Survey

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Survey

  • Self-administer survey
  • acoustic survey
  • alcohol survey
  • all-sky survey
  • ambulatory medical care survey
  • american breeding bird survey
  • analytical survey
  • annual survey
  • anonymous survey
  • archaeological survey
  • area survey
  • article survey
  • assessment survey
  • attitude survey
  • automate survey
  • baseline survey
  • behavior survey
  • beneficiary survey
  • biodiversity survey
  • biological survey
  • bird survey
  • breeding bird survey
  • brief survey
  • british geological survey
  • british household panel survey
  • budget survey
  • california health interview survey
  • canadian community health survey
  • canadian national population health survey
  • care survey
  • chandra survey
  • child survey
  • citizen survey
  • clinical survey
  • cluster survey
  • cohort survey
  • community health survey
  • community respiratory health survey
  • community survey
  • comorbidity survey
  • comparative survey
  • completed survey
  • complex survey
  • comprehensive survey
  • consumer expenditure survey
  • consumer survey
  • contingent valuation survey
  • country survey
  • critical survey
  • cross sectional survey
  • cross-sectional descriptive survey
  • cross-sectional household survey
  • cross-sectional mail survey
  • cross-sectional postal survey
  • cross-sectional questionnaire survey
  • cross-sectional survey
  • cross-sectional telephone survey
  • current beneficiary survey
  • current population survey
  • current survey
  • deep sky survey
  • deep survey
  • delphi survey
  • demographic survey
  • dental health survey
  • descriptive survey
  • detailed survey
  • development survey
  • digital sky survey
  • diversity survey
  • drug strategy household survey
  • dutch national survey
  • e-mail survey
  • ecological survey
  • election survey
  • electronic survey
  • empirical survey
  • employee relations survey
  • employee survey
  • employment relation survey
  • epidemiologic survey
  • epidemiological survey
  • european community respiratory health survey
  • european social survey
  • examination survey
  • expenditure panel survey
  • expenditure survey
  • exploratory survey
  • extensive survey
  • family expenditure survey
  • field survey
  • first look survey
  • first survey
  • fish survey
  • follow-up survey
  • follow-up telephone survey
  • force survey
  • form health survey
  • form survey
  • form-36 health survey
  • frequency survey
  • galaxy redshift survey
  • galaxy survey
  • general household survey
  • general social survey
  • genetic survey
  • genome-wide survey
  • geological survey
  • geophysical survey
  • global survey
  • gradiometer survey
  • ground survey
  • ground-penetrating radar survey
  • habitat survey
  • health examination survey
  • health interview survey
  • health survey
  • historical survey
  • hospital ambulatory medical care survey
  • hospital survey
  • household expenditure survey
  • household panel survey
  • household survey
  • imaging survey
  • independent survey
  • infant health survey
  • initial survey
  • international survey
  • internet survey
  • interview survey
  • italian survey
  • item health survey
  • item short form health survey
  • item short-form health survey
  • item survey
  • labour force survey
  • large survey
  • large-scale survey
  • legacy survey
  • life survey
  • line-transect survey
  • literature survey
  • local survey
  • longitudinal survey
  • look survey
  • magnetic survey
  • mail survey
  • mailed survey
  • medical care survey
  • medical expenditure panel survey
  • medicare current beneficiary survey
  • mental health survey
  • molecular survey
  • multicenter survey
  • national alcohol survey
  • national comorbidity survey
  • national drug strategy household survey
  • national epidemiologic survey
  • national health interview survey
  • national health survey
  • national hospital ambulatory medical care survey
  • national household survey
  • national longitudinal survey
  • national population health survey
  • national postal survey
  • national sample survey
  • national survey
  • national telephone survey
  • nationwide postal survey
  • nationwide survey
  • new survey
  • north american breeding bird survey
  • nutrition examination survey
  • nutrition survey
  • observational survey
  • on-line survey
  • online survey
  • opinion survey
  • oral health survey
  • original survey
  • other survey
  • outcome survey
  • pain survey
  • panel survey
  • paper survey
  • patient survey
  • phone survey
  • pilot survey
  • polarization survey
  • population genetic survey
  • population health survey
  • population survey
  • postal questionnaire survey
  • postal survey
  • practice survey
  • preliminary survey
  • present survey
  • prevalence survey
  • previous survey
  • prospective survey
  • public opinion survey
  • published survey
  • quantitative survey
  • question survey
  • questionnaire survey
  • radar survey
  • recent national survey
  • recent survey
  • redshift survey
  • regional survey
  • relation survey
  • relations survey
  • representative survey
  • research survey
  • resistivity survey
  • respiratory health survey
  • retrospective survey
  • risk behavior survey
  • sample survey
  • satisfaction survey
  • scale survey
  • school survey
  • second dutch national survey
  • second survey
  • sectional survey
  • seismic survey
  • self-administered survey
  • self-report survey
  • separate survey
  • serological survey
  • sf-36 health survey
  • short form health survey
  • short form survey
  • short form-36 health survey
  • short-form health survey
  • similar survey
  • skeletal survey
  • sky survey
  • sloan digital sky survey
  • social attitude survey
  • social survey
  • soil survey
  • spanish national health survey
  • spatial survey
  • spectroscopic survey
  • staff survey
  • statewide survey
  • status survey
  • strategy household survey
  • student survey
  • subsequent survey
  • systematic survey
  • telephone interview survey
  • telephone survey
  • temporal survey
  • this survey
  • time-lapse survey
  • tobacco survey
  • topographic survey
  • tracking survey
  • u.s. geological survey
  • uk survey
  • valuation survey
  • value survey
  • vegetation survey
  • vibration survey
  • victimization survey
  • visual survey
  • web survey
  • wide-field survey
  • workplace employee relations survey
  • workplace employment relation survey
  • world value survey
  • x-ray survey
  • youth risk behavior survey
  • youth survey

