Summary.

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Recurrence of intramucosal esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in a former esophagostomy site: a unique case report

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 6 2009
J. M. Leers
SUMMARY., A 75-year-old male with a long history of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms developed adenocarcinoma proximally within a long segment of Barrett's esophagus. He was taken for esophagectomy and gastric pull-up, but intraoperatively, he was found to have a marginal blood supply in the gastric tube. A temporary left-sided esophagostomy was created with the gastric tube sutured to the left sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck. Pathology showed an intramucosal adenocarcinoma, limited to the muscularis mucosa with surrounding high-grade dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia. The proximal esophageal margin showed no tumor cells, but there was low-grade dysplasia within Barrett's esophagus. He was reconstructed after several months, and 2 years after reconstruction, the patient noticed a nodule at the former esophagostomy site. Biopsy revealed an implant metastasis of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Here, we review the literature and discuss the possible etiology. [source]


Positive impact of radiation dose on disease free survival and locoregional control in postoperative radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 4 2009
S. Moon
SUMMARY., The effect of total radiation dose (TRD) on the outcome of patients with postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus was assessed. Sixty-seven patients with esophagectomy, followed by postoperative RT for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus from June 1984 through February 2001, were retrospectively reviewed. Of these, 13 patients were excluded. No patient had chemotherapy. Patients were classified into two groups based on TRD delivered: TRD of less than 50 Gy (Group A, n = 16) and at least 50 Gy (Group B, n = 38). Follow-up duration of all patients ranged from 4 to 140 months (median, 14). Median TRD of Group A and B were 45 Gy (range, 45,48.6) and 54 Gy (range, 50,59.6), respectively. Median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of all patients were 15 and 10 months, respectively. Although the TRD of 50 Gy or higher was marginally significant for improved OS (hazard ration [HR] 0.559, P = 0.066), it was statistically significant for improved DFS (HR 0.398, P = 0.011), and locoregional recurrence-free survival (HR 0.165, P = 0.001) with multivariate analysis. Three patients in group A and two in group B experienced a complication of grade 3 or higher. Our study suggests a positive impact of TRD of 50 Gy or higher on DFS and locoregional control, with acceptable morbidity in postoperative RT for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. According to the present analysis, TRD should be at least 50 Gy in postoperative RT alone setting. [source]


Aberrant promoter methylation of the TPEF gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 7 2008
B.-J. Zhao
SUMMARY., Aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes plays an important role in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The purpose of the present study was to identify the epigenetic changes in ESCC. Methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (MS AP-PCR) analysis was used on 22 matched ESCC tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Through this screen we identified a frequently methylated fragment that showed a high homology to the 5,-CpG island of the gene encoding a transmembrane protein containing epidermal growth factor and follistatin domains (TPEF). The methylation status of the TPEF gene was then detected by bisulfite sequencing and the levels of TPEF mRNA were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, the effects of a methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2,-deoxycytidine on TPEF mRNA expression was determined in cells of ESCC cell lines. Hypermethylation of the 5,-CpG island of TPEF was found in 12 of 22 (54.5%) primary tumors. Reverse transcription PCR analysis demonstrated that TPEF mRNA expression was significantly lower in tumors than in adjacent normal tissues, which is associated with promoter hypermethylation. In addition, treatment of ESCC cell lines with 5-aza-2,-deoxycytidine led to re-expression of the TPEF transcript. In conclusion, we observed promoter of TPEF gene is frequently hpermethylated, and is associated with the loss of TPEF mRNA expression in ESCC samples. Promoter hypermethylation of TPEF gene may play a role in the development of ESCC. [source]


Selective dose escalation of chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 7 2008
S. K. Seung
SUMMARY., This phase II study assessed the use of concurrent continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil and weekly carboplatin plus paclitaxel with selective radiation dose escalation for patients with localized esophageal cancer. Patients with esophageal carcinoma were staged by thoracic and abdominal computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound, and positron emission tomography scans. Patients received a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil 225 mg/m2 on days 1 to 38 and intravenous paclitaxel 45 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC 2 on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, and 36. Radiotherapy was delivered in 1.8-Gy fractions, 5 d/wk for 5.5 weeks. Six to 8 weeks after initial therapy, patients without metastatic progression but with a positive biopsy, or less than partial response received a 9-Gy boost with the same concurrent chemotherapy. Twenty-four patients were enrolled: 18 patients were enrolled initially; 6 additional patients were enrolled following a protocol amendment designed to reduce the esophagitis by adding the radioprotectant amifostine. Median follow-up was 30 months. Twenty (83%) patients had adenocarcinomas of the lower esophagus/gastroesophageal junction. Seventeen patients (81%) attained at least a partial response. Six patients received boost treatment. At 4 years, overall survival was 28%, cause-specific survival was 38%, locoregional control was 61%, and distant metastasis-free survival was 52%. Radiation delays ranged from 0 to 62 days (median, 8 d), primarily owing to esophagitis. In total, 28% of patients developed esophageal strictures requiring dilatations. There were no differences in esophageal strictures, local control, or survival with the addition of amifostine. [source]


