smoking participation in the past 30 days, an ordered measure representing the frequency of cigarette consumption, and a quasi-continuous measure of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average to examine the impact of cigarette prices, clean indoor air laws, and campus-level smoking policies on the smoking behaviors of a 1997 cross section of college students. The results of the analysis indicate that higher cigarette prices are associated with lower smoking participation and lower levels of use among college student smokers. Local- and state-level clean indoor air restrictions have a cumulative impact on the level of smoking by current smokers. Complete smoking bans on college campuses are associated with lower levels of smoking among current smokers but have no significant impact on smoking participation. Bans on cigarette advertising on campus as well as bans on the sale of cigarettes on campus have no significant effect on the smoking behavior of college students. [source]


    Bans against corporal punishment: a systematic review of the laws, changes in attitudes and behaviours

    CHILD ABUSE REVIEW, Issue 4 2010
    Adam J. Zolotor
    Abstract Twenty-four countries have passed legislative bans on corporal punishment since the passage of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This systematic review briefly reviews the arguments for corporal punishment bans and the contents and context of the current legal bans. All such bans have occurred in representative governments. Following this background, the paper will examine the impacts of the laws with regard to attitudes regarding corporal punishment and parental discipline behaviours. It is clear from the findings of this systematic review that legal bans on corporal punishment are closely associated with decreases in support of and use of corporal punishment as a child discipline technique. However, it is less clear if such legislative bans always generally precede a decline in popular support for corporal punishment or result from such a decline in popular support. The known impact of such bans on child physical abuse will then be reviewed. The paper concludes with a policy analysis framework for considering new legislation to ban corporal punishment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Hapten,protein binding: from theory to practical application in the in vitro prediction of skin sensitization

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 4 2005
    Maja Divkovic
    In view of the forthcoming European Union ban on in vivo testing of cosmetic and toiletry ingredients, following the publication of the 7th amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, the search for practical, alternative, non-animal approaches is gathering pace. For the end-point of skin sensitization, the ultimate goal, i.e. the development and validation of alternative in vitro/in silico assays by 2013, may be achieved through a better understanding of the skin sensitization process on the cellular and molecular levels. One of the key molecular events in skin sensitization is protein haptenation, i.e. the chemical modification of self-skin protein(s) thus forming macromolecular immunogens. This concept is widely accepted and in theory can be used to explain the sensitizing capacity of many known skin sensitizers. Thus, the principle of protein or peptide haptenation could be used in in vitro assays to predict the sensitization potential of a new chemical entity. In this review, we consider some of the theoretical aspects of protein haptenation, how mechanisms of protein haptenation can be investigated experimentally and how we can use such knowledge in the development of novel, alternative approaches for predicting skin sensitization potential in the future. [source]


    African elephants: the effect of property rights and political stability

    CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 1 2000
    MA. McPherson
    African elephant populations have declined by more than 50% over the past 20 years. International outrage over the slaughter led to a worldwide ban on ivory sales beginning in 1989, despite the objections of many economists and scientists, and of several southern African countries that have established systems of property rights over elephants. Far from declining, elephant populations in many of these countries have increased to levels at or above the carrying capacity of the ecosystem. This article estimates the determinants of changes in elephant populations in 35 African countries over several time periods. The authors find that, controlling for other factors, countries with property rights systems of community wildlife programs have more rapid elephant population growth rates than do those countries that do not. Political instability and the absence of representative governments significantly lower elephant growth rates. [source]


    A retrospective evaluation of the impact of total smoking cessation on psychiatric inpatients taking clozapine

