Supply

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Supply

  • adequate supply
  • aggregate supply
  • air supply
  • alcohol supply
  • arterial supply
  • atp supply
  • blood supply
  • capillary supply
  • carbon supply
  • co2 supply
  • continuous supply
  • drinking water supply
  • energy supply
  • excess supply
  • exogenous supply
  • external supply
  • food supply
  • gas supply
  • increased nutrient supply
  • insufficient milk supply
  • labor supply
  • labour supply
  • larval supply
  • limited supply
  • milk supply
  • money supply
  • n supply
  • nadph supply
  • nerve supply
  • nitrate supply
  • nitrogen supply
  • nutrient supply
  • o2 supply
  • oxygen supply
  • p supply
  • phosphate supply
  • physician supply
  • power supply
  • protein supply
  • relative supply
  • resource supply
  • sediment supply
  • seed supply
  • short supply
  • substrate supply
  • sufficient supply
  • vascular supply
  • voltage supply
  • water supply

  • Terms modified by Supply

  • supply chain
  • supply chain integration
  • supply chain management
  • supply chain management research
  • supply chain managers
  • supply chain performance
  • supply chain strategy
  • supply condition
  • supply curve
  • supply decision
  • supply elasticity
  • supply function
  • supply industry
  • supply level
  • supply management
  • supply model
  • supply models
  • supply network
  • supply rate
  • supply reliability
  • supply response
  • supply schedule
  • supply shift
  • supply shock
  • supply side
  • supply system
  • supply voltage
  • supply well

  • Selected Abstracts


    DISRUPTING ILLEGAL FIREARMS MARKETS IN BOSTON: THE EFFECTS OF OPERATION CEASEFIRE ON THE SUPPLY OF NEW HANDGUNS TO CRIMINALS,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 4 2005
    ANTHONY A. BRAGA
    Research Summary: The question of whether the illegal firearms market serving criminals and juveniles can be disrupted has been vigorously debated in policy circles and in the literature on firearms and violence. To the extent that prohibited persons, in particular, are supplied with guns through systematic gun trafficking, focused regulatory and investigative resources may be useful in disrupting the illegal supply of firearms to criminals. In Boston, a gun market disruption strategy was implemented that focused on shutting down illegal diversions of new handguns from retail sources. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of the intervention on new handguns recovered in crime. Our results suggest that focused enforcement efforts, guided by strategic analyses of ATF firearms trace data, can have significant impacts on the illegal supply of new handguns to criminals. Policy Implications: The problem-oriented policing approach provides an appropriate framework to uncover the complex mechanisms at play in illicit firearms markets and to develop tailor-made interventions to disrupt the illegal gun trade. Strategic enforcement programs focused on the illegal diversion of new firearms from primary markets can reduce the availability of new guns to criminals. However, the extent to which criminals substitute older guns for new guns and move from primary markets to secondary markets in response to an enforcement strategy focused on retail outlets remains unclear. Our evaluation also does not provide policy makers with any firm evidence on whether supply-side enforcement strategies have any measurable impacts on gun violence. Jurisdictions suffering from gun violence problems should implement demand-side violence prevention programs to complement their supply-side efforts. [source]


    QUALITY OF AVAILABLE MATES, EDUCATION, AND HOUSEHOLD LABOR SUPPLY

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 3 2010
    BRIGHITA NEGRUSA
    We investigate the impact of sex ratios by education and metropolitan area on spouses' bargaining power and labor supplies, to capture the local and qualitative nature of mate availability. Using Current Population Survey and Census data for 2000, 1990, and 1980, we estimate these effects in a collective household framework. We find that a higher relative shortage of comparably educated women in the couple's metropolitan area reduces wives' labor supply and increases their husbands'. The impact is stronger for couples in higher education groups but not significant for high school graduates. Results are similar across decades. No such effects are found for unmarried individuals. (JEL D1, J22) [source]