Lower esophageal palisade vessels and the definition of Barrett's esophagus

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 7 2008
K. Ogiya
SUMMARY., The designated area of the columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) is anatomically defined by the distal limit of the lower esophageal palisade vessels (LEPV) and the term ,Barrett's esophagus' is equally used along with the name CLE in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the actual prevalence of CLE based on the Japanese criteria and to evaluate the criteria per se. A total of 42 esophagi consecutively resected at this institute were included. All subjects underwent a surgical resection for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. The position of the LEPV, squamocolumnar junction, the prevalence of CLE and intestinal metaplasia were investigated both pre- and postoperatively. Preoperative endoscopy revealed CLE based on the Japanese criteria in half of all patients. In the resected specimens the distal limit of LEPV was lower than the squamocolumnar junction in 95.2%. In other words, almost all cases had CLE (equivalent to Barrett's mucosa in Japanese criteria). However, most of the CLE areas were very short and their average maximum length was only about 5 mm. In addition, no intestinal metaplasia was observed in any of the CLE cases. Almost all individuals might therefore be diagnosed to have CLE or Barrett's mucosa based on precise endoscopic observations in Japan. The CLE located in a small area, e.g. less than 5 mm, defined according to the LEPV criteria without any other factor concerning typical Barrett's esophagus such as signs of gastroesophageal reflux should therefore be excluded from consideration as a high-risk mucosa. [source]


Lung transplantation in patients with connective tissue disorders and esophageal dysmotility

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 7 2008
Warren J. Gasper
SUMMARY., Lung and esophageal dysfunction are common in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD). Recent reports have suggested a link between pathologic gastroesophageal reflux and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplant. Because patients with CTD have a high incidence of esophageal dysmotility and reflux, this group may be at increased risk of allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Little is known about antireflux surgery in these patients. Our aims were to describe: (i) the esophageal motility and reflux profile of patients with CTD referred for lung transplantation; and (ii) the safety and outcomes of laparoscopic fundoplication in this group. A retrospective review of 26 patients with CTD referred for lung transplantation between July 2003 and June 2007 at a single center. Esophageal studies included manometry and ambulatory 24-h pH monitoring. Twenty-three patients had esophageal manometry and ambulatory 24-h pH monitoring. Nineteen patients (83%) had pathologic distal reflux and 7 (30%) also had pathologic proximal reflux. Eighteen patients (78%) had impaired or absent peristalsis. Eleven of 26 patients underwent lung transplantation. Ten patients are alive at a median follow-up of 26 months (range 3,45) and one has bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome-1. Six patients had a laparoscopic fundoplication, 1 before transplantation and 5 after. All fundoplication patients are alive at median follow-up of 25 months (range 19,45). In conclusion, esophageal dysmotility and reflux are common in CTD patients referred for lung transplant. For this group, laparoscopic fundoplication is safe in experienced hands. [source]


The impact of endoscopic ultrasonography with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) on esophageal cancer staging: a survey of thoracic surgeons and gastroenterologists

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 6 2008
J. T. Maple
SUMMARY., Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is critical to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. End-oscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has emerged as a valuable tool for locoregional staging. However, it is unclear how different physician specialties perceive the benefit of EUS-FNA for esophageal cancer staging, and thus utilize this modality in clinical practice. A survey regarding utilization of EUS-FNA in esophageal cancer was distributed to 211 thoracic surgeons and 251 EUS-capable gastroenterologists. Seventy-six thoracic surgeons (36%) and 78 gastroenterologists (31%) responded to the survey. Most surgeons (75%) use EUS to stage potentially resectable esophageal cancer 75% of the time. Surgeons using EUS less often are less likely to have access to high-quality EUS services than their peers. Fewer surgeons believe EUS is the most accurate test for T and N-staging (84% and 71%, respectively) as compared with gastroenterologists (97% and 96%, P < 0.01 for both). Most endosonographers (68%) decide whether to dilate a malignant esophageal stricture to complete the staging exam on a case-by-case basis. Surgeons disagree as to whether involvement of celiac lymph nodes should preclude esophagectomy in distal esophageal cancer. While most thoracic surgeons have embraced EUS-FNA as the most accurate locoregional staging modality in esophageal cancer, this attitude is not fully reflected in utilization patterns due to a lack of quality EUS services in some centers. Controversial areas that warrant further study include dilation of malignant strictures to facilitate EUS staging, and the implication of involved celiac lymph nodes on management. [source]


Analysis of micrometastatic disease in histologically negative lymph nodes of patients with adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus or gastric cardia