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2010
    I. Cormac
    Cormac I, Brown A, Creasey S, Ferriter M, Huckstep B. A retrospective evaluation of the impact of total smoking cessation on psychiatric inpatients taking clozapine. Objective:, To investigate the effect of a complete smoking ban on a group of psychiatric inpatients maintained on the antipsychotic medication clozapine. Method:, Retrospective data on clozapine dose and plasma levels were collected from a three month period before and a six month period after the introduction of the smoking ban. Results:, Before the ban only 4.2% of patients who smoked had a plasma clozapine level ,1000 ,g/l but after the ban this increased to 41.7% of the sample within the six month period following the ban despite dose reductions. Conclusion:, Abrupt cessation of smoking is associated with a potentially serious risk of toxicity in patients taking clozapine. Plasma clozapine levels must be monitored closely and adjustments made in dosage, if necessary, for at least six months after cessation. [source]


    Analyses of second-generation ,legal highs' in the UK: Initial findings

    DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 8 2010
    Simon D. Brandt
    Abstract In the UK, mephedrone and other so-called ,legal high' derivatives have recently been classified as Class B, Schedule I under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Since then, alternative products have been advertised on a number of websites. In order to obtain an immediate snapshot of the situation, 24 products were purchased online from 18 UK-based websites over a period of 6 weeks following the ban in April 2010. Qualitative analyses were carried out by gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry using electron- and chemical ionization modes, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and comparison with reference standards. Overall, the purchased products consisted of single cathinones or cathinone mixtures including mephedrone, butylone, 4-methyl- N -ethylcathinone, flephedrone (4-fluoromethcathinone) and MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone), respectively. Benzocaine, caffeine, lidocaine, and procaine were also detected. The emphasis was placed on ,Energy 1' (NRG-1), a product advertised as a legal replacement for mephedrone-type derivatives usually claiming to contain naphyrone (naphthylpyrovalerone, O-2482). It was found that 70% of NRG-1 and NRG-2 products appeared to contain a mixture of cathinones banned in April 2010 and rebranded as ,new' legal highs, rather than legal chemicals such as naphyrone as claimed by the retailers. Only one out of 13 NRG-1 samples appeared to show analytical data consistent with naphyrone. These findings also suggest that both consumers and online sellers (unlike manufacturers and wholesalers) are, most likely unknowingly, confronted with the risk of criminalization and potential harm. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    WELFARE IMPACT OF A BAN ON CHILD LABOR

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2010
    JORGE SOARES
    This article presents a new rationale for imposing restrictions on child labor. In a standard overlapping generation model where parental altruism results in transfers that children allocate to consumption and education, the Nash-Cournot equilibrium results in suboptimal levels of parental transfers and does not maximize the average level of utility of currently living agents. A ban on child labor decreases children's income and generates an increase in parental transfers bringing their levels closer to the optimum, raising children's welfare as well as average welfare in the short run and in the long run. Moreover, the inability to work allows children to allocate more time to education, and it leads to an increase in human capital. Besides, to increase transfers, parents decrease savings and hence physical capital accumulation. When prices are flexible, these effects diminish the positive welfare impact of the ban on child labor. (JEL D91, E21) [source]


    THE DEMAND FOR CASINO GAMING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO A SMOKING BAN

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 2 2008
    RICHARD THALHEIMER
    This study adds to the limited literature on the demand for casino gaming. The major focus is on the effect of a statewide smoking ban. A system of slot machine demand equations, one each for the three Delaware racinos (racetrack casinos), was developed. The number of slot machines at a racino, at competing in-state racinos, and income were significant demand determinants. Competing out-of-state gaming venues had insignificant effects on gaming demand over the study period. The smoking ban had a significant negative impact on demand, which was not significantly different across the three racinos. The smoking ban reduced gaming demand 15.9%. (JEL L83) [source]


    Child Labour and Resistance to Change

    ECONOMICA, Issue 287 2005
    Giorgio Bellettini
    We study the interaction between technological innovation, investment in human capital and child labour. In a two-stage game, first firms decide on innovation, then households decide on education. In equilibrium the presence of inefficient child labour depends on parameters related to technology, parents' altruism and the diffusion of firms' property. Child labour is due either to firms' reluctance to innovate or to households' unwillingness to educate, or both. In some cases, compulsory schooling laws or a ban on child labour are welfare-reducing, whereas a subsidy for innovation is the right tool to eliminate child labour and increase welfare. [source]


