Supportive Care (supportive + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Uncertainty in Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer: Implications for Supportive Care

Maya Shaha
Purpose:The aim of this paper was to identify and explore the literature for key aspects of uncertainty experienced by patients who have been diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Organizing Construct: Throughout the cancer journey important decisions are made about treatments, symptom control, and supportive care and many approaches have been adopted to examine coping and uncertainty associated with a cancer diagnosis. Uncertainty and its associated attributes, such as stress or anxiety, fluctuate across the disease trajectory. To appreciate the changing nature of uncertainty one should consider its effect on specific patient groups by considering the available evidence. Methods: A comprehensive literature search that was focused on reviews and studies about uncertainty in cancer patients was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL. In total, 40 articles were identified that indicated uncertainty in patients with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer, although the emphasis in each differed according to the nature and treatment of the disease. Findings: Uncertainty was found to comprise three main themes: uncertainty because of limited or lack of information, uncertainty concerning the course and treatment choices related to the disease, and uncertainty related to everyday life and coping with the disease. Conclusions: Uncertainty influences patients' experiences of their cancer and their coping. Whilst it might be impossible to avoid uncertainty entirely, its negative effects might be ameliorated by understanding patients' specific needs along the disease trajectory of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. [source]

Perspectives on cancer therapy-induced mucosal injury

CANCER, Issue S9 2004
Pathogenesis, consequences for patients, epidemiology, measurement
Abstract BACKGROUND A frequent complication of anticancer treatment, oral and gastrointestinal (GI) mucositis, threatens the effectiveness of therapy because it leads to dose reductions, increases healthcare costs, and impairs patients' quality of life. The Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and the International Society for Oral Oncology assembled an international multidisciplinary panel of experts to create clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of mucositis. METHODS The panelists examined medical literature published from January 1966 through May 2002, presented their findings at two separate conferences, and then created a writing committee that produced two articles: the current study and another that codifies the clinical implications of the panel's findings in practice guidelines. RESULTS New evidence supports the view that oral mucositis is a complex process involving all the tissues and cellular elements of the mucosa. Other findings suggest that some aspects of mucositis risk may be determined genetically. GI proapoptotic and antiapoptotic gene levels change along the GI tract, perhaps explaining differences in the frequency with which mucositis occurs at different sites. Studies of mucositis incidence in clinical trials by quality and using meta-analysis techniques produced estimates of incidence that are presented herein for what to our knowledge may be a broader range of cancers than ever presented before. CONCLUSIONS Understanding the pathobiology of mucositis, its incidence, and scoring are essential for progress in research and care directed at this common side-effect of anticancer therapies. Cancer 2004;100(9 Suppl):1995,2025. 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]

Supportive care in pancreatic carcinoma patients with the fermented mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract Iscador treatment

H Matthes

Lead toxicosis in the horse: A review

B. Puschner
Summary Lead intoxication is rarely diagnosed in horses and can present a major challenge to the equine practitioner because of the variety of clinical signs. Horses with lead poisoning can develop gastrointestinal disturbances, neurological abnormalities, haematological changes, or nonspecific signs of weight loss, weakness and rough hair coat, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead analysis of whole blood is routinely available and can confirm intoxication. Because of the well-described lead-induced peripheral neuropathies in horses, a thorough neurological examination is essential in the investigation of a suspect case. Once diagnosed, the source of lead has to be identified and further exposure prevented. Intoxication can be treated by administering chelating drugs and providing symptomatic and supportive care. [source]

Developing practice in cancer rehabilitation

S. ACREMAN msc, consultant practitioner
This module explores the concept of rehabilitation and supportive care in a cancer context. It examines policy and practice that inform rehabilitation in cancer care in England and considers how rehabilitation and supportive care issues can be addressed in clinical practice. [source]

Therapeutic approaches for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients in the era of novel drugs