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 6 2008
C. J. Buskens
SUMMARY., Lymphatic dissemination is the most important prognostic factor in patients with esophageal carcinoma. However, the clinical significance of lymph node micrometastases is still debated due to contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to identify the incidence of potentially relevant micrometastatic disease in patients with histologically node-negative esophageal adenocarcinoma and to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of three different immunohistochemical assays. From a consecutive series of 79 patients who underwent a transthoracic resection with extended 2-field lymphadenectomy, all 20 patients with pN0 esophageal adenocarcinoma were included in this study. A total of 578 lymph nodes were examined for the presence of micrometastases by immunohistochemical analysis with the antibodies Ber-EP4, AE1/AE3 and CAM 5.2. Lymph node micrometastases were detected in five of the 20 patients (25%). They were identified in 16 of the 578 lymph nodes examined (2.8%) and most frequently detected with the Ber-EP4 and AE1/AE3 antibody (sensitivity 95% and 79% respectively). In 114 of the 559 negative lymph nodes (20.4%), positive single cells were found that did not demonstrate malignant characteristics. These false-positive cells were more frequently found with the AE1/AE3 staining (specificity of the Ber-Ep4 and AE1/AE3 antibody 94% and 84% respectively). The presence of nodal micrometastases was associated with the development of locoregional recurrences (P=0.01), distant metastases (P=0.01), and a reduced overall survival (log rank test, P=0.009). For the detection of clinically relevant micrometastatic disease in patients operated upon for adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus or gastric cardia, Ber-EP4 is the antibody of first choice because of its high sensitivity and specificity. Immunohistochemically detected micrometastases in histologically negative lymph nodes have potential prognostic significance and are associated with a high incidence of both locoregional and systemic recurrence. Therefore, this technique has the potential to refine the staging system for esophageal cancer and to help identify patients who will not be cured by surgery alone. [source]


Endoscopic bougienage of benign anastomotic strictures in patients after esophageal resection: the effect of the extent of stricture on bougienage results

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 6 2008
G. Marjanovic
SUMMARY., The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the incidence of benign anastomotic strictures (BAS) in patients after esophageal resection and to examine the influence of the extent of BAS on the results of bougienage therapy. From January 2001 to July 2006, 79 patients at risk of BAS development were included in the study. BAS was diagnosed with a median delay of 8 weeks (4,26) postoperative in 23 patients (29%). A median of 4 bougienage sessions (2,20) was needed for success (success rate 100%). The mean follow-up time was 22 months [range 3,47]. There were no late recurrences of BAS. Five patients had an anastomosis diameter <5.5 mm and 14 patients >5.5 mm. There was no difference in median number of bougienage procedures in these subgroups (4.5 [2,9] vs. 4 [2,20]). Patients who presented with BAS earlier than 6 weeks postoperative had more procedures (median 8 [2,20] vs. 4 [2,9]) than those presenting later. Patients in whom first bougienage was possible to only 16 mm diameter needed more procedures than patients in whom first dilation was possible to more than 16 mm (median 5.5 [3,20] vs. 3 [2,9]). In conclusion, both early BAS development and the diameter of bougienage at first endoscopy, but not the extent of stricture, seem to be predictive factors for longer bougienage therapy. In order to influence the BAS formation early, we now routinely examine every patient after esophageal resection endoscopically in the 6th postoperative week. [source]


Perfusional evaluation of postesophagectomy gastroplasty with a radioisotopic study

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 6 2008
G. Gabiatti
SUMMARY., Anastomotic fistula represents one of the frequent causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality following transhiatal esophageal resections. The main etiological factor is the ischemia of the gastric tube created for digestive transit reconstruction. Evidence suggests that per operative hypoperfusion can be maintained or even impaired after the surgery. Several methods have been employed in an attempt to assess the blood perfusion of the gastric flap, but they all pose limitations. However, there is a chronological relationship between perfusion assessments, which are almost exclusively performed per operatively, and the occurrence of a leak, which commonly appears several days after the surgery. The authors have developed a method of gastric perfusion evaluation by single photon emission computed tomography scintigraphy, which corrects that temporal matter, allowing the estimation of postoperative gastric perfusion. It is noninvasive, low cost, and may be applied by the time frame when most fistulas occur. High correlation between the event fistula and the low radiotracer uptake in the group of studied patients could be demonstrated. A role in the research of perfusion evaluation of different types of esophageal reconstruction is suggested. [source]


The utility of FDG-PET in the preoperative staging of esophageal cancer

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 5 2008
S. Gananadha
SUMMARY., Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is important when determining which patients will potentially benefit from curative surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incremental effect of 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) when used in addition to standard staging modalities. Patients referred to two surgeons in an Australian metropolitan teaching hospital with esophageal or esophago-gastric junction malignancy between May 2002 and December 2006 were included. Patients who had undergone prereferral treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded. Patients undergoing resection for gastrointestinal stromal tumors or high-grade dysplasia within Barrett's esophagus were also excluded. Clinical and non-clinical data were recorded prospectively. Pretreatment staging included routine CT scan and selective endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). FDG-PET was performed in patients judged to have curable disease on CT scanning and EUS. From a total of 130 eligible patients, 76 were judged to have curable disease on the basis of CT and EUS findings. Of these 76 patients, 19 (25%) were excluded from surgery due to additional information obtained from FDG-PET. The addition of FDG-PET to routine preoperative staging resulted in the exclusion from surgery of 19 (25%) patients who prior to the introduction of FDG-PET would have undergone attempted resection. FDG-PET should be performed in all patients under consideration for esophagogastric resection in order to avoid resection in patients with disseminated disease. [source]


Gastroesophageal reflux disease and non-small cell lung cancer.