    Progression of oral snuff use among Finnish 13,16-year-old students and its relation to smoking behaviour

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2006
    Ari Haukkala
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine the progression of oral moist snuff use among adolescents and its relation to smoking behaviour and nicotine addiction. Design and setting A 3-year smoking prevention study in 27 schools of Helsinki, Finland, starting with the seventh grade to the ninth grade., Participants and measurements Pupils (n = 2816) completed questionnaires four times, which included information on smoking behaviour, snuff experiments, nicotine addiction (Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire) and other activities. Findings The prevalence of snuff experimentation rose among boys from 7% in the seventh grade to 43% 3 years later in the ninth grade, and among girls from 2% to 13% for the corresponding period. Among boys, smoking predicted later snuff use in all assessments and snuff experimentation predicted later weekly smoking. The impact of snuff experimentation upon later smoking experimentation was smaller than vice versa. Among boys active in sports, smoking was less common but snuff use was more common. Combined use was common; by the end of the follow-up only 10% of weekly smokers had not tried oral snuff. Nicotine dependence scores increased linearly with snuff use among weekly smokers., Conclusions Despite the European Union sales ban on oral snuff products since 1995, in Finland snuff use is common among boys. Although combined use of snuff and cigarettes is associated with higher levels of nicotine dependence among adolescent boys, the direction of causality is not known. Unlike cigarette smoking, oral snuff use was tried among boys who spent their free time with sports-related activities. [source]


    The Emerging Role of the European Commission in Merger and Acquisition Monitoring: The Boeing,McDonnell Douglas Case

    EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2001
    Nihat Aktas
    The object of this study is to evaluate the consequences of the application of the EEC Regulation 4064/89 to non,European companies. We focus on the Boeing,McDonnell Douglas merger case, one of the first non,European mergers considered by the Commission. The analysis of abnormal returns on the two securities shows that the threat of a ban of the merger by the Commission were not perceived as credible at first. But when Boeing decided to ask the support of the American government, just after the decision of the European Commission to extend its investigations to the long term exclusivity contracts, the role of the Commission emerged. [source]


    OUT-OF-COURT STATEMENTS BY VICTIMS OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE TO MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAMS: A CONFRONTATION CLAUSE ANALYSIS

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
    Jonathan Scher
    Acknowledging the rapid growth of child sexual abuse in the United States, this Note advocates for the recognition of a limited exception to the blanket-hearsay ban on out-of-court statements made by unavailable declarants set out by the Supreme Court in Crawford v. Washington. In order to protect a criminal defendant's Sixth Amendment confrontation right, Crawford requires that hearsay evidence that is "testimonial" in nature be deemed inadmissible if the witness is unavailable and the defendant does not have a prior opportunity to cross-examine the witness against him. However, Crawford noted that, where nontestimonial hearsay is at issue, cross-examination may not be necessary. Accordingly, where a child sexual abuse victim makes statements during a structured or semi-structured forensic interview to a member of a multidisciplinary team, these statements should be deemed nontestimonial and thus admitted into evidence, without requiring cross-examination of the child. Allowing for this exception to the general hearsay ban in Crawford is not only consistent with current precedent, but it is also warranted to promote public policy and to curb the negative impact such abuse has on society. [source]


    Using molecular and quantitative variation for assessing genetic impacts on Nucella lapillus populations after local extinction and recolonization

    INTEGRATIVE ZOOLOGY (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2006
    Isabelle Colson
    Abstract The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus is a predatory marine gastropod living on rocky shores in the North Atlantic. As with many other gastropod species, Nucella was affected by tributyltin (TBT) pollution during the 1970s and 1980s, and local populations underwent extinction. After a partial ban on TBT in the UK in 1987, vacant sites have been recolonized. Levels of genetic diversity and quantitative genetic variation in shell form were compared between recolonized sites and sites that showed continuous population at three localities across the British Isles. Overall, estimates of genetic diversity were only slightly lower in recolonized populations, suggesting that populations have recovered from previous impacts due to the relatively high levels of migration from non-impacted sites. Molecular and quantitative analyses are broadly concordant and a positive correlation was observed (although not statistically significant) between molecular and quantitative estimates of genetic diversity, indicating the potential usefulness of quantitative methods to complement molecular population genetics analyses. [source]