  • Terms modified by Survey

  • survey administration
  • survey area
  • survey completion
  • survey consisting
  • survey data
  • survey data release
  • survey day
  • survey design
  • survey development
  • survey distributed
  • survey effort
  • survey estimate
  • survey evidence
  • survey finding
  • survey i
  • survey information
  • survey instrument
  • survey instruments
  • survey interview
  • survey item
  • survey line
  • survey measure
  • survey method
  • survey methodology
  • survey methods
  • survey participant
  • survey period
  • survey project
  • survey question
  • survey questionnaire
  • survey research
  • survey respondent
  • survey response
  • survey response rate
  • survey result
  • survey reveal
  • survey sample
  • survey schedule
  • survey show
  • survey shows
  • survey site
  • survey studies
  • survey study
  • survey system
  • survey technique
  • survey techniques
  • survey tool
  • survey used

  • Selected Abstracts


    WAGE PENALTIES AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION: AN UPDATE USING THE GENERAL SOCIAL SURVEY

    CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 2 2009
    BRENDAN CUSHING-DANIELS
    This study uses data from the 1988 to 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) to examine the effects of sexual orientation on earnings. Previous research using the GSS has found that lesbians earn 18%,23% more than similarly qualified heterosexual women and that wage penalties for gay men are slightly larger than the premia for lesbians. Using behavioral definitions of sexual orientation based on the previous year and the previous 5 yr of sexual activity, we find the familiar wage premia/penalties for lesbian/gay workers in our ordinary least squares estimations, but we find that these wage differences are falling over time. Furthermore, in contrast to the earlier results, for our regressions over the entire sample period, correcting for differential selection into full-time work reduces the estimated penalties for unmarried gay men and eliminates the entire wage premium for all lesbians. There is now a sizeable, though imprecisely measured, penalty for some lesbians. (JEL J1, J3, J7) [source]


    LANGUAGE-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS ESTIMATION: EVIDENCE FROM A MAIL SURVEY

    CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 1 2008
    XIAOLIN REN
    In contingent valuation studies, failing to accommodate populations with limited language skills might yield biased estimates. In the United States, there are many residents primarily fluent in Spanish. This study uses conditional logit models applied to data from a bilingual (English and Spanish) conjoint choice mail survey to evaluate the effects of language proficiency on estimates of the economic benefits of contaminated site cleanup. Results indicate that language does have significant effects on welfare estimates. The results suggest that mail surveys addressing environmental issues that may affect a linguistically diverse population should be designed at the outset with multiple languages in mind. (JEL Q51, J19) [source]