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 5 2008
Results of a pilot study
SUMMARY., The sharp rise in the frequency of adenocarcinoma and relative decrease of squamous cell carcinoma of the respiratory and digestive systems, raises suspicion of a common element in their carcinogenetic cascade, which could result in similar trends in cell,type distribution changes of esophageal and lung cancers. The possible role of chemical irritation caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients was investigated. There was no significant difference between the adenocarcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma groups, neither in the composite DeMeester scores nor in any of the separate parameters of the complex score investigated. However, the ratio of detected gastroesophageal reflux cases was considerably higher than in the average population. This factor may be one element of a multifactorial cancer promotion. [source]


Treatment of achalasia: lessons learned with Chagas' disease

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 5 2008
F. A. M. Herbella
SUMMARY., Chagas' disease (CD) is highly prevalent in South America. Brazilian surgeons and gastroenterologists gained valuable experience in the treatment of CD esophagopathy (chagasic achalasia) due to the high number of cases treated. The authors reviewed the lessons learned with the treatment of achalasia by different centers experienced in the treatment of Chagas' disease. Preoperative evaluation, endoscopic treatment (forceful dilatation and botulinum toxin injection), Heller's myotomy, esophagectomy, conservative techniques other than myotomy, and reoperations are discussed in the light of personal experiences and review of International and Brazilian literature. Aspects not frequently adopted by North American and European surgeons are emphasized. The review shows that nonadvanced achalasia is frequently treated by Heller's myotomy. Endoscopic treatment is reserved to limited cases. Treatment for end-stage achalasia is not unanimous. Esophagectomy was a popular treatment in advanced disease; however, the morbidity/mortality associated to the procedure made some authors seek different alternatives, such as Heller's myotomy and cardioplasties. Minimally invasive approach to esophageal resection may change this concept, although few centers perform the procedure routinely. [source]


Identification of candidate genes involved in the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells by microarray analysis

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 4 2008
R. Ogawa
SUMMARY., Radiotherapy plays a key role in the control of tumor growth in esophageal cancer patients. To identify the patients who will benefit most from radiation therapy, it is important to know the genes that are involved in the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells. Hence, we examined the global gene expression in radiosensitive and radioresistant esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Radiosensitivities of 13 esophageal cancer cell lines were measured. RNA was extracted from each esophageal cancer cell line and a normal esophageal epithelial cell line, and the global gene expression profiles were analyzed using a 34 594-spot oligonucleotide microarray. In the clonogenic assay, one cell line (TE-11) was identified to be highly sensitive to radiation, while the other cell lines were found to be relatively radioresistant. We identified 71 candidate genes that were differentially expressed in TE-11 by microarray analysis. The up-regulated genes included CABPR, FABP5, DSC2, GPX2, NME, CBR3, DOCK8, and ABCC5, while the down-regulated genes included RPA1, LDOC1, NDN, and SKP1A. Our investigation provided comprehensive information on genes related to radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells; this information can serve as a basis for further functional studies. [source]


Estrogen and progesterone receptors in esophageal carcinoma

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 4 2008
R. Kalayarasan
SUMMARY., Information is sparse and contradictory in the literature regarding the role of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in esophageal carcinoma. This study was conducted over a period of 18 months from September 2004 with the primary aim of determining the PR, ER alpha (ER,) and ER beta (ER,) status of esophageal carcinoma and normal esophageal mucosa (NEM). The receptor status was correlated with tumor type, tumor differentiation and tumor stage. A total of 45 patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n = 30) and adenocarcinoma (AC) (n = 15) were studied. Receptor status was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and semiquantitative assessment was done by quick score method of endoscopic biopsy specimens. The mean age for SCC and AC were not significantly different. The gender ratio in favor of males was 3 : 2 for SCC and 4 : 1 for AC. None of the specimens from SCC or AC showed positivity for PR both in NEM and tumor tissue. Likewise none of the specimens were positive for ER, by IHC. The mean ER, score for AC was significantly higher than SCC. For SCC it was seen that ER, positivity in tumor cells increases with dedifferentiation and increasing tumor stage. This trend was seen for AC as well. ER, is over-expressed in poorly differentiated SCC and AC compared to NEM. Thus ER, may be a marker for poor biological behavior, that is dedifferentiation or higher stage of disease. In view of these findings we propose a large-scale prospective, longitudinal interventional study using selective estrogen modulators. [source]


Interobserver agreement in endoscopic evaluation of reflux esophagitis using a modified Los Angeles classification incorporating grades N and M: A validation study in a cohort of Japanese endoscopists