    ON THE DISTRIBUTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD LABOR LEGISLATION*

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2005
    Dirk Krueger
    This article studies the effects of child labor legislation on human capital accumulation and the distribution of wealth and welfare. We calibrate our model to U.S. data circa 1880 and find that the consequences of restricting child labor or providing tax-financed education depend on the main source of individual household income. Households with significant financial assets unambiguously lose from government intervention, whereas high-wage workers benefit most from a child labor ban, and low-wage workers benefit most from free education. Introducing free education results in substantial welfare gains, whereas a child labor ban induces small welfare losses. [source]


    Smoking: suicide for some, manslaughter for others , time for a ban in all public places

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2004
    Graham Jackson
    [source]


    Cigarette pack and advertising displays at point of purchase: community demand for restrictions

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSUMER STUDIES, Issue 6 2008
    Jacqueline A. Hickling
    Abstract Tobacco promotion influences tobacco consumption. Traditional forms of tobacco promotion have been heavily restricted in response to the harmful effects of tobacco. Tobacco displays at the point of purchase are increasingly important as a means of communicating brand imagery for the tobacco industry, especially when advertising is restricted at these points. Previous research has demonstrated that children exposed to tobacco advertising at the point of purchase have inflated perceptions of availability, use and popularity of tobacco. Internationally, laws are being debated and implemented to prohibit or restrict the display of tobacco at the point of purchase or put tobacco out of sight. Such measures would reduce tobacco product exposure and, hence, tobacco marketing among youth and the community. In South Australia, a ban on all cigarette advertising at the point of purchase was introduced in 2005. This study was designed to assess community support for restrictions on cigarette displays and advertising at the point of purchase. A telephone survey was conducted with a random sample of 2026 South Australian adults (aged 18 years and over) in July 2005. Overall, 63% of the community approved of a hypothetical total ban on cigarette displays at the point of purchase, with over three-quarters believing this should happen in the next 12 months. A further 24% believed that cigarette displays should be restricted and 82% would approve of a ban on displays in stores that sell confectionary. Only 7% of adult smokers reported making their decision about the brand of cigarettes to buy at the point of purchase and 90% made their decision before they even entered the shop. The results strengthen arguments that cigarette displays are not necessary to maintain brand loyalty or to encourage brand switching of established smokers. Instead, the results make arguments more credible that cigarette displays normalize and promote smoking among young people and may also promote unplanned purchase or increased consumption among less frequent smokers or former smokers. Placing cigarettes out of sight would be unlikely to impact on brand choice for most smokers, who have already made up their mind before they enter the store. [source]


    Determinants of Voter Support for a Five-Year Ban on the Cultivation of Genetically Modified Crops in Switzerland

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2008
    Felix Schläpfer
    D62; D72; Q26 Abstract While much effort has been devoted to estimating market premiums for non-genetically modified (GM) food, the results of such research are largely silent about the preferences for the public good aspects, or externalities, of GM food production. For public goods, the closest substitute of private consumption decisions is voting on referenda. In November 2005, 55.7% of 2 million Swiss voters approved a five-year moratorium (ban) on the commercial cultivation of GM plants in Switzerland. The present study examines how individual voting decisions were determined by: (i) socioeconomic characteristics; (ii) political preference/ideology; and (iii) agreement with a series of arguments in favour and against the use of GM plants in Swiss agriculture. The analysis is based on the data of the regular voter survey undertaken after the national-level voting in Switzerland. The results suggest that current concerns about the use of genetically engineered plants in agriculture may not automatically decrease with higher levels of education/knowledge and generational change. Furthermore, analysis of voter motives suggests that public support for a ban on GM crops may be even larger in other countries, where industrial interests in crop biotechnology are less pronounced. [source]