    PUBLIC PREFERENCES FOR REHABILITATION VERSUS INCARCERATION OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS: EVIDENCE FROM A CONTINGENT VALUATION SURVEY,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 4 2006
    DANIEL S. NAGIN
    Research Summary: Accurately gauging the public's support for alternative responses to juvenile offending is important, because policy makers often justify expenditures for punitive juvenile justice reforms on the basis of popular demand for tougher policies. In this study, we assess public support for both punitively and nonpunitively oriented juvenile justice policies by measuring respondents' willingness to pay for various policy proposals. We employ a methodology known as "contingent valuation" (CV) that permits the comparison of respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for competing policy alternatives. Specifically, we compare CV-based estimates for the public's WTP for two distinctively different responses to serious juvenile crime: incarceration and rehabilitation. An additional focus of our analysis is an examination of the public's WTP for an early childhood prevention program. The analysis indicates that the public is at least as willing to pay for rehabilitation as punishment for juvenile offenders and that WTP for early childhood prevention is also substantial. Implications and future research directions are outlined. Policy Implications: The findings suggest that lawmakers should more actively consider policies grounded in rehabilitation, and, perhaps, be slower to advocate for punitive reforms in response to public concern over high-profile juvenile crimes. Additionally, our willingness to pay findings offer encouragement to lawmakers who are uncomfortable with the recent trend toward punitive juvenile justice policies and would like to initiate more moderate reforms. Such lawmakers may be reassured that the public response to such initiatives will not be hostile. Just as importantly, reforms that emphasize leniency and rehabilitation can be justified economically as welfare-enhancing expenditures of public funds. The evidence that the public values rehabilitation more than increased incarceration should be important information to cost-conscious legislators considering how to allocate public funds. Cost-conscious legislatures may become disenchanted with punitive juvenile justice policies on economic grounds and pursue policies that place greater emphasis on rehabilitation. They may be reassured, on the basis of our findings, that the public will support this move. [source]


    AUSTRALIAN EARLY RETIREMENT TAX BIASES PRIOR TO JULY 2007 AND THE LIKELY EFFECTS OF TAX REFORM ON RETIREMENT PLANS

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 3 2008
    BRUCE FELMINGHAM
    We develop a simulation model explaining the accrual of retirement wealth gained from working one year beyond retirement and from this calculate an implicit tax rate on the additional year's work. We find that the pre-July 2007 Australian tax on retirement benefits was biased in favour of ages 59 and less, while the implicit rate was positive on retirement past 59. We also use the results of a national survey of 2,500 households (ASRAM SURVEY) to determine the likely response to the tax changes implemented in July 2007 and find that half those sampled are either very likely or likely to change their expected retirement dates in response to the tax changes. [source]


    STUDENTS, PERCEPTIONS OF WORKSHOP BASED INTRODUCTORY MACROECONOMICS TUTORIALS: A SURVEY

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 3 2006
    AMEETA JAIN
    The declining popularity of Economics courses, evident in the last decade, has fuelled a debate on the nature of Economics units and the way in which they are taught in tertiary institutions. The effectiveness of traditional teaching methods has been questioned as ,lecturers search for alternative ways of presenting material and engaging students. In recent times, workshop-based/cooperative tutorials have become more popular in promoting deeper learning. This paper assesses the application of such an approach at a large tertiary institution. It evaluates student perceptions of this tutorial method in an Introductory Macroeconomics first-year unit. An anonymous questionnaire was used. Whilst the sample size is small (n = 56), the results are important in that this is the first such study in Macroeconomics. Students found workshop-based tutorials useful, preferred them over lecture style tutorials, and found that they fostered inclusivity. The importance of tutorials per se, is reiterated. Students state that tutorials are an important adjunct to lectures. This study also looks at students' study habits: finding that on average they spend less than one hour per week studying Economics and most prepare only occasionally for tutorials. The sample studied indicates that there are notable differences in the perceptions of tutorials and teaching methods between the genders and between local and international students. This may impact on the way in which tutorials are conducted effectively. [source]


    WHAT BUSINESS STUDENTS THINK OF ECONOMICS: RESULTS FROM A SURVEY OF SECOND YEAR STUDENTS

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 1 2002
    PAUL AZZALINI
    First page of article [source]


    THE FITNESS EFFECT OF MUTATIONS ACROSS ENVIRONMENTS: A SURVEY IN LIGHT OF FITNESS LANDSCAPE MODELS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2006
    Guillaume Martin
    Abstract The fitness effects of mutations on a given genotype are rarely constant across environments to which this genotype is more or less adapted, that is, between more or less stressful conditions. This can have important implications, especially on the evolution of ecological specialization. Stress is thought to increase the variance of mutations' fitness effects, their average, or the number of expressed mutations. Although empirical evidence is available for these three mechanisms, their relative magnitude is poorly understood. In this paper, we propose a simple approach to discriminate between these mechanisms, using a survey of empirical measures of mutation effects in contrasted environments. This survey, across various species and environments, shows that stress mainly increases the variance of mutations effects on fitness, with a much more limited impact on their average effect or on the number of expressed mutations. This pattern is consistent with a simple model in which fitness is a Gaussian function of phenotypes around an environmentally determined optimum. These results suggest that a simple, mathematically tractable landscape model may not be quantitatively as unrealistic as previously suggested. They also suggest that mutation parameter estimates may be strongly biased when measured in stressful environments. [source]