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 4 2008
H. Miwa
SUMMARY., The Los Angeles classification system is the most widely employed criteria associated with the greatest interobserver agreement among endoscopists. In Japan, the Los Angeles classification system has been modified (modified LA system) to include minimal changes as a distinct grade of reflux esophagitis, rather than as auxiliary findings. This adds a further grading M defined as minimal changes to the mucosa, such as erythema and/or whitish turbidity. The modified LA system has come to be used widely in Japan. However, there have been few reports to date that have evaluated the interobserver agreement in diagnosis when using the modified LA classification system incorporating these minimal changes as an additional grade. A total of 100 endoscopists from university hospitals and community hospitals, as well as private practices in the Osaka-Kobe area participated in the study. A total of 30 video clips of 30,40 seconds duration, mostly showing the esophagocardiac junction, were created and shown to 100 endoscopists using a video projector. The participating endoscopists completed a questionnaire regarding their clinical experience and rated the reflux esophagitis as shown in the video clips using the modified LA classification system. Agreement was assessed employing kappa (,) statistics for multiple raters. The , -value for all 91 endoscopists was 0.094, with a standard error of 0.002, indicating poor interobserver agreement. The endoscopists showed the best agreement on diagnosing grade A esophagitis (0.167), and the poorest agreement when diagnosing grade M esophagitis (0.033). The , -values for the diagnoses of grades N, M, and A esophagitis on identical video pairs were 0.275,0.315, with a standard error of 0.083,0.091, indicating fair intraobserver reproducibility among the endoscopists. The study results consistently indicate poor agreement regarding diagnoses as well as fair reproducibility of these diagnoses by endoscopists using the modified LA classification system, regardless of age, type of practice, past endoscopic experience, or current workload. However, grade M reflux esophagitis may not necessarily be irrelevant, as it may suggest an early form of reflux disease or an entirely new form of reflux esophagitis. Further research is required to elucidate the pathophysiological basis of minimal change esophagitis. [source]


Outcome of floppy Nissen fundoplication with intraoperative manometry to treat sliding hiatal hernia

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 4 2008
Y. Lei
SUMMARY., The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of floppy Nissen fundoplication with intraoperative esophageal manometry. Between February 1992 and July 2004, there were 102 patients with sliding hiatal hernia undergoing transabdominal Nissen fundoplication. They were divided into three groups: 27 patients were in the Nissen group (CNF), 44 in the floppy Nissen group (FNF, including 5 with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication), and 31 in the intraoperative-esophageal-manometry group (INF, 13 with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication). There were no operation-related deaths. Operation-related complications occurred in five patients within 1 month after operation: In CNF, two patients suffered from dysphagia and one from regurgitation; in FNF, one patient had slight dysphagia and two had regurgitation; in INF, there was no one who complained about dysphagia or regurgitation, but pneumothorax occurred in one case. After more than 2 years of follow-up, two patients, in CNF, suffered from severe dysphagia, one recurred and two with abnormal 24 h pH monitoring. In FNF, one patient had dysphagia, one recurred and three had abnormal 24 h pH monitoring; in INF, two patients had acid reflux on 24 h pH monitoring. The postoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was in the normal range in 30 of 31 patients (96.5%). The normal rate of postoperative tests in CNF, FNF and INF were 81.5%, 86.4% and 93.5%, respectively. Both the Nissen fundoplication and the floppy Nissen fundoplication are effective approaches to treat patients with sliding hiatal hernia. Intraoperative manometry is useful in standardizing the tightness of the wrap in floppy Nissen fundoplication and may contribute to reducing or avoiding the occurence of postoperative complications. [source]


Impact of hemoglobin level on survival in definitive chemoradiotherapy for T4/M1 lymph node esophageal cancer

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 3 2008
S. Zenda
SUMMARY., We retrospectively investigated the impact of the pre-chemoradiotherapy hemoglobin level (pre-CRT Hb level) for T4 and/or M1 lymph node (LYM) squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Chemotherapy consisted of protracted infusion with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) at 400 mg/m2/day on days 1,5 and 8,12, combined with cisplatin at 40 mg/m2/day on days 1 and 8, repeated twice at a 5-week interval. Concurrent radiation therapy was started on day 1 and delivered at 2 Gy/day for five days a week for a total radiation dose of 60 Gy, with a two-week break after a cumulative dose of 30 Gy. Several factors considered to be related with treatment outcome were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 48 patients with T4/M1 LYM (lymphocyte) esophageal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) between September 2002 and April 2005 were enrolled. The complete response rate to this regimen was 44% and median survival time was 13.6 months, with a median follow-up period of 26.8 months. Median pre-CRT Hb level was 13.5 (10.4,15.3) g/dL. The CR rate in patients with a pre-CRT Hb level of 13 g/dL or less was only 24% but it was 60% in those with a level that was more than 13 g/dL (P=0.01). As for survival, anovarevealed that a pre-CRT Hb of 13 g/dL or less was a significant prognostic factor with a hazard ratio of 0.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]); 0.21,0.97, P=0.04), while on manova, including performance status, tumor size, TNM stage and pre-CRT Hb level, a pre-CRT Hb level of 13 g/dL or less was the only significant prognostic factor, with a hazard ratio of 0.35 (95% CI; 0.13,0.90, P=0.03). In conclusion, the pre-CRT Hb level may be an important determinant of outcome in patients with T4/M1 LYM squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. [source]


Oxford experience with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgical resection for esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous cell tumors