    Evaluation of supplementary stevia (Stevia rebaudiana, bertoni) leaves and stevioside in broiler diets: effects on feed intake, nutrient metabolism, blood parameters and growth performance

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 6 2008
    J. O. Atteh
    Summary A perennial schrub, stevia, and its extracts are used as a natural sweetener and have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties. Stevia contains high levels of sweetening glycosides including stevioside which is thought to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Little is known about the nutritional value of the schrub in livestock. This study determined the potential use of the shrub as a prebiotic animal feed supplement in light of the recent ban on the use of antibiotics in animal feed and the role of its constituent stevioside in the effects of the shrub. Male Cobb broiler chicks were fed a basal broiler diet without antibiotic but with performance enhancing enzyme mix (positive control), a basal diet without antibiotic and enzymes (negative control), or diets in which 2% of the negative control diet was replaced with either dried ground stevia leaves or 130 ppm pure stevioside during 2 week starter and 2 week grower periods. Body weight gains, feed conversion, abdominal fat deposition, plasma hormone and metabolites and caecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in the broilers at 2 and 4 weeks of age. There was no significant effect of the treatments on feed intake during the starter period but birds fed diet supplemented with stevia leaves and stevioside consumed more feed (p < 0.05) than those fed the positive control diet during the grower period. Weight gain by birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was higher (p < 0.05) than those fed other diets only during the starter period. Feed/gain ratio of birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was superior (p < 0.05) to others. There was no effect of the treatments on nutrient retention and water content of the excreta. Dietary stevia leave and stevioside decreased total concentration of SCFA and changed their profile in the ceca. There was no effect of the treatments on pancreas weight. Dietary stevia reduced blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and triiodothyronine (T3) but had no effect on non-esterified fatty acids. In contrast, stevioside only decreased T3. Both the stevia leaves and stevioside diets significantly increased abdominal fat content. It is concluded that dietary enzyme growth promoters are beneficial to the broilers only during the starter stage and that inclusion of stevia leaves or stevioside has no beneficial effect on the performance of broilers. [source]


    Sturgeon aquaculture in China: status of current difficulties as well as future strategies based on 2002,2006/2007 surveys in eleven provinces

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    By R. Li
    Summary A nationwide survey in July and August 2007 employed a representative sample of Chinese sturgeon farms from 2002,2006/2007, including data from previous surveys and official statistics dating back to 1998, showing that the development of China's sturgeon aquaculture has progressed steadily in the past few years. Acipenser baerii and Amur hybrids (Acipenser schrenckii × Huso dauricus) have become the dominant cultured species, accounting for 80% of total production. Production centers moved from the southeastern coast towards the midwestern inland provinces, where cold freshwater resources are available in abundance. The paper presents production trends as well as the price structure for commercial fish/meat and juveniles in the various provinces and also considers import and export data for products, fertilized eggs and fingerlings. Results show that: (i) production of juveniles in hatcheries has risen only slightly during the survey period; (ii) the number of larvae obtained from the wild gradually declines each year; (iii) the price for commercial fish/meat drastically declined between 1998 to 2002, but remained stable from 2002 to 2007; and (iv) total production from the 83 surveyed farms was almost stable from 2002 to 2007. Major problems influencing sustainable development of sturgeon aquaculture were identified, including: (i) insufficient domestic supply of larvae and the ban for commercial use of A. sinensis; (ii) disorganized hybridization; (iii) the potential threat to the genetics of natural stocks in the Yangtze River; (iv) diseases originating from environmental pollution and poor-quality fish feed; (v) limited domestic markets; (vi) low volume of sturgeon export due to lack of intensive processing; and (vii) lack of organizational structure in the industry. [source]


