Supply Conditions (supply + condition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Monetary Policy, Credit and Aggregate Supply: The Evidence from Italy

ECONOMIC NOTES, Issue 3 2002
Riccardo Fiorentini
This paper concerns theory and evidence of the monetary transmission mechanisms. Current research has deeply investigated factors, such as dependence of firms on bank credit, that amplify the impact of monetary policy impulses on aggregate demand exerting strong but temporary effects on output and employment. We present an intertemporal macroeconomic equilibrium model of a competitive economy where current production is financed by bank credit, and then we use it to identify supply,side effects of the credit transmission mechanism in data drawn from the Italian economy. We find evidence that the ,credit variables' identified by the model , the overnight rate as a proxy of monetary policy and a measure of credit risk , have permanent effects on employment and output by altering credit supply conditions to firms. To save on space, mathematical proofs, statistical tests and data sources have been gathered in two separate appendices that can be examined on request. (J.E.L.: E2, E5). [source]

Housing Wealth and UK Consumption

Article first published online: 13 NOV 200
There is widespread disagreement about the role of housing wealth in explaining consumption. However, much of the empirical literature is marred by poor controls for the common drivers both of house prices and consumption, such as income, income growth expectations, interest rates, credit supply conditions, other assets and indicators of income uncertainty (e.g. changes in the unemployment rate). For instance, while the easing of credit supply conditions is usually followed by a house price boom, failure to control for the direct effect of credit liberalisation on consumption can over-estimate the effect of housing wealth or collateral on consumption. This paper (Janine Aron, John Muellbauer and Anthony Murphyi, October 2006) estimates an empirical model for UK consumption from 1972 to 2005, grounded in theory, and with more complete empirical controls than hitherto used. [source]

Effects of Deficit Drip Irrigation Ratios on Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Yield and Fibre Quality

H. Basal
Abstract Increasing irrigation costs and declining water availability compel producers to adapt irrigation strategies for maximum crop yield and water use efficiency. A field trial was conducted to observe the effects of various drip irrigation ratios (IR-0, IR-25, IR-50, IR-75 and IR-100) on water use efficiency (WUE), the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), lint yield, yield components and fibre quality at two upland cotton varieties during 2004 and 2005. WUE was found to increase from 0.62 to 0.71 kg m,3 as the irrigation water applied was reduced from 100 % to 75 % of soil water depletion. Deficit irrigation of cotton with drip irrigation at 75 % treatment level (IR-75) did not decrease seed cotton yield and yield components during 2 years, with the exception of the number of bolls in 2005. Among fibre quality parameters, no significant differences in fibre length, fineness, uniformity index and elongation were detected between the 100 % and 75 % irrigation levels in 2005. The results revealed that irrigation of cotton with a drip irrigation method at 75 % level had significant benefits in terms of saved irrigation water without reducing yield, and high WUE indicated a definitive advantage of employing deficit irrigation under limited water supply conditions. [source]

Nitrogen Rates and Water Stress Effects on Production, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Enzyme Activities in Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes

L.-X. Zhang
Abstract Effects of nitrogen rates and water stress (WS) on production, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities in two maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes were assessed at different stages under two levels of water supply conditions. WS caused a significant decline in dry matter, grain yield and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) whereas a marked rise in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was observed in leaves for the two genotypes. However, the responses of the two varieties to WS were different: significantly higher dry matter, grain yield and antioxidative enzyme activities and lower MDA content were observed for Shaandan 9 than Shaandan 911, therefore the former could be treated as a drought tolerance variety comparatively. A better correlation was obtained amongst dry matter, grain yield and physiological traits. The addition of nitrogen increased dry matter and grain yield as well as activities of SOD, POD and CAT to different levels and significantly decreased MDA content under WS. These effects were higher for Shaandan 911 than for Shaandan 9. Furthermore, a significant effect was found for Shaandan 911 between N rates for all traits unlike Shaandan 9. Hence, we suggest that nitrogen should be applied to a water-sensitive variety to bring out its potential fully under drought. [source]