Fortunato Morabito
Abstract The treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved rapidly over recent years. The availability of new effective drugs with novel mechanisms of action, such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib in the last decade, has resulted in a new scenario expected to impact favorably on the outcome of patients with MM. The introduction of new drugs in the treatment of patients eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has allowed for a significant increase of complete response rate with a positive impact on progression-free survival. In patients not eligible for ASCT, randomized trials have shown that both thalidomide and bortezomib when combined with melphalan and prednisone (MP) are superior to MP and are now considered the standard of care. Ongoing trials are assessing whether MP plus lenalidomide or the combination of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone should be considered an attractive treatment option, while additional studies are needed to determine the role of routine maintenance or consolidation therapy with these new drugs. This new therapeutic armamentarium in light of adequate prophylaxis and supportive care allows clinicians to greatly improve the survival perspectives for both young and elderly patients. In this review, we report updated data for the front-line therapy of MM, examining the role of new drugs either when administered as induction therapy before ASCT in younger patients or when combined with alkylating agents for the treatment of older patients. The most relevant articles on therapy of MM published from November 1982 to January 2010 (selected through PubMed), and recent meeting abstracts were used as sources for this review. [source]

Present status and perspectives regarding the therapeutic strategy for acute myeloid leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma in the elderly

Masatsugu Ohta
The incidence of cancers increases with advancing age. To improve the quality of life of elderly patients with hematological malignancies, appropriate therapeutic approaches have to be provided under adequate informed consent and with evaluation of the prognostic factors that predict the therapeutic outcome of each disease. Even in elderly patients, combination chemotherapies are effective for obtaining a good outcome for selected populations judged by factors such as performance status, pre-existing comorbid conditions or disease features; however, non-intensive treatment or supportive care might also be considered for patient groups with a poor prognosis. Therefore, the clinical parameters of the relevance for treatment decisions in the elderly are herein addressed. During cancer treatment, attention must be paid to the presence of age-related organ dysfunction, drug resistance, drug-induced side-effects such as end organ-targeted toxicity, or neutropenia due to myelosuppression by cytotoxic drugs. Current therapeutic approaches are therefore expected to have good compliance and better outcome in elderly patients by the introduction of several molecularly targeted therapies, novel nucleoside analogs or non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation. [source]

Spontaneous resolution of acquired factor V inhibitor associated with ovarian carcinoma

Summary A 74-year-old lady who presented initially with loin pain and haematuria, then melaena was found to have a prothrombin time ratio (PTR) > 10 and activated partial thromboplastin time ratio (APTTR) > 7. A factor V inhibitor was diagnosed. She was managed with supportive care and the FV inhibitor resolved. A few weeks later she developed abdominal swelling and ascites and was found to have an ovarian tumour. This is the first case, as far as we are aware, of a malignancy-associated FV antibody that has spontaneously remitted before overt presentation of the tumour and illustrates the value of adopting an expectant approach to the management of acquired FV inhibitors. [source]

Spontaneous splenic haematoma in a multiple myeloma patient receiving pegfilgrastim support

Summary Growth factors are a significant advance in the supportive care of patients with cancer with a wide range of indications. Frequent side effects of G-CSF include bone pain, headache, fatigue and nausea. We report a case of subcapsular splenic haematoma following pegfilgrastim administration in a 65-year old patient with multiple myeloma. Proposed mechanisms accounting for splenic enlargement include extramedullary haemopoiesis, intrasplenic infiltration by mature and immature myeloid cells and intrasplenic stem cell homing and proliferation. The risk of spontaneous splenic rupture is difficult to quantify. Physicians should be aware of this life-threatening condition and early diagnosis can be difficult since anemia and splenomegaly are common findings in haematologic patients. [source]

Fournier's gangrene: Report of thirty-three cases and a review of the literature

Background:, Fournier's gangrene (FG) is an extensive fulminant infection of the genitals, perineum or the abdominal wall. The aim of this study is to share our experience with the management of this difficult infectious disease. Methods:, Thirty-three male patients were admitted to our clinic with the diagnosis of FG between February 1988 and December 2003. The patient's age, etiology and predisposing factors, microbiological findings, duration of hospital stay, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups. The first 21 patients (Group I) were treated with broad-spectrum triple antimicrobial therapy, broad debridement, exhaustive cleaning, and then they underwent split-thickness skin grafts or delayed closure as needed. The other 12 patients (Group II) were treated with unprocessed honey (20,50 mL daily) and broad-spectrum triple antimicrobial therapy without debridement. Their wounds were cleaned with saline and then dressed with topical unprocessed honey. The wounds were inspected daily and the honey was reapplied after cleaning with normal saline. Then, the patients' scrotum and penis were covered with their own new scrotal skin. Results:, The mean age of the patients was 53.9 9.56 years (range = 23,71). The source of the gangrene was urinary in 23 patients, cutaneous in seven patients, and perirectal in three patients. The predisposing factors included diabetes mellitus for 11 patients, alcoholism for 10 patients, malnutrition for nine patients, and medical immunosuppression (chemotherapy, steroids, malignancy) for three patients. The mean duration of hospital stay was 41 10.459 (range = 14,54) days. Two patients in Group I died from severe sepsis. The clinical and cosmetic results were better in Group II than Group I. Conclusions:, Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genitalia is a severe condition with a high morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, good management is based on aggressive debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and intensive supportive care but unprocessed honey might revolutionize the treatment of this dreadful disease by reducing its cost, morbidity, and mortality. [source]