    TOWARDS A UNIFORM CONCEPT FOR THE COMPARISON AND EXTRAPOLATION OF ROCKWALL RETREAT AND ROCKFALL SUPPLY

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES A: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2007
    MICHAEL KRAUTBLATTER
    ABSTRACT. Rates of rockwall retreat and rockfall supply are fundamental components of sediment budgets in steep environments. However, the standard procedure of referencing rockwall retreat rates using only lithology is inconsistent with research findings and results in a variability that exceeds three orders of magnitude. The concept proposed in this paper argues that the complexity inherent in rockfall studies can be reduced if the stages of (i) backweathering, (ii) filling and depletion of intermediate storage on the rock face and (iii) final rockfall supply onto the talus slopes are separated as these have different response functions and controlling factors. Backweathering responds to preweathering and weathering conditions whereas the filling and depletion of intermediate storage in the rock face is mainly a function of internal and external triggers. The noise apparent in backweathering rates and rockfall supply can be reduced by integrating the relevant controlling factors in the response functions. Simple conceptual models for the three stages are developed and are linked by a time-dependent ,rockfall delivery rate', which is defined as the difference between backweathering and rockfall supply, thus reflecting the specific importance of intermediate storage in the rock face. Existing studies can be characterized according to their ,rockfall delivery ratio', a concept similar to the ,sediment delivery ratio' used in fluvial geomorphology. Their outputs can be qualified as trigger-dependent rockfall supply rates or backweathering rates dependent on (pre-)weathering conditions. It is shown that the existing quantitative backweathering and rockfall supply models implicitly follow the proposed conceptual models and can be accommodated into the uniform model. Suggestions are made for how best to incorporate non-linearities, phase transitions, path dependencies and different timescales into rockfall response functions. [source]


    A BATCH CULTURE METHOD FOR MICROALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA WITH CO2 SUPPLY THROUGH POLYETHYLENE MEMBRANES,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Yvonne Pörs
    A new method for CO2 supply to photoautotrophic organisms was developed, and its applicability for measuring specific growth rates in shaken batch cultures of cyanobacteria and unicellular algae was shown. Small bags containing a concentrated carbonate buffer with a CO2 partial pressure of 32 mbar were prepared from a thin foil of low density polyethylene (LDPE). These bags were inserted as CO2 reservoirs (CRs) into polystyrene culture flasks with gas-permeable screw caps, which were suitable to photometric growth measurement. CO2 was released directly into the medium with membrane-controlled kinetics. The CRs were not depleted within 1 week, although the atmosphere in the culture vessel exchanged rapidly with the ambient air. Rates of initial growth and final densities of the cultures of six different unicellular algal species and one cyanobacterium were markedly increased by diffusive CO2 supply from the CR. In the presence of a CR, growth was exponential during the first 2 d in all cultures studied. The method described allowed a high number of measurements of specific growth rates with relatively simple experimental setup. [source]


    ALGAL-RELATED TASTES AND ODORS IN PHOENIX WATER SUPPLY: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2000
    Q. Hu
    Frequent episodes of algal-related tastes and odors (T & O) in drinking waters in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona prompted initiation of a three-year project in July 1999 to investigate the occurrence of T & O metabolites and to develop a comprehensive management strategy to reduce the problems in drinking water supplies in arid environments. Two metabolites, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin, have been identified as compounds responsible for the earthy-musty tastes and odors in water supplies. Both were detected in the water supply system, including source rivers, reservoirs, canal delivery system and water treatment plants. Higher concentrations of MIB and geosmin occurred in distribution canals than in the upstream reservoirs indicating that significant production of the T & O compounds occurs within the canal system. A baseline-monitoring program has been established for the complex water supply system, with special emphasis on the canal system. Efforts are underway to investigate possible correlations between physical/chemical parameters, algal composition and biomass, with the occurrence of MIB and geosmin. In addition, several physical and chemical treatments are planned for the canal system to reduce algal growth and related MIB and geosmin concentrations. [source]