    STILL A PATCHWORK QUILT: A NATIONWIDE SURVEY OF STATE LAWS REGARDING STEPPARENT RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2010
    Susan L. Pollet
    This article surveys state laws regarding stepparents and stepchildren throughout the United States with regard to custody and visitation rights, child support obligations, adoption and inheritance rights. It provides background information, statistics and general definitions regarding stepparents, a review of some of the psychological and legal literature, information regarding websites and articles for the general public on the topic, and a description of the survey of the states nationwide. Finally, it provides some suggestions regarding future goals for the law in this arena. [source]


    A NATIONWIDE SURVEY OF MANDATORY PARENT EDUCATION*

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
    Susan L. Pollet
    In an effort to take positive steps toward coping with problems for families and children created by high levels of separation and divorce, ever increasing civil caseloads and the exposure of children to interparental conflict, court-affiliated educational programs have emerged in the United States for parents separating from their spouse or partner or going through a divorce. This article will provide an overview of the creation of such programs and their development, which includes a discussion regarding the numerous states currently mandating parents to attend. It will summarize some of the research which has been conducted as to the efficacy of the programs and will provide the results of our nationwide research for each state's parent education status. There is a discussion of domestic violence issues and sensitivities in the context of parent education programs and possible future directions for mandatory parent education. [source]


    THE DEMAND FOR BEER, WINE AND SPIRITS: A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 3 2010
    James Fogarty
    Abstract The demand for alcohol literature is vast and much conflicting information about the nature of the demand for alcoholic beverages has been published. This paper presents a survey of the literature, and then uses the technique of meta-regression analysis to establish insights into the nature of the demand for beer, wine and spirits. Unlike previous meta-studies of the demand for alcoholic beverages this study adjusts for the precision of each elasticity estimate. The analysis presented suggests reported elasticity estimates will be influenced by such factors as estimation technique, data frequency and time period under consideration. With respect to time, the findings suggest that the demand for alcoholic beverages has become less inelastic since the mid-1950s and that the income elasticity has been falling since the mid-1960s. The analysis also found support for the idea that alcohol as a commodity group is a necessity, and that consumers respond to price discounting with inventory behaviour rather than true substitution behaviour. Little support is found for the idea that the demand for alcoholic beverages varies fundamentally across most countries, although wine may be an exception. [source]


    HUMAN CAPITAL MEASUREMENT: A SURVEY

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 2 2010
    Giuseppe Folloni
    Abstract After a short history of the concept of human capital (henceforth HC) in economic thought (Section 1), this study presents the two main methods for estimating the value of the stock of HC , the retrospective and prospective one , with a review of the models proposed (Section 2). These methods are linked both to the theory of HC investment as a rational choice (Section 3), the literature analysing the contribution of HC investment to economic growth and the HC estimating method through educational attainment (Section 4). The more recent literature on HC as a latent variable is also assessed (Section 5) and a new method of estimation where HC is seen both as an unknown function of formative indicators and as a ,latent effect' underlying earned income is proposed (Section 6). Section 7 concludes. [source]


    AN EMPIRICAL SURVEY OF RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMAND MODELLING

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 5 2008
    Andrew C. Worthington
    Abstract The increased reliance on demand-side management policies as an urban water consumption management tool has stimulated considerable debate among economists, water utility managers, regulators, consumer interest groups and policymakers. In turn, this has fostered an increasing volume of literature aimed at providing best-practice estimates of price and income elasticities, quantifying the impact of non-price water restrictions and gauging the impact of non-discretionary environmental factors affecting residential water demand. This paper provides a synoptic survey of empirical residential water demand analyses conducted in the last 25 years. Both model specification and estimation and the outcomes of the analyses are discussed. [source]


    ENTREPRENEURS' LOCATION CHOICE AND PUBLIC POLICIES: A SURVEY OF THE NEW ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 5 2008
    Fabien Candau
    Abstract The aim of this paper is to survey what has been done by the New Economic Geography (NEG) on a regional scale in order to answer the three following questions: What are the predictions of the NEG concerning the future of regions in the triad? Are these predictions robust? What can be the optimal public policy on a regional and national scale in a world characterized by agglomeration, trade liberalization and mobility of entrepreneurs? In surveying the most recent contributions in this area, the paper sheds light on several shortcomings of the NEG literature in order to point out new directions for further research, with particular reference to studies concerning welfare and tax competition. [source]