A concept analysis of renal supportive care: the changing world of nephrology

Helen Noble
Abstract Title.,A concept analysis of renal supportive care: the changing world of nephrology Aim., This paper is a report of a concept analysis of renal supportive care. Background., Approximately 15 million people worldwide are kept alive by renal dialysis. As services are required to support patients who decide not to start or to withdraw from dialysis, the term renal supportive care is emerging. Being similar to the terms palliative care, end-of-life care, terminal care and conservative management, there is a need for conceptual clarity. Method., Rodgers' evolutionary method was used as the organizing framework for this concept analysis. Data were collected from a review of CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences and ASSIA (1806,2006) using, ,renal' and ,supportive care' as keywords. All articles with an abstract were considered. The World Wide Web was also searched in English utilizing the phrase ,renal supportive care'. Results., Five attributes of renal supportive care were identified: available from diagnosis to death with an emphasis on honesty regarding prognosis and impact of disease; interdisciplinary approach to care; restorative care; family and carer support and effective, lucid communication to ensure informed choice and clear lines of decision-making. Conclusion., Renal supportive care is a dynamic and emerging concept relevant, but not limited to, the end phase of life. It suggests a central philosophy underpinning renal service development that allows patients, carers and the multidisciplinary team time to work together to realize complex goals. It has relevance for the renal community and is likely to be integrated increasingly into everyday nephrology practice. [source]

The role of specialist and general nurses working with people with multiple sclerosis

Alison While
Aim., To describe the perceived role of nurses and other carers of people with multiple sclerosis from the perspective of different stakeholders (people with multiple sclerosis, non-specialist nurses, specialist nurses and other health care professionals). Background., Multiple sclerosis is one of the commonest causes of disability in young adults. People with multiple sclerosis require supportive care during the disease trajectory. The role of different health and social care providers has not been reported previously. Design., Survey. Method., Questionnaire data collected in 2002 during the first phase of scale development (health professionals n = 459; people with multiple sclerosis n = 65; total response rate 594%). The data were reanalysed to compare responses across sample groups. Results., There was consensus that neurologists and specialist nurses were the most appropriate professionals in the provision of specialist care with specialist nurses also being identified as key providers of emotional support. However, there were also significant differences in nominations reflecting the different perspectives of the stakeholder groups and a self-report bias. Each stakeholder group frequently emphasised their own perceived contribution to care. The different perspective of people with multiple sclerosis was also noteworthy with their greater emphasis on social care and lay support. Conclusions., The findings indicate a dissonance in the views of different stakeholders within the care system. The division of labour associated with nursing care requires further exploration. The contrasting paradigms of health care professionals and people with multiple sclerosis regarding models of disability were highlighted. Relevance to clinical practice., Multiple sclerosis, like other chronic illnesses, requires substantial nursing care. There is a growing number of specialist nurses in the workforce, however, little is known how their role interfaces with other nurses. [source]