    CONSTRUCTION COSTS AND THE SUPPLY OF HOUSING STRUCTURE,

    JOURNAL OF REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2006
    Joseph Gyourko
    ABSTRACT Construction costs account for the bulk of the price of new houses in most markets, but their study has been relatively neglected. We document that there are economically large differences in construction costs across U.S. housing markets. We also estimate a very elastic supply for physical structure; hence, differences in construction activity across markets do not explain the variation in costs. Supply shifters that collectively do account for differences in building costs include the extent of unionization within the construction sector, local wages, local topography in terms of the presence of high hills and mountains, and the local regulatory environment. [source]


    INCREASING WATER SUPPLY BY MIXING OF FRESH AND SALINE GROUND WATERS,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 5 2003
    Zekai Sen
    ABSTRACT: The quality of ground water in any aquifer takes its final form due to natural mixture of waters, which may originate from different sources. Water quality varies from one aquifer to another and even within the same aquifer itself. Different ground water quality is obtained from wells and is mixed in a common reservoir prior to any consumption. This artificial mixing enables an increase in available ground water of a desired quality for agricultural or residential purposes. The question remains as to what proportions of water from different wells should be mixed together to achieve a desired water quality for this artificial mixture. Two sets of laboratory experiments were carried out, namely, the addition of saline water to a fixed volume of fresh water. After each addition, the mixture volume and the electric conductivity value of the artificially mixed water were recorded. The experiments were carried out under the same laboratory temperature of 20°C. A standard curve was developed first experimentally and then confirmed theoretically. This curve is useful in determining either the volume or discharge ratio from two wells to achieve a predetermined electrical conductivity value of the artificial mixture. The application of the curve is given for two wells within the Quaternary deposits in the western part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [source]


    USE OF THE MONEY SUPPLY IN THE CONDUCT OF JAPAN'S MONETARY POLICY: RE-EXAMINING THE TIME-SERIES EVIDENCE,

    THE JAPANESE ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 2 2005
    RYUZO MIYAO
    This paper re-examines whether the money supply (M2 + CDs) can predict future economic activity in Japan, using recent data to the end of 2003. I find that the linkage between M2 and income or prices has largely disappeared since the late 1990s. Evidence suggests that (i) time deposit behaviour is primarily responsible for the breakdown in the M2,income relationship; (ii) bank loans also lost their predictive content in the late 1990s; and (iii) there has been a close link between time deposits and bank loans. Non-performing loans problems and ongoing restructuring may be root causes of these findings. [source]


    UPSTREAM TRANSFERS AND THE DONOR'S LABOUR SUPPLY: EVIDENCE FROM MIGRANTS LIVING IN FRANCE*

    THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL, Issue 2 2009
    FRANÇOIS-CHARLES WOLFF
    With the use of data on migrants living in France, we study the pattern of transfers of time and money made to parents. Monetary transfers allocate predominantly towards the large number of elderly parents in the country of origin, while the smaller number of migrant parents in France are more likely to receive time transfers. Our econometric results suggest that monetary transfers are more consistent with the altruistic hypothesis. Furthermore, while the donor's labour participation increases the propensity to give money, there is no negative relationship between time transfers and the labour participation of the donor. [source]


    PUBLIC SERVICE PERSPECTIVES ON REFORMS OF ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION AND SUPPLY: A MODULAR ANALYSIS