    Attitudes towards Sexuality, Sterilization and Parenting Rights of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 4 2002
    M. Aunos
    Background and Methods We review articles pertaining to attitudes towards sexuality, sterilization, procreation and parenting by people with intellectual disabilities. Most empirical studies were conducted after the appearance of the principles of normalization and role valorization in the 1970s. Results Across studies, special education teachers and university students appear to hold more positive attitudes towards sexuality and sexuality education programs than parents and service workers. People with intellectual disabilities have conservative attitudes towards sexual intercourse and homosexuality, but may be accepting intimate contact by familiar persons. Despite the ban on involuntary sterilization, it appears that many parents and teachers of persons with intellectual disabilities still support it as a form of contraception, especially for persons with severe intellectual disabilities. Likewise, attitudes towards parenting by persons with intellectual disabilities remain negative, and these attitudes may adversely affect the provision of competency-enhancing supports and services for parents with intellectual disabilities and their children. Conclusions It is recommended that new studies should be undertaken, comparing attitudes across different groups involved with persons with intellectual disabilities and examining the impact of prejudicial attitudes on sexual expression and parenting by persons with intellectual disabilities. [source]


    Early age reproduction in female savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) after severe poaching

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    M. J. Owens
    Abstract A 10-year study revealed that after severe poaching (>93% killed) of elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Zambia's North Luangwa National Park (NLNP) during the 1970s and 1980s, the age of reproduction in females was greatly reduced. Fifty-eight per cent of births were delivered by females aged 8.5,14 years, an age at which elephants were reported to be sexually immature in nearby South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) before poaching. The mean age of females at first birth (AFB) (1993, 1994) was 11.3 years. Prior to poaching, the mean age AFB in SLNP was 16 years. The NLNP age structure and sex ratio were skewed, mean family unit size was reduced, and 37% of family units contained no females older than 15 years. Twenty-eight per cent of family units were comprised entirely of a single mother and her calf, and 8% of units consisted only of orphans who would have been considered sexually immature prior to poaching. Only 6% of survivors were older than 20 years, the age at which females in little-poached populations generally become most reproductively active. After a community-based conservation programme and the UN-CITES ban on the ivory trade were introduced, no elephants were recorded killed. In spite of a high reproductive rate, 6 years after poaching decreased, the density of the NLNP population had not increased, supporting predictions that the removal of older matriarchs from family units will have serious consequences on the recovery of this species. Résumé Une étude qui a duré dix ans a révélé qu'après un braconnage très grave (>93% tués) des éléphants (Loxodonta africana) dans le Parc National de Luangwa Nord (NLNP), en Zambie au cours des années 1970 et 1980, l'âge de la reproduction chez les femelles a fort baissé. Cinquante-huit pour cent des naissances se sont passées chez des femelles qui avaient entre 8,5 et 14 ans, un âge auquel les éléphants étaient dits être encore sexuellement immatures dans le Parc National de Luangwa Sud (SLNP), tout proche, avant le braconnage. L'âge moyen des femelles à la première mise-bas (AFB ,at first birth) (1993, 1994) était de 11,3 ans. Avant le braconnage, l'âge moyen à la première mise-bas était de 16 ans au SLNP. Au NLNP, la structure d'âge et le sex-ratio ont été faussés, la taille moyenne de l'unité familiale a été réduite, et 37% des familles ne contiennent aucune femelle de plus de 15 ans. Vingt-huit pour cent des unités familiales n'étaient composées que d'une mère seule et de son jeune, et huit pour cent n'étaient composées que d'orphelins qui devaient être considérés comme sexuellement immatures avant le braconnage. Seuls six pour cent des survivants avaient plus de 20 ans, l'âge auquel les femelles de populations peu braconnées deviennent généralement les plus actives en matière de reproduction. Après l'introduction d'un programme de conservation communautaire et l'interdiction, par la CITES-UN, du commerce de l'ivoire, on n'a plus enregistré aucun massacre d'éléphant. Malgré un taux élevé de reproduction, la densité de population du NLNP n'a pas augmenté, ce qui conforte les prédictions que l'enlèvement des plus vieilles matriarches des unités familiales aura de sérieuses conséquences sur la restauration de cette espèce. [source]