Health-related quality of life in persons with long-term pain after a stroke

Marita Widar MSc
Background., No study has, to our knowledge, previously been published on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a group suffering from long-term pain after a stroke. Aim., The aim of the present study was to describe HRQoL in persons with long-term pain after a stroke, and to compare this with different types of pain conditions, age, gender and household status. Design., This study has a design combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Methods., Forty three participants suffering from long-term pain after a stroke were included. A qualitative interview was performed and then analysed by means of latent content analysis. In addition, two self-report questionnaires, SF-36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale), were used. Results., The qualitative data revealed that physical and cognitive functioning, economic security and good relationships, support and having the ability to be together with family and friends were important factors with regard to experienced HRQoL. No significant differences were found in SF-36 and the HAD Scale with regard to the different types of pain. The older age group had decreased physical functioning in SF-36. The men had more decreased vitality than the women. Conclusion., The results show, that the participants in this study have a lower HRQoL due to their long-term pain than those in previous studies on stroke survivors. It is evident that further research is needed with longitudinal studies and larger populations to gain more knowledge and thereby provide better supportive care. Relevance to clinical practice., Awareness and understanding of the patients' perceptions and transitions with regard to their life situation and suffering from long-term pain after a stroke is important in order to support a maintained or increased HRQoL. This is also important after the acute stage and rehabilitation, including quality of life of the relatives, especially to older and dependent persons. [source]

The epidemiologic, health-related quality of life, and economic burden of gastrointestinal stromal tumours

P. Reddy PharmD
Summary Background and objectives:, Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are uncommon tumours believed to arise from interstitial cells of Cajal or their precursors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, accounting for a small percentage of GI neoplasms and sarcomas. Given the recent recognition of GIST as a distinct cancer, as well as new treatment options available today, a review of the epidemiologic, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and economic burden of GIST is timely from a payer, provider and patient perspective and may provide guidance for treatment decision making and reimbursement. Methods:, A systematic literature review of PubMed and five scientific meeting databases, was conducted to identify published studies and abstracts describing the epidemiologic, HRQL and economic impact of GIST. Publications deemed worthy of further review, based on the information available in the abstract, were retrieved in full text. Results and discussion:, Thirty-four publications met the review criteria: 29 provided data on GIST epidemiology, one provided cost data, three reported HRQL outcomes, and one reported cost and HRQL outcomes. The annual incidence of GIST (cases per million) ranged from 68 in the USA to 145 in Sweden, with an estimated 5-year survival rate of 45,64%. On the Functional Illness of Chronic Therapy-fatigue instrument, GIST patients scored 400 compared with 376 in anaemic cancer patients (0 = worst; 52 = least fatigue). Total costs over 10 years for managing GIST patients with molecularly targeted treatment was estimated at 47 521,56 146 per patient compared with 4047,4230 per patient with best supportive care. Conclusions:, The incidence of GIST appears to be similar by country; the lower estimate in one country could be explained by differences in method of case ascertainment. Data suggest that the HRQL burden of GIST is similar to that with other cancers although this requires further exploration. The value of new therapies in GIST needs to consider not only cost but also anticipated benefits and the unmet medical need in this condition. [source]

Human herpesvirus 7-associated meningitis and optic neuritis in a patient after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

Tetsushi Yoshikawa
Abstract A 9-year-old boy who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation began to vomit from day 10 after transplantation. In addition to vomiting, the patient had a fever (from day 26) and severe headache (from day 34). His cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (day 41) demonstrated pleocytosis with an absence of leukemic cells. Although the patient's symptoms were resolved with further supportive care, abrupt onset of bilateral decreased vision occurred at day 54. He was diagnosed with bilateral optic neuritis, due to the presence of disc edema and redness. Concomitant with the occurrence of aseptic meningitis, the human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) antibody titer increased significantly in this patient. Although neither HHV-6 nor cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected in CSF collected at day 41, HHV-7 DNA was detected in the sample. Viral DNA was not detected in CSF collected at day 93. J. Med. Virol. 70:440,443, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Uncertainty in Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer: Implications for Supportive Care

Maya Shaha
Purpose:The aim of this paper was to identify and explore the literature for key aspects of uncertainty experienced by patients who have been diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Organizing Construct: Throughout the cancer journey important decisions are made about treatments, symptom control, and supportive care and many approaches have been adopted to examine coping and uncertainty associated with a cancer diagnosis. Uncertainty and its associated attributes, such as stress or anxiety, fluctuate across the disease trajectory. To appreciate the changing nature of uncertainty one should consider its effect on specific patient groups by considering the available evidence. Methods: A comprehensive literature search that was focused on reviews and studies about uncertainty in cancer patients was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL. In total, 40 articles were identified that indicated uncertainty in patients with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer, although the emphasis in each differed according to the nature and treatment of the disease. Findings: Uncertainty was found to comprise three main themes: uncertainty because of limited or lack of information, uncertainty concerning the course and treatment choices related to the disease, and uncertainty related to everyday life and coping with the disease. Conclusions: Uncertainty influences patients' experiences of their cancer and their coping. Whilst it might be impossible to avoid uncertainty entirely, its negative effects might be ameliorated by understanding patients' specific needs along the disease trajectory of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. [source]