    ANNALS OF PUBLIC AND COOPERATIVE ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2010
    Ute Dubois
    ABSTRACT,:,This article analyzes organizational change in electricity distribution and retail businesses and its impact on public service issues. Organizational change has resulted from the European electricity directives, especially the EU Electricity directive 2003/54/EC, which has imposed major transformations on these activities, requiring legal unbundling of electricity distribution networks by 1 July 2007. Organizational change has also resulted from an adaptation of companies to the newly competitive environment. This has led to a diversity of organizational choices across Europe. We analyze this diversity by using a modular approach, which decomposes reforms in electricity distribution and retail into logical ,blocks'. We then examine how European countries have dealt with two policy and regulatory issues related to customer protection in that new environment: the regulation of quality of distribution, which is a task of regulators, and energy affordability policies for vulnerable customers, which are a central aspect of public service policies in the electricity sector. [source]


    PATTERNS OF IRON AGE HORSE SUPPLY: AN ANALYSIS OF STRONTIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN TEETH,

    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2009
    R. BENDREY
    This paper presents a pilot study of strontium (Sr) isotope ratios from Iron Age horse tooth enamel samples. It compares 87Sr/86Sr ratios from horse teeth to estimates for local ranges of biologically available strontium, to investigate whether horses were being bred at the sites where their remains were discovered. A horse from Middle Iron Age Rooksdown, Hampshire, was not bred at the site but, rather, came from as far away as Wales, Scotland or continental Europe. Horse teeth from Middle Iron Age Bury Hill, Hampshire, returned 87Sr/86Sr values typical of local chalkland. [source]


    SAND FOR ROMAN GLASS PRODUCTION: AN EXPERIMENTAL AND PHILOLOGICAL STUDY ON SOURCE OF SUPPLY*

    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 3 2006
    A. SILVESTRI
    This paper reports the results of an experimental study performed on Campanian littoral sand, together with a careful philological analysis of Pliny's text concerning the production of glass using the above sand in order to verify its suitability. Accurate chemical and mineralogical characterization of sand samples and experimental glasses was carried out, proving the unsuitability of sand for glass production in its original state. Taking into account both the results of the philological analysis of Pliny's text and the mineralogical assemblage of the sand, a new hypothesis regarding Roman glass-making technology is proposed and tested here. The technology implies the production of ,quartz-enriched' sand by means of selective grindings according to the different degrees of hardness and cleavage of the mineralogical phases. Melting experiments, carried out on treated sand and in the temperature range compatible with Roman technology, yielded a glass with composition similar to those of typical Roman glasses. Therefore, new perspectives on the sources of supply of raw materials, hitherto debated, are opened up. [source]


    EFFECTS OF A CHILD'S DISABILITY ON AFFECTED FEMALE'S LABOUR SUPPLY IN AUSTRALIA

    AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC PAPERS, Issue 3 2010
    ZENG-HUA LU
    Australia has experienced a growing rate of child disability, with the rate of 3.7 per cent in 1998 increasing to 4.3 per cent in 2003 for children aged under four years and from 9.5 per cent to 10 per cent for children aged five to 14 years in the same period. However, surprisingly no study has examined the economic effects of child disability in the Australian context. This paper attempts to quantify the link between a child's disability and the work behaviour of the female in the affected family. Our findings provide empirical justifications for the current policy linking the severity level of child disability to the assessment of eligibility for Carer Payment (Child). We also found that child disability has different impacts on the labour market activities of married women and non-married women. It appears that child disability imposes a greater hardship on non-married women than on married women in terms of work choice decision. Once non-married women manage to enter the labour force, they may have to stay on to work as usual even if they have a disabled child, because they may not have other family members to turn to for help as married women do. [source]


    Corporate Governance Codes and the Supply of Corporate Information in the UK

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 5 2006
    Lynsey Sheridan
    There have been a number of changes in United Kingdom corporate governance regulation since the financial scandals of the late 1980s and early 1990s. These developments, commencing with the publication of the Cadbury Report in 1992, address "the frequency, clarity and form in which information should be provided" (Cadbury Report, 1992, p. 60). This paper examines the increased flow of corporate news announcements by UK listed companies following the introduction of corporate governance codes. Our results indicate that the introduction of the Cadbury, Greenbury and Hampel reports was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of news announcements. [source]


    In Vivo Follicular Unit Multiplication: Is It Possible to Harvest an Unlimited Donor Supply?