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 3 2008
P. M. Safranek
SUMMARY., The Medical Research Council trial for oesophageal cancer (OEO2) trial demonstrated a clear survival benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy in resectable esophageal carcinoma. Since February 2000 it has been our practice to offer this chemotherapy regime to patients with T2 and T3 or T1N1 tumors. We analyzed prospectively collected data of patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to esophageal resection under the care of a single surgeon. Complications of treatment and overall outcomes were evaluated. A total of 194 patients had cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil prior to esophageal resection. Six patients (5.7%) had progressive disease and were inoperable (discovered in four at surgery). During chemotherapy one patient died and one perforated (operated immediately). Complications including severe neutropenia, coronary artery spasm, renal impairment and pulmonary edema led to the premature cessation of chemotherapy in 12 patients (6.2%). A total of 182 patients with a median age of 63 (range 30,80), 41 squamous and 141 adenocarcinomas underwent surgery. Operations were 91 left thoracoabdominal (50%), 45 radical transhiatal (25%), 40 Ivor-Lewis (22%) and six stage three (3%), and 78.6% had microscopically complete (R0) resections. Median survival was 28 months with 77.3% surviving for 1 year and 57.7% for 2 year. In hospital mortality was 5.5% and anastomotic leak rate 7.7%. A radical surgical approach to the primary tumor in combination with OEO2 neoadjuvant chemotherapy has led to a high R0 resection rate and good survival with acceptable morbidity and mortality. [source]


Persistent dysphagia after laparoscopic fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 3 2008
U. Fumagalli
SUMMARY., Persistent postoperative dysphagia is a potentially severe complication of fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze our experience of laparoscopic fundoplication for GERD in 276 consecutive patients, to determine the frequency of postoperative dysphagia and assess treatments and outcomes. There was no relation between preoperative dysphagia, present in 24 patients (8.7%), and postoperative DeMeester grade 2 or 3 dysphagia, present in 25 patients (9.1%). Ten (3.6%) patients had clinically significant postoperative dysphagia, eight (2.9%) underwent esophageal dilation, with symptom improvement in five. Four (1.4%) of our patients (two with failed dilation) and 11 patients receiving antireflux surgery elsewhere, underwent re-operation for persistent dysphagia 12 months (median) after the first operation. DeMeester grade 0 or 1 dysphagia was obtained in 10/13 evaluable patients. Our experience is fully consistent with that of the recent literature. Redo surgery is necessary in only a small fraction of operated patients with GERD with good probability of resolving the dysphagia. Best outcomes are obtained when an anatomical cause of the dysphagia is documented preoperatively. [source]


A new endoscopic technique for suspension of esophageal prosthesis for refractory caustic esophageal strictures

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 3 2008
E. Ancona
SUMMARY., There is no clear consensus concerning the best endoscopic treatment of benign refractory esophageal strictures due to caustic ingestion. Different procedures are currently used: frequent multiple dilations, retrievable self-expanding stent, nasogastric intubation and surgery. We describe a new technique to fix a suspended esophageal silicone prosthesis to the neck in benign esophageal strictures; this permits us to avoid the frequent risk of migration of the expandable metallic or plastic stents. Under general anesthesia a rigid esophagoscope was placed in the patient's hypopharynx. Using transillumination from the optical device, the patient's neck was pierced with a needle. A n.0 monofilament surgical wire was pushed into the needle, grasped by a standard foreign body forceps through the esophagoscope and pulled out of the mouth (as in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy procedure). After tying the proximal end of the silicone prosthesis with the wire, it was placed through the strictures under endoscopic view. This procedure was successfully utilized in four patients suffering from benign refractory esophageal strictures due to caustic ingestion. The prosthesis and its suspension from the neck were well-tolerated until removal (mean duration 4 months). A postoperative transitory myositis was diagnosed in only one patient. One of the most frequent complications of esophageal prostheses in refractory esophageal strictures due to caustic ingestion is distal migration. Different solutions were proposed. For example the suspension of a wire coming from the nose and then fixed behind the ear. This solution is not considered optimal because of patient complaints and moreover the aesthetic aspect is compromised. The procedure we utilized in four patients utilized the setting of a silicone tube hanging from the neck in a way similar to that of endoscopic pharyngostomy. This solution is a valid alternative both for quality of life and for functional results. [source]


Changes in antioxidant defense status in response to cisplatin and 5-FU in esophageal carcinoma

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 2 2008
T. Kaur
SUMMARY., The ability of reactive oxygen species to induce cellular damage and to cause cell death opens the possibility of exploiting this property in the treatment of esophageal cancer through a free radical mediated mechanism. The present study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the changes in the antioxidant defense status in esophageal cancer patients treated without and with neoadjuvant therapy (NAT). Forty surgically resected tissue specimens from tumors, tissue adjoining the tumors and paired macroscopically normal mucosa were obtained from esophageal cancer patients treated with or without chemo-radiotherapy. An evaluation of antioxidant defense system in the normal, adjoining and tumor esophageal tissues in response to NAT revealed decreased catalase activity in tumor and adjoining tissues as compared to their respective normal tissue levels. Similarly, decreased superoxide dismutase activity was observed in tumor tissue in response to NAT. In both the treatment groups (with and without NAT), no significant change was observed in the enzyme activity of glutathione reductase in the normal, adjoining and tumor tissues. Enhanced glutathione peroxidase activity was found in tumor tissue, as compared to the adjoining and paired normal tissue of patients after NAT. Estimation of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels showed a significant decline in GSH levels in esophageal tumors after NAT. Depletion of GSH, an endogenous antioxidant, would elevate drug sensitivity and might predispose neoplastic cells to apoptosis in response to NAT. The antioxidant enzymes in the esophageal carcinoma thus may play an important role in influencing the final outcome upon NAT course. [source]


The role of surveillance endoscopy and endosonography after endoscopic ablation of high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma of the esophagus