A Passion for Nursing

In memoriam of Dr. Sharron Smith Humenick
As epidural and cesarean rates climb, a nurse leader provides a model for effective advocacy for normal birth and supportive care for women and their infants. Dr. Sharron Smith Humenick had a passion and devoted her life to providing women with adequate support for natural, empowering birth and successful breastfeeding. Lessons from her life's work can inspire nurses in our specialty to be tireless and passionate advocates in practice, education, and public policy for supportive nursing care. Dr. Humenick died on September 9, 2006. JOGNN, 35, 681-683; 2006. DOI: 10.1111/J.1552-6909.2006.00101.x [source]

Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and their relation to survival in children with bacterial sepsis and septic shock

N nenli-Mungan
Objectives: Despite improved supportive care, the mortality of sepsis and septic shock is still high. Multiple changes in the neuroendocrine systems, at least in part, are responsible for the high morbidity and mortality. A reduced circulating level of insulin-like growth factor and an elevated level of growth hormone are the reported characteristic findings early in the course of sepsis and septic shock in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in sepsis and septic shock and investigate the relationship between these hormones and survival. Methods: Fifty-one children with sepsis (S), 21 children with septic shock (SS) and 30 healthy, age- and sex-matched children (C) were enrolled in this study. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 and cortisol levels of the sepsis and septic shock groups were obtained before administration of any inotropic agent. Results: Growth hormone levels were 32.3 1.5 IU/mL (range 4,56), 15.9 0.6 IU/mL (range 11,28) and 55.7 2.7 IU/mL (range 20,70) in S, C and SS groups, respectively. The difference between the growth hormone levels of the S and C groups, S and SS groups, and C and SS groups were significant (P < 0.001). Non-survivors (54.7 1.6 IU/mL) had significantly higher growth hormone levels than survivors (29.4 1.5 IU/mL) (P < 0.001). Insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were 38.1 2.1 ng/mL (range 19,100), 122.9 9.6 ng/mL (range 48,250) and 22.2 1.9 ng/mL (range 10,46) in the S, C and SS groups, respectively, and the difference between the insulin-like growth factor 1 levels of the S and C, S and SS, and C and SS groups were significant (P < 0.001). Non-survivors (8.8 1.1 g/dL) had significantly lower cortisol levels than survivors (40.9 2.1 g/dL) (P < 0.001). We detected a significant difference between the levels of cortisol in non-survivors (19.7 1.8 g/dL) and survivors (33.9 0.9 g/dL) (P < 0.01). Conclusions: There were elevated levels of growth hormone with decreased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 in children during sepsis and septic shock compared to healthy subjects. In addition, there were even higher levels of growth hormone and lower levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 in non-survivors than in survivors. We think that both growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 may have potential prognostic value to serve as a marker in bacterial sepsis and septic shock in children. As there is insufficient data in the paediatric age group, more studies including large numbers of patients and additionally evaluating cytokines and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins are needed. [source]

Dual Diagnosis: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship With Suicide Risk in a Nationwide Sample of French Prisoners