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 11 2006
    ERGIN ER MD
    BACKGROUND Follicular unit extraction is a process of removing one follicular unit at a time from the donor region. The most important limitation of this surgical procedure is a high transection rate. OBJECTIVE In this clinical study, we have transplanted different parts of transected hair follicle by harvesting with the follicular unit extraction technique (FUE) in five male patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS In each patient, three boxes of 1 cm2 are marked at both donor and recipient sites. The proximal one-third, one-half, and two-thirds of 15 hair follicles are extracted from each defined box and transplanted in recipient boxes. The density is determined at 12 months after the procedure. RESULTS A mean of 3 (range, 2,4) of the proximal one-third, 4.4 (range, 2,6) of the proximal one-half, and 6.2 (range, 5,8) of the proximal two-thirds of the transplanted follicles were observed as fully grown after 1 year. At the donor site, the regrowth rate was a mean of 12.6 (range, 10,14) of the proximal one-third, 10.2 (range, 8,13) of the proximal one-half, and 8 (range, 7,12) of the proximal two-thirds, respectively. CONCLUSION The survival rate of the transected hair follicles is directly related to the level of transection. Even the transected parts, however, can survive at the recipient site; the growth rate is not satisfactory and they are thinner than the original follicles. We therefore recommend that the surgeon not transplant the sectioned parts and be careful with the patients whose transection rate is high during FUE procedures. [source]


    Monetary Policy, Credit and Aggregate Supply: The Evidence from Italy

    ECONOMIC NOTES, Issue 3 2002
    Riccardo Fiorentini
    This paper concerns theory and evidence of the monetary transmission mechanisms. Current research has deeply investigated factors, such as dependence of firms on bank credit, that amplify the impact of monetary policy impulses on aggregate demand exerting strong but temporary effects on output and employment. We present an intertemporal macroeconomic equilibrium model of a competitive economy where current production is financed by bank credit, and then we use it to identify supply,side effects of the credit transmission mechanism in data drawn from the Italian economy. We find evidence that the ,credit variables' identified by the model , the overnight rate as a proxy of monetary policy and a measure of credit risk , have permanent effects on employment and output by altering credit supply conditions to firms. To save on space, mathematical proofs, statistical tests and data sources have been gathered in two separate appendices that can be examined on request. (J.E.L.: E2, E5). [source]


    A Shred of Credible Evidence on the Long-run Elasticity of Labour Supply

    ECONOMICA, Issue 308 2010
    ORLEY ASHENFELTER
    All public policies regarding taxation and the redistribution of income rely on assumptions about the long-run effect of wages rates on labour supply. The variation in existing estimates calls for a simple, natural experiment in which men can change their hours of work, and in which wages have been exogenously and permanently changed. We use a panel dataset of taxi drivers who choose their own hours, and who experienced two exogenous permanent fare increases, and estimate an elasticity of labour supply of ,0.2, implying that income effects dominate substitution effects in the long-run labour supply of males. [source]


    Household Unemployment and the Labour Supply of Married Women

    ECONOMICA, Issue 270 2001
    Paul Bingley
    A recent reform to the UK unemployment insurance (UI) system has reduced the duration of entitlement from 12 to six months. The UI and welfare systems interact in the UK in such a way that exhaustion of UI for married individuals has potentially large disincentive effects on the labour supply of spouses. A model of labour supply is estimated for married women allowing for endogenous unemployment durations of husbands and wives. We distinguish between transfer programme induced incentive effects; correlation between labour supply and wages within couples; complementarity between the leisure times of spouses; and a discouraged worker effect. [source]


    Ten years after the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS): assessing drug problems, policies and reform proposals