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 2 2008
A. D. Savoy
SUMMARY., Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or early carcinoma treated with surgery or photodynamic therapy (PDT) is at risk of recurrence. The efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for surveillance after PDT is unknown. Our objective was to determine if EUS is superior to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and/or CT scan for surveillance of BE neoplasia after PDT. The study was designed as a retrospective review with the setting as a tertiary referral center. Consecutive patients with BE with HGD or carcinoma in situ treated with PDT were followed with EUS, CT scan and EGD with jumbo biopsies every 1 cm at 3, 4, or 6-month intervals. Exclusion criteria was < 6 months of follow up and/or < 2 EUS procedures. Main outcome measurements were residual or recurrent disease discovered by any method. Results showed that 67/97 patients met the inclusion criteria (56 men and 11 women). Median follow-up was 16 months. Recurrent or residual adenocarcinoma (ACA) was detected in four patients during follow-up. EGD with random biopsies or targeted nodule biopsies detected three patients. EUS with endoscopic mucosal resection of the nodule confirmed T1 recurrence in one of these three. In the fourth patient, CT scan revealed perigastric lymphadenopathy and EUS-FNA (fine needle aspiration) confirmed adenocarcinoma. There were two deaths, one related to disease progression and one unrelated. The rate of recurrent/persistent ACA after PDT was 4/67 = 6%. EUS did not detect disease when EGD and CT were normal. Limitations of this study include non-blinding of results and preferential status of non-invasive imaging (CT) over EUS. Our experience suggests that EUS has little role in the surveillance of these patients, unless discrete abnormalities are found on EGD or cross-sectional imaging. [source]


Outcomes after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication are not influenced by the pattern of reflux

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 2 2008
A. T. Meneghetti
SUMMARY., The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients with different types of gastroesophageal reflux disease (upright, supine, or bipositional) after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and determine if patients with upright reflux have worse outcomes. Two hundred and twenty-five patients with reflux confirmed by 24-h pH monitoring were divided into three groups based on the type of reflux present. Patients were questioned pre- and post-fundoplication regarding the presence and duration of symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, cough and chest pain). Symptoms were scored using a 5-point scale, ranging from 0 (no symptom) to 4 (disabling symptom). Esophageal manometry and pH results were also compared. There was no statistically significant difference in lower esophageal sphincter length, pressure or function between the three groups. There was no significant difference in any of the postoperative symptom categories between the three groups. The type of reflux identified preoperatively does not have an adverse effect on postoperative outcomes after Nissen fundoplication and should not discourage physicians from offering antireflux surgery to patients with upright reflux. [source]


Different effects of electroacupuncture on esophageal motility and serum hormones in cats with esophagitis

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 2 2008
X. Shuai
SUMMARY., We aim to investigate the effects of different electroacupuncture (EA) frequencies at ST-36 on esophageal motility, and to compare the effect of EA on serum gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Thirty-two cats were divided into four equal groups. All animals underwent a Heller myotomy. After esophagitis developed two frequencies (2/15 Hz or 2/100 Hz) of EA were delivered into ST-36 (LEA group [low EA], HEA group [high EA]). Animals submitted to EA on a non-point region (EANP) were used as controls (LEANP group, HEANP group), respectively. Esophageal motility was continuously monitored. The lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) decreased significantly after myotomy. The LESP decreased in both LEA and LEANP cats, and in LEA cats the pressure decrease was greater. The LESP increased in the HEA group, which was higher than that in the HEANP group (P < 0.05). High-frequency EA significantly increased the peak amplitude in esophageal peristalsis. There was a decrease in serum GAS and MTL in LEA cats compared with LEANP cats (both P < 0.01). GAS and MTL were higher in the HEA group than in the HEANP group (both P < 0.01). Serum VIP decreased in the HEA group (P < 0.05), while it increased in the LEA group (P < 0.05), compared with EANP groups, respectively. EA with a high frequency at ST-36 enhances LESP as well as esophageal motility, while EA with a low frequency decreases LESP. The effect of EA is acupoint-specific, and this effect appears to be mediated through GAS, MTL and VIP. [source]


COX-2 mRNA expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and effect by NSAID

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 1 2008
X. Liu
SUMMARY., To investigate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the effect of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) on it, in order to explore the mechanism of COX-2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) carcinogenesis and the ability of NSAID to prevent or treat ESCC. Frozen specimens of human ESCC and adjacent normal esophageal squamous epithelium pairs (n = 22) were examined for COX-2 mRNA expression by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After incubation with aspirin (a non-selective COX inhibitor) or Nimesulide (a selective COX-2 inhibitor), the proliferation status of two human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines, EC-9706 and EC-109, was quantified by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The expression of COX-2 mRNA in these cells was detected by RT-PCR. COX-2 mRNA was expressed in 12 of 22 (54.5%) ESCC tissue samples, but it was undetectable in all the specimens of adjacent normal esophageal squamous epithelium COX-2 mRNA expression. Both aspirin (5,20 mmol/L) and Nimesulide (0.1,0.8 mmol/L) inhibited EC-9706 cell line proliferation and suppressed its COX-2 mRNA expression dose-dependently. However, only aspirin (5,20 mmol/L) could inhibit proliferation in the EC-109 cell line and suppress COX-2 mRNA expression. Nimesulide (0.1,0.8 mmol/L) could neither inhibit EC-109 cell growth nor suppress COX-2 mRNA expression. COX-2 mRNA expression is a frequent phenomenon in human ESCC tissue samples and plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of ESCC. NSAID may be useful in the chemoprevention and therapy of human ESCC and its effects are likely to be mediated by modulating COX-2 activity. [source]