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2009
Michael Lukasiewicz
Background:, Axis I psychiatric disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are common in prison, but only few studies have focused on their association in this setting. Dual diagnosis (DD) (the co-occurrence of a SUD and any axis I disorder) is known to have a poorer prognosis and to require more intense supportive care. Objectives:, The objectives of this study were (1) to describe prisoners with DD (prevalence and characteristics); (2) to compare DD prisoners with 3 other groups of prisoners: no diagnosis (ND), SUD alone, or other isolated PD; and (3) to evaluate the impact of DD on suicide risk in prison. Method:, A random stratified strategy was used to select 23 various types of prisons and 998 prisoners. Diagnoses were assessed using a unique procedure, each prisoner being evaluated by 2 psychiatrists, 1 junior, using a structured interview (MINI 5 plus), and 1 senior, using an open clinical interview. Following interviews, clinicians met to establish a list of diagnoses. Cloninger's temperament and character inventory was also used. Results:, Of the prisoners, 26.3% had a DD. DD prevalence was almost 80% in prisoners with SUD, while only one-third of the prisoners with an axis I PD had co-morbid SUD. No significant differences were observed in drug use patterns between DD and SUD without co-morbid PDs. DD showed the strongest association with suicide risk [OR = 5.7 (1.7,4.6)]. Conclusion:, DD is very frequent in prison and is a major risk factor for suicide. Systematic psychiatric/SUD screening of prisoners with either a SUD or an axis I PD should be encouraged. [source]

Nephrotic syndrome associated with administration of sulfadimethoxine/ ormetoprim in a dobermann

R. J. Vasilopulos
This case report describes sulphonamide-induced nephrotic syndrome in a young dobermann dog. The clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities resolved shortly after discontinuation of the sulphonamide antibiotic and with generalised supportive care. Since nephrotic syndrome typically carries a guarded prognosis in veterinary medicine and is poorly responsive to therapy, a thorough drug history should be an important part of the investigation of any animal with a protein-losing nephropathy. [source]

Cerebral and conjunctival haemorrhages associated with von Willebrand factor deficiency and canine angiostrongylosis

N. T. Whitley
A case of angiostrongylosis is described in a 14-month-old golden retriever bitch. Conjunctival haemorrhage and neurological signs, referable to a space-occupying cerebral lesion, were associated with defective primary haemostasis caused by low levels of von Willebrand factor. Full clinical recovery followed treatment with desmopressin, fresh whole blood transfusion, fenbendazole and supportive care. The magnetic resonance image of the suspected organising haematoma is described. Similarities to the human condition, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, and a possible role for aberrant larval migration in haematoma formation are suggested. [source]

Qualitative assessment of patient experiences following sacrectomy,

K.M. Davidge MD
Abstract Background and Objectives The primary objective was to investigate patient experiences following sacral resection as a component of curative surgery for advanced rectal cancers, soft tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods Qualitative methods were used to examine the experiences, decision-making, quality of life, and supportive care needs of patients undergoing sacrectomy. Patients were identified from two prospective databases between 1999 and 2007. A semi-structured interview guide was generated and piloted. Patient interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using standard qualitative research methodology. Grounded theory guided the generation of the interview guide and analysis. Results Twelve patients were interviewed (6 female, 32,82 years of age). The mean interview time was 34,min. Five themes were identified, including: (1) the life-changing impact of surgery on both patients' and their family's lives, (2) patient satisfaction with immediate care in hospital, (3) significant chronic pain related to sacrectomy, (4) patients' need for additional information regarding long-term recovery, and (5) patients' gratitude to be alive. Conclusions Sacrectomy is a life-changing event for patients and their families. Patients undergoing sacrectomy need further information regarding the long-term consequences of this procedure. This need should be addressed in both preoperative multi-disciplinary consultations and at follow-up visits. J. Surg. Oncol. 2010; 101:447,450. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Toxic epidermal necrolysis; 15 years' experience in a Dutch burns centre

B Gerdts
Abstract Background, Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe and potentially fatal drug reaction characterized by an extensive skin rash with blisters and exfoliation, frequently accompanied by mucositis. The wounds caused by TEN are similar to second-degree burns and severe cases may involve large areas of skin loss. Objectives, Analysis of our results in patients with TEN and evaluation of the variety of therapeutic interventions that has been studied and suggested in TEN. Patients/methods, Retrospective analysis of 19 consecutive patients with TEN treated in our burns centre between 1989 and 2004. Results, Immediate withdrawal of any potentially fatal drug, maximum supportive care, and a restricted and tailored antibiotic, medical and surgical treatment regimen confined mortality to 21%, whereas prognosis scores like APACHE II and SCORTEN predicted mortality of 22 and 30%, respectively. A positive contribution of selective digestive decontamination is suggested but has yet to be established. Conclusions, Because of a potentially fatal outcome, fast referral of a patient suspected of TEN to a specialized centre (mostly a burns unit or specialized dermatology centre) for expert wound management and tailored comprehensive care is strongly advised and contributes to survival. [source]