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2009
    Peter Reuter
    ABSTRACT In 1998 the United Nations General Assembly Special Session resolved that governments would reduce drug production and consumption greatly within 10 years. With that period now elapsed, there is an interest in reviewing how successful this was and considering how drug policy could be improved. The demand for drugs in the world has stabilized mainly as a result of the interaction of epidemic forces, culture and economic development. Supply has become more concentrated and the menu of drugs has changed surprisingly slowly. Drug policy is shifting to a more explicitly tolerant configuration in Europe and a few other countries, but retains its ferocity in most of the world. The most prominent innovations under discussion have limited potential effects (heroin maintenance), have as yet been unproductive of policy interventions (,addiction is a brain disease') or have no political appeal (legalization). The option with the most scope is increased effort at diverting arrested drug users out of criminal justice systems. No prevention, treatment or enforcement strategies have demonstrated an ability to substantially affect the extent of drug use and addiction. The best that government interventions can do is to reduce the damaging consequences of drug use and drug control. More attention should be given to reductions in the intensity of drug enforcement, which has many unintended adverse consequences and yields few of the claimed gains. [source]


    The MTBE Threat to Our Water Supply: How to Detect and Remediate It

    ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2001
    David Kahler
    Methyl tertiary butyl ether, a gasoline additive once used to reduce air pollution, is now contaminating water sources around the United States. Monitoring for this chemical,and remediating it where it is found,should be an environmental priority. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


    Differential Effects of Cold Exposure on Muscle Fibre Composition and Capillary Supply in Hibernator and Non-Hibernator Rodents

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
    S. Egginton
    Changes in the composition of fibre types and the capillary supply of skeletal muscle (tibialis anterior) were quantified in rats and hamsters subjected to 8-10 weeks of cold exposure and reduced photoperiod (10 °C, 1 h light-23 h dark). Muscle mass decreased in both species (by 12% and 17%, respectively). Following acclimation to cold there were no specific changes in fibre cross-sectional area (FCSA) in rats, whereas in hamsters there was a substantial atrophy of Type II, but not Type I fibres. In rat muscle there was little difference between the two groups in average capillary to fibre ratio (C:F) (1.76 ± 0.15, normothermia, N; 1.69 ± 0.05, hypothermia, H) and average capillary density (CD) (188 ± 14 mm,2, N; 201 ± 12 mm -2, H). Similarly, the average C:F was unaltered in hamsters (2.75 ± 0.11, N; 2.72 ± 0.15, H), although the 30% smaller fibre size observed with hypothermia resulted in a corresponding increase in average CD, to 1539 ± 80 mm,2 (P < 0.01). However, there was a coordinated regional adaptation to cold exposure in hamsters resulting in capillary rarefaction in the glycolytic cortex and angiogenesis in the oxidative core. Following acclimation of rats to cold there was a reduction in the supply area of individual vessels (capillary domain), particularly in the cortex (9310, N; 8938 ,m2, H; P < 0.05). In contrast, hypothermic hamsters showed only a small decrease in mean domain area in the cortex (948 ,m2, N; 846 ,m2, H; n.s.) but a marked reduction in the core (871 ,m2, N; 604 ,m2, H; P < 0.01). Rats showed little or no change in local capillary supply (LCFR) to fast fibres on acclimation to cold, while in hamsters the LCFR of Type IIb fibres showed a decrease in the cortex (2.7, N; 2.3, H) and an increase in the core (3.0, N; 3.3, H) during acclimation to cold. These data suggest that during a simulated onset of winter rats maintain FCSA and capillary supply as part of an avoidance strategy, whereas hamsters increase muscle capillarity in part as a consequence of disuse atrophy. [source]


    Selective Long-Term Electrical Stimulation of Fast Glycolytic Fibres Increases Capillary Supply but not Oxidative Enzyme Activity in Rat Skeletal Muscles