    AUTOREGRESSIVE CONDITIONAL DURATION MODELS IN FINANCE: A SURVEY OF THE THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL LITERATURE

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 4 2008
    Maria Pacurar
    Abstract This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the main theoretical developments in autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) modeling and empirical studies using financial data. First, we discuss the properties of the standard ACD specification and its extensions, existing diagnostic tests, and joint models for the arrival times of events and some market characteristics. Then, we present the empirical applications of ACD models to different types of events, and identify possible directions for future research. [source]


    A SURVEY OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE LITERATURE OF FINANCE AND GROWTH

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 3 2008
    James B. Ang
    Abstract This paper provides a survey of the recent progress in the literature of financial development and economic growth. The survey highlights that most empirical studies focus on either testing the role of financial development in stimulating economic growth or examining the direction of causality between these two variables. Although the positive role of finance on growth has become a stylized fact, there are some methodological reservations about the results from these empirical studies. Several key issues unresolved in the literature are highlighted. The paper also points to several directions for future research. [source]


    MARGINAL COMMODITY TAX REFORMS: A SURVEY

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 4 2007
    Alessandro Santoro
    Abstract As noted 30 years ago by Martin Feldstein, optimal taxes may be useless for practical purposes and emphasis should instead be placed on the possibility of enhancing welfare by reforming existing tax rates. In this perspective, marginal commodity tax reforms are gaining increasing attention due to political and economic constraints on large reforms of direct (or indirect) taxation. In this paper, we summarize the main features and results of the literature on marginal commodity tax reforms pioneered by Ahmad and Stern, further developed by Yitzhaki and Thirsk and recently reinterpreted by Makdissi and Wodon. We establish new links to other fields of research, namely the literature on the use of equivalence scales and on poverty measurement. We also critically examine some issues associated with the implementation of marginal tax reforms with special reference to the calculation of welfare weights and revenue effects. Finally, we suggest directions for future research on poverty-reducing commodity tax reforms. [source]


    A SURVEY OF THE QUALITY OF SIX RETAIL BRANDS OF BONELESS, SKINLESS CHICKEN BREAST FILLETS OBTAINED FROM RETAIL SUPERMARKETS IN THE ATHENS, GEORGIA AREA,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 6 2007
    HONG ZHUANG
    ABSTRACT To assess the variation in quality of chicken breast fillets available from retail supermarkets, six brands of boneless, skinless fillets without additives were obtained from the fresh counter at grocery stores in Athens, GA, and the surrounding area during fall of 2005. The samples were stored at ,20C and subsequently cooked using a Henny Penny MCS-6 combi oven (Henny Penny Corp., Eaton, OH). Quality parameters of the fillets were measured on the cooked chicken breast fillets including cook yield, descriptive sensory flavor and texture profiling, and Warner,Bratzler (WB) shear force. Our results show that the average cook yield ranged from 78.1 to 80.9%, the average intensity of individual descriptive sensory characteristics was less than 5.4 in a 0,15 universal scale, and WB shear force values were less than 5.2 kg. There were no significant differences in the intensity among brands of all flavor attributes and the texture characteristics associated with moisture. However, significant differences were found among the brands for cook yield, mechanical properties of texture (including springiness, cohesiveness, hardness and chewiness) and WB shear force values. The variation of WB shear force measurements (coefficient of variation) depended on brand. These results indicate that differences exist in the quality and shear force consistency among market brands of boneless, skinless chicken breast fillets available in Athens, GA, and the surrounding area. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study is the first survey reported to evaluate the quality of boneless, skinless chicken breast products without additives in U.S. retail market. This study supplies the evidence that the intensity of sensory quality is mild of cooked boneless, skinless chicken breast products and there are the differences in the quality among the different retail brands obtained by consumers. [source]


    A SURVEY OF THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA AND OTHER ENTERIC PATHOGENS IN A COMMERCIAL POULTRY FEED MILL

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2003
    PAUL WHYTE
    ABSTRACT A study of the prevalences of Salmonella, Listeria and thermophilic campylobacters in a dedicated commercial poultry feed mill was undertaken. Salmonella was frequently recovered in samples taken in the preheat and postheat treatment areas of the mill with the overall percentage of samples positive found to be 18.8% and 22.6%, respectively. Feed ingredients and dust collected in the preheat treatment locations within the mill were frequently contaminated with Salmonella (11.8% and 33.3% of samples, respectively). High prevalences of Salmonella were also detected in dust samples (24.2%) obtained from the postheat treatment area of the mill and from feed delivery vehicles (57.1%). Listeria was also recovered from samples at pre- and postheat treatment areas within the mill with overall isolation rates of 14.1% and 18.5% observed, respectively. The most frequently observed species of Listeria recovered from samples in both areas within the mill was L. innocua, L. monocytogenes, L. grayi and L. welshimeri. No thermophilic campylobacters were recovered from any of the samples analyzed in the current study. [source]