Stephen C. Littlechild
In this article, the U.K.'s Director General of Electricity Supply from 1989 to 1998 assesses the effects of deregulation and competition on the U.K. electricity industry after about a decade. Expansion of existing competitors, new entry, and further restructuring have reduced the aggregate share of the largest two generation companies from nearly 80% to 26%. Efficiency has improved and wholesale prices have fallen after an initial increase. Voluntary bilateral contracts markets are about to replace the mandatory "Pool," with centralised control limited to physically balancing the system and settling contract imbalances. Retail supply competition has been active for large industrial customers since the beginning, and 80% of them now buy from another supplier. The market for residential customers opened in early 1999, and already nearly a quarter of them have chosen another supplier. Incentive price controls on transmission and distribution have stimulated increased efficiency and significantly reduced use-of-system charges. Overall, prices for all classes of customers have fallen by 25,35% in real terms since privatisation, and quality of service has improved. California has adopted a policy that is similar in many respects, but with very different results. The problems there have stemmed partly from less favourable demand and supply conditions, but also from significant policy differences, including barriers to building new capacity, obstacles to the use of long-term supply (or hedging) contracts, retail price controls at untenable levels, and the requirement that (after a transition period) utilities pass through wholesale spot prices directly to their customers. Changes in such policies will eventually enable both producers and consumers in California to benefit from competition. [source]

Growth features of Acacia tortilis and Acacia xanthophloea seedlings and their response to cyclic soil drought stress

D. O. Otieno
Abstract Seedlings of Acacia tortilis (Forsk) Hyne and Acacia xanthophloea Benth. were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions. Control plants were watered daily while other treatments involved withholding water for 2, 4 and 6 days with 1-day rehydration to container capacity. Compared to A. tortilis, A. xanthophloea seedlings showed higher leaf area, relative growth rates and total dry weight production under adequate water supply conditions. However, with increased water stress, A. xanthophloea seedlings could not alter their pattern of carbon allocation, retaining their root : shoot (r : s) ratio of about 0.5. By comparison, A. tortilis seedlings shifted carbon allocation to the roots, leading to a r : s ratio of 1.5 in water-stressed seedlings, compared to 0.5 in the control plants. The ability of A. tortilis to reallocate carbon to the roots away from the shoots and to actually increase root growth compared to A. xanthophloea was a dehydration postponement strategy that may be important in species survival during drought. Résumé On a fait pousser des plants d'Acacia tortilis (Forsk) et d'Acacia xanthophloea Benth en serre, dans des conditions bien contrôlées. Les plants de contrôle étaient arrosés chaque jour, alors que les autres traitements consistaient à ne pas arroser pendant 2, 4 et 6 jours puis d'arroser un jour à la limite de capacité du container. Comparés àA.tortilis, les plants d'A.xanthophloea avaient une surface foliaire supérieure, un meilleur taux de croissance relative et une plus forte production totale de poids sec lorsque les conditions d'apport d'eau étaient correctes. Cependant, lorsque les conditions d'hydratation devenaient plus stressantes, les plants d'A.xanthophloea ne pouvaient pas modifier le schéma de leur répartition de carbone, conservant un rapport racines : pousses (r : p) d'environ 0,5. Par comparaison, les pousses d'A.tortilis pouvaient déplacer la répartition de carbone en faveur des racines, aboutissant à un rapport r : p de 1,5 chez les plants soumis à un stress hydrique, comparé au 0,5 relevé chez les plants de contrôle. La capacité qu'a A.tortilis de rediriger le carbone vers les racines au lieu des pousses et d'augmenter ainsi la croissance des racines, par comparaison avec ce qui se passe chez A. xanthophloea, est une stratégie destinée à retarder la déshydratation qui peut être importante pour la survie des espèces en période de sécheresse. [source]