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    S. Egginton
    Glycolytic fibres in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and tibialis anterior (TA) were selectively activated, as demonstrated by glycogen depletion, by indirect electrical stimulation via electrodes implanted in the vicinity of the peroneal nerve using high frequency (40 Hz) trains (250 ms at 1 Hz) and low voltage (threshold of palpable contractions). This regime was applied 10 times per day, each bout being of 15 min duration with 60 min recovery, for 2 weeks. Cryostat sections of muscles were stained for alkaline phosphatase to depict capillaries, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) to demonstrate oxidative fibres, and periodic acid-Schiff reagent (PAS) to verify glycogen depletion. Specific activity of hexokinase (HK), 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glycogen phosphorylase and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) were estimated separately in homogenates of the EDL and the predominantly glycolytic cortex and oxidative core of the TA. Stimulation increased the activity of HK but not that of oxidative enzymes in fast muscles. Comparison of changes in oxidative capacity and capillary supply showed a dissociation in the predominantly glycolytic TA cortex. Here, COX was 3.9 ± 0.68 ,M min-1 (g wet wt)-1 in stimulated muscles compared with 3.7 ± 0.52 ,M min-1 (g wet wt)-1 in contralateral muscles (difference not significant), while the percentage of oxidative fibres (those positively stained for SDH) was also similar in stimulated (14.0 ± 2.8%) and contralateral (12.2 ± 1.9%) muscles. In contrast, the capillary to fibre ratio was significantly increased (2.01 ± 0.12 vs. 1.55 ± 0.04, P < 0.01). We conclude that capillary supply can be increased independently of oxidative capacity, possibly due to haemodynamic factors, and serves metabolite removal to a greater extent than substrate delivery. [source]


    Joint Taxation and the Labour Supply of Married Women: Evidence from the Canadian Tax Reform of 1988,

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 3 2007
    Thomas F. Crossley
    The Canadian federal tax reform of 1988 replaced a spousal tax exemption with a non-refundable tax credit. This reduced the,jointness'of the tax system: after the reform, secondary earners'effective,first dollar'marginal tax rates no longer depended on the marginal tax rates of their spouses. In practice, the effective,first dollar'marginal tax rates faced by women with high-income husbands were particularly reduced. Using difference-indifference estimators, we find a significant increase in labour force participation among women married to higher-income husbands. [source]


    Paddy Rice and the Water Supply

    GERMAN RESEARCH, Issue 1 2005
    Burkhard Sattelmacher Prof. Dr.
    Over half of Asia,s fresh water is used for growing rice. A new procedure in China has been developed to test a new water-saving cultivation system [source]


    Public Provision for Urban Water: Getting Prices and Governance Right

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 4 2008
    EDUARDO ARARAL
    Public sector monopolies are often associated with inefficiencies and inability to meet rising demand. Scholars attribute this to fundamental problems associated with public provision: (1) a tradition of below-cost pricing due to populist pressures, (2) owner,regulator conflicts of interest, and (3) perverse organizational incentives arising from non-credible threat of bankruptcy, weak competition, rigidities, and agency and performance measurement problems. Many governments worldwide have shifted to private provision, but recent experience in urban water utilities in developing countries has shown their limitations because of weak regulatory regimes compounded by inherent problems of information, incentives, and commitment. This article examines the paradoxical case of the Phnom Penh Water Supply in Cambodia to illustrate how public provision of urban water can be substantially improved by getting prices and governance right. Findings have implications for the search for solutions to provide one billion people worldwide with better access to potable water. [source]


    Testing Community Empowerment Strategies in Zimbabwe: Examples from Nutrition Supplementation, and Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 1 2000
    Mungai Lenneiye
    Summary This article provides a brief overview and examples of how communities were involved in feeding programmes during years of drought in Zimbabwe, and in the management of rural water supply and sanitation programmes throughout the 1980s. The balance between political and technical demands in the implementation of these programmes indicates that they started off with community interests at the centre, but gradually gave way to the needs of the bureaucracy (both political and administrative). The main lessons to be learnt from these programmes is that information on entitlements and obligations (on the part of communities and external agencies) is a prerequisite for successful community development projects. Furthermore, the extent of accountability to communities is directly proportional to progress made towards the devolution of power to democratic development structures, be they directly or indirectly elected. [source]