    SURVEY OF APPLE GROWING, HARVESTING, AND CIDER MANUFACTURING PRACTICES IN WISCONSIN: IMPLICATIONS FOR SAFETY

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2000
    HEIDI E. ULJAS
    ABSTRACT To evaluate the safety of current apple growing, harvesting and cider manufacturing practices in Wisconsin, cider manufacturers were contacted in a three-phase survey. Results revealed that seasonal, small-scale production was characteristic of the industry. Most cider mills produced less than 5,000 gal/year; only 6% produced more than 20,000 gal/year. Most cider makers used only tree picked apples (86%), inspected apples before washing (94%), washed (93%) and brushed (87%) apples, but only 16% of mills sanitized washed apples. Most mills (92%) sanitized cider making equipment after each use; however, only a few sanitized between custom pressing apples from different customers. Respondents reported that they strived to improve cider safety by pasteurization (43% of all cider), UV light treatment (4%), use of preservatives (30%), and HACCP (17%). For 31% of all cider, however, processors relied solely on refrigeration and/or freezing. These results show that most cider mills practice many steps believed to enhance cider safety, but results also identify procedures that must be addressed to further improve cider safety. [source]


    SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF THE ORGANIC-WALLED DINOFLAGELLATE CYST PRODUCTION IN THE COASTAL UPWELLING REGION OFF CAPE BLANC (MAURITANIA): A FIVE-YEAR SURVEY,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Karin A. F. Zonneveld
    A 5-year sediment trap survey in the upwelling area off Cape Blanc (NW Africa) provides information on the seasonal and annual resting cyst production of dinoflagellates, their sinking characteristics and preservation potential. Strong annual variation in cyst production characterizes the region. Cyst production of generally all investigated species, including Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax (Biecheler) T. Horig. ex T. Kita et Fukuyo (cyst genus Impagidinium) and Gonyaulax spinifera (Clap. et J. Lachm.) Diesing (cyst genus Nematosphaeropsis) was enhanced with increasing upper water nutrient and trace-element concentrations. Cyst production of Lingulodinium polyedrum (F. Stein) J. D. Dodge was the highest at the transition between upwelling and upwelling-relaxation. Cyst production of Protoperidinium americanum (Gran et Braarud) Balech, Protoperidinium monospinum (Paulsen) K. A. F. Zonn. et B. Dale, and Protoperidinium stellatum (D. Wall) Balech, and heterotrophic dinoflagellates forming Brigantedinium spp. and Echinidinium aculeatum Zonn., increased most pronouncedly during upwelling episodes. Production of Protoperidinium conicum (Gran) Balech and Protoperidinium pentagonum (Gran) Balech cysts and total diatom valves were related, providing evidence of a predator,prey relationship. The export cyst-flux of E. aculeatum, P. americanum, P. monospinum, and P. stellatum was strongly linked to the flux of total diatom valves and CaCO3, whereas the export production of Echinidinium granulatum Zonn. and Protoperidinium subinerme (Paulsen) A. R. Loebl. correlated with total organic carbon, suggesting potential consumption of diatoms, prymnesiophytes, and organic matter, respectively. Sinking velocities were at least 274 m d,1, which is in range of the diatom- and coccolith-based phytoplankton aggregates and "slower" fecal pellets. Species-selective degradation did not occur in the water column, but on the ocean floor. [source]


    SURVEY ON VIOLENCE AND AGGRESSION PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN EUROPEAN RENAL UNITS

    JOURNAL OF RENAL CARE, Issue 2 2010
    Alessandra Zampieron RN
    SUMMARY Goals: This descriptive survey aims to explore strategies for the prevention and management of violence and aggression in renal units in 12 European countries. Method: The convenience sample consisting of dialysis, nephrological and transplantation units in European countries was used. A questionnaire, developed with the collaboration of National Associations, was used. Data were analysed using STATA software. A preliminary descriptive variable analysis was performed followed by a verification of the association between variables; values of p < 0.002 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 436 completed questionnaires were received (participation rate: 22%). Written policies and procedures regarding violence and aggression are present in 18% of units. Educational strategies are available in less than 20% of units. Incidents are prevented by security staff (48%) or pharmacological treatment (66%). Incident reporting is mandatory for any violent and aggressive behaviour in 66% of units. There are differences between European countries. Discussion and conclusion: Violence and aggression prevention and management strategies are not widely implemented throughout Europe. The dissemination of information on the prevention and management of violence and aggression is vital. [source]