Intramural esophageal bronchogenic cysts: a review of the literature

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 6 2007
A. Turkyilmaz
SUMMARY., Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital cystic lesions mostly located in the middle and superior mediastinum. Esophageal bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare. We review here 23 cases reported in English in the literature to date of intramural esophageal bronchogenic cyst and their features, including our patient. Although they are extremely rare, intramural esophageal bronchogenic cysts should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of benign esophageal lesions. With accurate diagnosis and treatment the prognosis is excellent and serious complications may be prevented. [source]


Psychiatric morbidity among patients with cancer of the esophagus or the gastro-esophageal junction: a prospective, longitudinal evaluation

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 6 2007
H. Bergquist
SUMMARY., Cancer of the esophagus is often diagnosed at a late stage and is related to severe morbidity and a low 5-year survival rate. Previous studies have reported low health-related quality of life and high suicide rates for these patients. The occurrence of psychiatric morbidity and thus the potential need for psychological support may vary over time after diagnosis. This has not been adequately studied in patients with newly diagnosed cancer of the esophagus or gastro-esophageal junction. The present study therefore aimed to prospectively evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in 94 consecutive patients (median age 66, range 45,88 years) with all stages of disease. Psychiatric morbidity was evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire at inclusion and 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months later. At inclusion, 42% of the patients had HADS scores indicating possible or probable anxiety disorder and/or depression. At all follow-ups except at 3 months, proportions of patients with possible/probable anxiety disorder were significantly lower than at inclusion. Among patients with a duration of tumor-specific symptoms exceeding 6 months pre-diagnosis, larger proportions of patients with a possible/probable anxiety disorder were found at the 1- and 6-month follow ups. The prevalence of possible/probable depression was greater among patients treated with a palliative intent than among those with a curative intent at inclusion. Patients who died during the study period scored worse for depression compared to the survivors. Apart from this, the proportion of patients with possible/probable psychiatric morbidity (anxiety and/or depression) was relatively stable over time and was unrelated to patient characteristics or clinical background, including the treatment regime. In conclusion, psychiatric morbidity is common among esophageal cancer patients, both at inclusion and over time, regardless of the cancer therapy given. The findings stress the importance of monitoring the patients' mental health and of offering adequate psychological care when needed. [source]


Colon interposition in the treatment of esophageal caustic strictures: 40 years of experience

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 6 2007
J. . Knez
SUMMARY., The objective of this article was to analyze 40 years of experience of colon interposition in the surgical treatment of caustic esophageal strictures from the standpoints of our long-term personal experience. Colon interposition has proved to be the most suitable type of reconstruction for esophageal corrosive strictures. The choice of colon graft is based on the pattern of blood supply, while the type of anastomosis is determined by the stricture level and the part of colon used for reconstruction. In the period between 1964 and 2004, colon interposition was performed in 336 patients with a corrosively scared esophagus, using the left colon in 76.78% of the patients. In 87.5% a colon interposition was performed, while in the remaining patients an additional esophagectomy with colon interposition had to be done. Hypopharyngeal strictures were present in 24.10% of the patients. Long-term follow-up results were obtained in the period between 1 to up to 30 years. Early postoperative complications occurred in 26.48% of patients, among which anastomosic leakage was the most common. The operative mortality rate was 4.16% and late postoperative complications were present in 13.99% of the patients. A long-term follow up obtained in 84.82% of the patients found excellent functional results in 75.89% of them. We conclude that a colon graft is an excellent esophageal substitute for patients with esophageal corrosive strictures, and when used by experienced surgical teams it provides a low rate of postoperative morbidity and mortality, and long-term good and functional quality of life. [source]


Reflux injury of esophageal mucosa: experimental studies in animal models of esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 5 2007
Yan Li
SUMMARY., Barrett's esophagus (BE), a gastroesophageal reflux associated complication, is defined as the replacement of normal esophageal squamous mucosa by specialized intestinal columnar mucosa with the appearance of goblet cells. The presence of BE is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Although the exposure of gastroduodenal contents to the esophageal mucosa is considered to be an important risk factor for the development of esophagitis, BE and EAC, the mechanisms of reflux esophageal injury are not fully understood. Animal models are now being used extensively to identify the mechanisms of damage and to devise protective and mitigating strategies. Experimental studies on animal models by mimicking the processing of gastroesophageal reflux injury have bloomed during the past decades, however, there is controversy regarding which experimental model for reflux esophagitis, experimental BE and experimental EAC is best. In this review article we aim to clarify the basic understanding of gastroesophageal reflux injury and its complications of BE and EAC, as well as to present current understanding of the reflux experimental models. The animal models of experimental esophageal injury are summarized with focus on the surgical procedures to guide the investigator in choosing or developing a correct animal model in future studies. In addition, our own experimental studies of the animal models are also briefly discussed. [source]