Coma and respiratory failure due to moxidectin intoxication in a dog

Alexander E. Gallagher DVM
Abstract Objective: To describe the clinical consequences following ingestion by a dog of a moxidectin-containing equine deworming product. Few reports exist concerning the treatment and outcome of severe moxidectin toxicity. Treatment, known factors influencing intoxication, and prognosis are reviewed. Case summary: A 10-month-old female Border Collie ingested an unknown quantity of a moxidectin-containing equine deworming product several hours before presentation. Severe neurological signs subsequently developed and included: ataxia, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. The dog was treated with supportive care including intravenous fluids, activated charcoal, and positive pressure ventilation. Normal spontaneous respiration returned in 34 hours and the patient was discharged 58 hours after ingestion. Full recovery occurred within 1 week of intoxication. New information provided: This report describes moxidectin intoxication and associated respiratory failure in a dog that required mechanical ventilation. The dog's recovery was rapid. Despite severity of signs, the prognosis for patients with moxidectin intoxication is good with appropriate supportive care. [source]

Xylitol intoxication associated with fulminant hepatic failure in a dog

Jeffrey M. Todd DVM
Abstract Objective: To describe a case of xylitol intoxication causing fulminant hepatic failure in a dog. Case summary: A 2.5-year-old castrated male English Springer Spaniel weighing 26 kg, was presented after ingestion of half of a loaf of bread containing the sweetener xylitol. Toxic effects of the xylitol in this dog included vomiting, mild hypoglycemia and fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical management of acute hepatic failure and subsequent coagulopathy with supportive care and fresh frozen plasma is described. The dog was discharged 3 days after admission after a full clinical recovery. New or unique information provided: This paper describes the clinical consequence and successful treatment of fulminant hepatic failure in a dog following ingestion of xylitol. [source]

SOMA (carisoprodol) toxicity in a dog

Stephen G. Lane DVM
Abstract Objective: To describe a case of SOMA intoxication in a dog. Case summary: A 13-year-old, 25 kg, female spayed Australian shepherd presented to the emergency service after ingestion of ten to fifteen 350 mg tablets of SOMA (carisoprodol), a muscle relaxant used for back pain in humans. Toxic effects of the drug in this dog included mild sinus tachycardia, respiratory depression, seizures, and ataxia. The dog's mentation progressively deteriorated from depressed to comatose within 1 hour after admission. Treatment on initial presentation consisted of induction of emesis while the dog still had a gag reflex, administration of activated charcoal, oxygen therapy, and supportive care. The dog was discharged to the owner prior to full recovery (4 days later). New or unique information provided: This is the first known report of carisoprodol intoxication in the dog. [source]

MARS dialysis in decompensated alcoholic liver disease: A single-center experience

Birger Wolff
Acute decompensation of chronically stable alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common cause of terminal liver failure in developed countries. Molecular adsorbent recirculation system (MARS) is increasingly used as artificial liver support to facilitate spontaneous organ recovery. However, the experience to date and the evidence to justify this therapeutic strategy in acutely decompensated ALD are still insufficient. We report our clinical experience with MARS in 14 patients with acutely decompensated ALD (6 male subjects; median age [interquartile range], 51 [47-56] years; Child-Pugh score, 12 [10-13]; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, 20 [18-24]) and severely impaired liver function whose disease was unresponsive to conventional supportive care. At least 3 sessions were applied in any patient (48 sessions in total). Under MARS treatment, the following levels decreased: bilirubin (544 [489-604] to 242 [178-348] ,mol/L; P < 0.001), creatinine (212 [112-385] to 91 [66-210] ,mol/L; P = 0.002), cholestatic parameter gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (5.9 [1.8-13.1] to 4.6 [1.8-8.3] ,mol/L) (P < 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (56 [32-91] to 34 [21-68] mmol/L; P = 0.044), and platelet count (176 [85-241] to 84 [31-145] Gpt/L; P = 0.004). In contrast, MARS failed to improve daily urine output (P = 0.846), ammonia levels (P = 0.340), or thromboplastin time (P = 0.775). Only 3 patients survived the hospital stay (mortality 78.6%). Although MARS improved laboratory parameters of hepatic detoxification and renal function in patients with acutely decompensated ALD, the patients' mortality remained unsatisfactorily high. Our experience does not support the indiscriminative use of MARS in acutely decompensated ALD without further controlled studies. Liver Transpl 13:1189,1192, 2007. 2007 AASLD. [source]

Paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) poisoning; a ,party drug' with lethal effects

S. Refstad
Among young people in Norway the recreational use of amphetamine derivatives seems to be increasing. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), known as ecstasy, is the dominant substance, having both stimulant and psychedelic properties. Depending on the illegal source of these so-called ,party drugs' the content and purity can vary. This case report describes the first lethal case of paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) and paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) intoxication reported in Norway. A 16-year-old male was admitted to a local hospital in a coma with seizures and hyperthermia after he had been found undressed and barefooted in a local forest (temperature 2C). He was intubated and given supportive care. Blood chemistry revealed hypoglycaemia, hypocalcaemia and hyperkalaemia. Shortly after transfer to the central hospital he developed bradycardia with continuous seizures and asystole. Adverse effects of MDMA are well described and include serotonergic and sympathomimetic symptoms with hyperthermia, coagulopathy, rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney and liver failure. Case reports of PMA deaths collectively suggest PMA to be more toxic than MDMA. A delayed effect after intake of PMA compared with MDMA can lead to increased intake. Hypoglycaemia and hyperkalaemia may be specific to PMA poisoning. Increased thermo genesis will result in a search for cooling, which explains the attempt to undress and a desire to submerge in water. In a cool climate this behaviour itself can be lethal. Measures to treat seizures, hypoglycaemia, electrolyte anomalies and hyperthermia are the therapeutic goals. No specific treatment is available. [source]

Making Them More Vulnerable: Nursing Insights on the Irony of Using Questionnaires

NURSING FORUM, Issue 2 2007
Pam McGrath BSocWk
TOPIC.,Nursing insights on the experience of using standardized questionnaires during hospice care. PURPOSE.,To explore and describe the experience of hospice staff using questionnaires on hospice clients: whether such instruments help or hinder the holistic, compassionate hospice practice and to set this topic on the research agenda in the hope of generating critical reflection on this important aspect of hospice care. SOURCES.,A cross-section of hospice staff interviewed about their experience with administering the questionnaires. (Findings from research conducted with hospice clients on their experience of questionnaires are published separately.) CONCLUSIONS.,The initial findings indicate that staff perceive questionnaires as negatively impacting on their efforts to engage in holistic and compassionate hospice practice and point to a major irony that questionnaires, designed for the supportive care of the vulnerable, actually make the vulnerable more vulnerable. [source]

Malnutrition and neutropenia in children treated for Burkitt lymphoma in Malawi

Trijn Israls MD
Abstract Background Infection in neutropenic children is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children treated for cancer. In developing countries, children with cancer are often malnourished at diagnosis. In Blantyre, Malawi, children with Burkitt lymphoma are treated with a local protocol with limited toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and outcome of febrile neutropenia during this treatment and the association with malnutrition at diagnosis. Methods We documented nutritional status, febrile and/or neutropenic episodes, antibiotic therapy and short term outcome of all children with Burkitt lymphoma treated according to the local protocol and admitted from January 2007 to March 2008. Results Fifty eight (69%) of 84 patients were acutely malnourished at diagnosis with an arm muscle area (AMA) below the 5th percentile. Malnutrition at diagnosis was associated with a significantly higher rate of profound neutropenia. This association remained significant (OR 12; 95% C.I. 1.5 - infinitely; P,=,0.012) after control for clinical stage of disease, bone marrow involvement and HIV infection which are possible confounders. All patients with profound neutropenia, prolonged neutropenia and treatment related deaths were malnourished at diagnosis. Four (4.9%) of 81 patients died of treatment related causes; three of them due to a Gram negative septicaemia. Conclusion Acute malnutrition at diagnosis is associated with significantly more treatment related profound neutropenia. The intensity of chemotherapeutic regimens has to be adapted to the level of available supportive care and patients' nutritional status and tolerance to avoid unacceptable morbidity and mortality. This local treatment protocol for Burkitt lymphoma has a treatment related mortality of 5% in patients in Malawi. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53:47,52. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]