    COMPARISON OF HSPF OUTPUTS USING FTABLES GENERATED WITH FIELD SURVEY AND DIGITAL DATA,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 5 2006
    Nathan Staley
    ABSTRACT: The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) describes discharge from a stream reach based on function tables (FTABLES) that relate stream stage, surface area, volume, and discharge. For this study, five FTABLE scenarios were compared to assess their effect on daily discharge rates predicted using HSPF. Four "field-based" FTABLE scenarios were developed using detailed cross section surveys collected at predefined intervals along 14 reaches in the study watershed. A fifth "digital-based" scenario was developed using digital elevation models (DEMs) and Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Regional Hydraulic Geometry Curves. The Smirnov k-sample test was used to compare average daily discharge rates simulated with HSPF using the five FTABLE scenarios. No significant difference in simulated stream discharge was found (p = 0.99) between the five FTABLE scenarios. Additional examination of the four field-based scenarios revealed that the number of cross sections per stream reach used to generate FTABLES had little effect on the resulting stage discharge relationship. These findings suggest that FTABLES generated using digital data are a viable option when simulating stream discharge with HSPF and that if field data are used to generate FTABLES, using fewer cross sections will not adversely affect simulated discharge predictions. [source]


    USING MARYLAND'S STREAM CORRIDOR ASSESSMENT SURVEY TO PRIORITIZE WATERSHED RESTORATION EFFORTS,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 4 2002
    Kenneth T. Yetman
    ABSTRACT: The Stream Corridor Assessment survey has been developed by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources as a watershed management tool to identify environmental problems and to help prioritize restoration opportunities on a watershed basis. Potential environmental problems commonly identified during the survey include: stream channel alterations, excessive bank erosion, exposed pipes, inadequate stream buffers, fish migration blockages, trash dumping sites, near stream construction, pipe outfalls, and unusual conditions. In addition, the survey records information on the location of potential wetlands creation sites and collects data on the general condition of instream and riparian habitats. Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Maryland Conservation Corps, watershed associations, and local governments, more than 3,293 km (2,046 miles) of Maryland streams have been surveyed. Overall, the survey has proven to be a cost effective starting point for many watershed restoration efforts. [source]


    MULTIPLE RATERS IN SURVEY-BASED OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT RESEARCH: A REVIEW AND TUTORIAL

    PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2000
    Kenneth K. Boyer
    Research in the area of operations strategy has made significant progress during the past decade in terms of quantity of articles published, as well as the quality of these articles. Recent studies have examined the published literature base and determined that, in general, the field has progressed beyond an exploratory stage to a point where there is a core set of basic terminology and models. Concurrent with the formation and solidification of a core terminology, there is an increasing emphasis on developing and employing a set of reliable, valid, and reproducible methods for conducting research on operations strategy. We provide a review of common methods for assessing the degree of reliability and agreement of the responses provided by multiple raters within a given organization to a set of qualitative questions. In particular, we examine four methods of determining whether there is evidence of disagreement or bias between multiple raters within a single organization in a mail survey. [source]


    SURVEY OF MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE, TRAUMATIC COMPARTMENT SYNDROME OF THE LEG IN AUSTRALIA

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 9 2007
    Christopher J. Wall
    Background: Acute compartment syndrome is a serious and not uncommon complication of limb trauma. The condition is a surgical emergency and is associated with significant morbidity if not diagnosed promptly and treated effectively. Despite the urgency of effective management to minimize the risk of adverse outcomes, there is currently little consensus in the published reports as to what constitutes best practice in the management of acute limb compartment syndrome. Methods: A structured survey was sent to all currently practising orthopaedic surgeons and accredited orthopaedic registrars in Australia to assess their current practice in the management of acute, traumatic compartment syndrome of the leg. Questions were related to key decision nodes in the management process, as identified in a literature review. These included identification of patients at high risk, diagnosis of the condition in alert and unconscious patients, optimal timeframe and technique for carrying out a fasciotomy and management of fasciotomy wounds. Results: A total of 264 valid responses were received, a response rate of 29% of all eligible respondents. The results indicated considerable variation in management of acute compartment syndrome of the leg, in particular in the utilization of compartment pressure measurement and the appropriate pressure threshold for fasciotomy. Of the 78% of respondents who regularly measured compartment pressure, 33% used an absolute pressure threshold, 28% used a differential pressure threshold and 39% took both into consideration. Conclusions: There is variation in the management of acute, traumatic compartment syndrome of the leg in Australia. The development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines may be beneficial. [source]