    Supply of inpatient geriatric medical services in Australia

    INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2007
    L. Gray
    Abstract This study summarizes the findings of a national survey of inpatient geriatric services in Australia conducted in 2001. These data are unique as there are no uniform administrative data systems available to provide this information. Eight hundred and eighty-eight hospitals were surveyed and full responses were received from 690, representing 78% of hospitals and 85% of all hospital beds. The results illustrated wide variation in the style and level of provision of services among hospitals and across regional and state jurisdictions. [source]


    Demand and Supply of Auditing in IPOs: An Empirical Analysis of the Québec Market

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AUDITING, Issue 3 2000
    Jean Bédard
    This study examines the factors affecting the demand for higher-quality auditors at the time of an initial public offering in a small market characterized by low-litigation risk, government subsidies for companies going public, and the presence of large non-Big Six auditors, namely, the Canadian province of Québec. Our results, from an analysis of 212 Québec IPOs between 1983 and 1997, indicate that the choice of an auditor at the time of an IPO is significantly affected by the company's risk, size, and geographical dispersion. They also suggest that the Québec audit market is segmented between three types of service providers: the Big Six, the National firms and the Local firms. Local firms audit small local companies with low risk, National firms audit large local companies with moderate risk, and the Big Six audit large geographically dispersed companies with high risk. [source]


    Supply of over-the-counter weight-loss products from community pharmacies

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY PRACTICE, Issue 6 2009
    Anna-Maria Andronicou
    Abstract Objectives The aim was to ascertain the availability of over-the-counter (OTC) weight-loss products from community pharmacies and other retail outlets in a large conurbation, and to determine the knowledge and practices of pharmacy staff in the supply of OTC weight-loss products. Method The setting was one primary care trust in England. We used a cross-sectional survey of 123 community pharmacies, 12 health stores and 64 supermarkets, plus telephone interview of the pharmacists. Key findings Over two-thirds of community pharmacies (69%) and health stores (67%) but few supermarkets (8%) stocked one or more OTC weight-loss products. In total, 73 different products were available from pharmacies, most of which (50) were claimed by manufacturers to be appetite suppressants. Seventy-eight pharmacists were interviewed, of whom 57 stocked OTC weight-loss products. Of these 57, only two claimed to undertake any measurements before supplying the products and 33 had no supporting materials/information about the products, although 38 claimed to provide advice. None of the 57 pharmacists had undertaken any specific training in relation to weight loss. Only 44% of all those interviewed considered OTC weight-loss products to be useful, with even fewer (35%) considering them to be safe. Conclusions Community pharmacies are a major distributor of OTC weight-loss products, despite the lack of evidence of their efficacy and concerns about their safety. Many pharmacists had limited knowledge of the products, placed few restrictions on their supply and viewed training in weight loss as unnecessary. Pharmacists should consider the appropriateness of supplying these products and utilize the opportunities presented to support weight reduction by more effective means. [source]


    Temporary Migration Overseas and Household Labor Supply: Evidence from Urban Philippines

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW, Issue 3 2001
    Edgard R. Rodriguez
    The impact of international migration on the labor supply of workers' nonmigrant relatives has not been well documented in the literature. Using household survey data representing mostly overseas contract workers, i.e., temporary migrants, this paper shows that labor supplies of migrants and their nonmigrant relatives are inseparable. Migrants reduce the labor supply of nonmigrant relatives, which translates into lower earnings from local labor markets. Households substitute income for more leisure , a significant and previously little recognized benefit of emigration for Philippine households. This benefit varies by gender of nonmigrants and is generally higher for men. [source]