    AUSTRALASIAN SURVEY OF SPLIT SKIN GRAFT DONOR SITE DRESSINGS

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 2 2000
    Patrick W. Lyall
    Background: There is an ever increasing array of products available for wound dressings. The aim of the present study was to establish which dressings should be used as standard controls for future studies; what factors are regarded as most important in assessing a dressing; what the level of satisfaction is with the available products; what the strengths and weaknesses of the commonly used dressings are; and what dressings would be preferred if cost were no issue. Methods: A postal survey was sent to every plastic and reconstructive surgeon registered in Australasia (n = 217). A total of 53% responded. Results: The most commonly used dressing type overall is the calcium alginates, despite the fact that they were not the highest performing dressings. This is also the most commonly used in Australia. In contrast scarlet red is still used most commonly in New Zealand. The level of satisfaction with the most commonly used dressing varied very little. The factor regarded most important was patient comfort level. A profile of the commonly used dressing was constructed. Calcium alginates and or scarlet red should be used as the control for new product comparisons. Conclusions: Most of the respondents were satisfied with their preferred dressing and were not interested in trying alternative dressings. [source]


    RURAL DOCTORS, SATISFACTION IN JAPAN: A NATIONWIDE SURVEY

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2004
    Masatoshi Matsumoto
    Objectives: The purpose of this paper was to discover to what degree Japanese rural doctors are satisfied with various aspects of their jobs and lives, and to find out whether they intend to continue their rural careers. Design: Nationwide postal survey Setting: Public clinics or hospitals in municipalities that are authorised as ,rural' by the national government. Subjects: A total of 4896 doctors working for public clinics or hospitals. Interventions: Self-evaluation questionnaires were mailed. The rural doctors were asked to evaluate their satisfaction with 19 items related to their job conditions and 10 items concerning life conditions, using a four-point scale. They also were asked to evaluate their intent to stay in rural practice until retirement. Results: The response rate was 64%. Overall, rural doctors were satisfied with both their work and life conditions. However, only 27% of respondents hoped to continue rural practice beyond the usual age of retirement. Among job-related items, continuing medical education and interactions with municipal governments were rated as least satisfactory. Among lifestyle-related items, duration of holidays and workload were unsatisfactory. Subgroup analysis revealed male doctors showed greater intent to stay in rural practice. Doctors aged > 50 years were more satisfied with most aspects of their job and lifestyle than younger doctors. A strong correlation was found between the degree of intent to stay and several items such as interactions with municipal government, human interactions salary and job fulfilment. Conclusions: Strategies, based on the results of this survey, should be implemented. Particularly in Japan, positive interaction between doctors and municipal governments is crucial. [source]


    CANCER INPATIENTS MORPHINE USAGE: A NEW ENGLAND AREA SURVEY

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2003
    John Trollor
    ABSTRACT:,This is a one year study of the use of morphine in cancer patients in 10 inpatient facilities in the New England Area Health Service in the north-west of New South Wales. The study explored 170 admissions relating to 122 patients, most of whom were cared for by their general practitioners. The use of morphine in these cancer patients was compared with the recommendations made by the expert working group of the European Association of Palliative Care.1 Those items which matched the recommendations included the initial doses for new users of morphine and the subcutaneous route being the preferred parenteral route. The data in this study differed from the recommendations in that only half of the patients received the immediate release morphine when first given oral morphine, only 43% had orders for immediate release oral morphine for breakthrough pain (with a variable frequency) and a significant number of orders for parenteral and immediate release oral morphine for breakthrough pain were outside the recommended doses (100% and 86.2%, respectively). Written orders for immediate release oral and parenteral morphine involved a dose range in significant numbers while only 30% of patients had orders for parenteral morphine for breakthrough pain. There was a low use of fixed interval variable dose (FIVD) morphine charts despite these being available in most facilities. (See summary Appendix A.) [source]


    CURRENT OPINION AMONGST RADIOLOGISTS AND UROLOGISTS IN THE UK ON PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROSTOMY AND URETERIC STENT INSERTION FOR ACUTE RENAL OBSTRUCTION: RESULTS OF A POSTAL SURVEY

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 6 2007
    Deen P Sharma
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONAL SURVEYS: JUDICIOUS ANTIBIOTIC USE IN MINNESOTA LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 3 2007
    Pamala Gahr MPH
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]