Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Succession

  • early succession
  • ecological succession
  • forest succession
  • jurassic succession
  • late succession
  • natural succession
  • old-field succession
  • plant succession
  • primary succession
  • rapid succession
  • seasonal succession
  • secondary succession
  • sedimentary succession
  • spontaneous succession
  • temporal succession
  • vegetation succession

  • Terms modified by Succession

  • succession pattern
  • succession planning
  • succession process

  • Selected Abstracts


    Susy Svatek Ziegler
    ABSTRACT. Landscape diversity has increased with the surprising postfire establishment of aspen at upper elevations (700,945 meters above sea level) in the High Peaks of Adirondack Park in upstate New York. Tree seedlings returned quickly to the charred slopes west of Noonmark Mountain after an accidental fire consumed the forest in 1999. Aspen stands have replaced the spruce-fir-birch forests in the burned area even though mountain paper birch is expected to colonize burned sites at these elevations. Environmental conditions, historical events, and unique circumstances help explain why quaking aspen and bigtooth aspen rather than paper birch blanket the burned mountainside. Climate change over the past century to warmer, wetter conditions may have fostered this marked shift in species composition. In the unburned firebreak that people cleared to contain the flames, pin cherry has regenerated from seeds stored in the soil for nearly a century. The history of pin cherry on the site suggests that large fires or severe windthrow may have been more common in the region than was previously documented. [source]

    Testing the intermediate disturbance hypothesis: when will there be two peaks of diversity?

    Karin Johst
    ABSTRACT Succession after disturbances generates a mosaic of patches in different successional stages. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis predicts that intermediate disturbances lead to the highest diversity of these stages on a regional scale resulting in a hump-shaped diversity,disturbance curve. We tested this prediction using field data of forest succession and hypothetical succession scenarios in combination with analytical and simulation models. According to our study the main factors shaping the diversity,disturbance curve and the position of the diversity maximum were the transition times between the successional stages, the transition type, neighbourhood effects and the choice of diversity measure. Although many scenarios confirmed the intermediate disturbance hypothesis we found that deviations in the form of two diversity maximums were possible. Such bimodal diversity,disturbance curves occurred when early and late successional stages were separated by one or more long-lived (compared to the early stages) intermediate successional stages. Although the field data which met these conditions among all those tested were rare (one of six), the consequences of detecting two peaks are fundamental. The impact of disturbances on biodiversity can be complex and deviate from a hump-shaped curve. [source]

    Dispersal and life span spectra in plant communities: a key to safe site dynamics, species coexistence and conservation

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2002
    Roel J. Strykstra
    Dispersal and life span of individual plant species within five plant communities were assessed to obtain a characterization of these communities in this respect. Such a characterization is important in the context of restoration and maintenance. The most frequent species of five communities were ranked in eight classes according to their level of seed dispersal capability, their seed bank formation (dispersal in time and space) and their individual life span. In the communities, all eight classes were found, but communities differed in the distribution of the species over the classes. A theoretical framework was constructed to use the level of specialization of plant species in terms of dispersal in space and time, and life span, to define the characteristics of safe site dynamics within communities. Following simple rules, the relative reliability of the occurrence of safe sites in space and time was defined. After that, the relative reliability of the habitat was linked to the best fitting combination of trait specialization level. Having defined this link, communities could be characterized in a comparative way by their level and pattern of reliability of the opportunities for recruitment in space and time. The meaning of the coexistence of a range of trait combinations in one community was discussed. It was postulated that habitat reliability can explain this by assuming that the habitat of the community is part of a larger system, or consists of several "subsystems". These insights need to be considered in nature conservation. Succession and also specializations beyond the scope of dispersal and life span may influence the occurrence of species in a seemingly unfit habitat (for instance the occurrence of semi parasitic annuals in a community of perennials, because they use the perennial root system of other species). Finally, the meaning of safe site reliability in space and time in the context of restoration of communities was discussed. The reliability in space and time may be different today from that of the past, which restricts the feasibility of restoration of communities. [source]

    Toward an Integrative Model of Effective FOB Succession

    Isabelle Le Breton-Miller
    Given that less than 10% of family owned businesses (FOBs) survive into the third generation, the issue of top executive succession has received a good deal of attention. Unfortunately, the literature on the topic is fragmented, as it deals with different parts of the elephant. This synthetic effort tries to put together the pieces to (1) derive a more encompassing model of what it takes for a succession to succeed, (2) determine the trends, consensus findings, as well as the gaps in our conceptual and empirical knowledge, and (3) suggest areas for further research. [source]

    Microbial response to salinity change in Lake Chaka, a hypersaline lake on Tibetan plateau

    Hongchen Jiang
    Summary Previous investigations of the salinity effects on the microbial community composition have largely been limited to dynamic estuaries and coastal solar salterns. In this study, the effects of salinity and mineralogy on microbial community composition was studied by using a 900-cm sediment core collected from a stable, inland hypersaline lake, Lake Chaka, on the Tibetan Plateau, north-western China. This core, spanning a time of 17 000 years, was unique in that it possessed an entire range of salinity from freshwater clays and silty sands at the bottom to gypsum and glauberite in the middle, to halite at the top. Bacterial and archaeal communities were studied along the length of this core using an integrated approach combining mineralogy and geochemistry, molecular microbiology (16S rRNA gene analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction), cultivation and lipid biomarker analyses. Systematic changes in microbial community composition were correlated with the salinity gradient, but not with mineralogy. Bacterial community was dominated by the Firmicutes -related environmental sequences and known species (including sulfate-reducing bacteria) in the freshwater sediments at the bottom, but by halophilic and halotolerant Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in the hypersaline sediments at the top. Succession of proteobacterial groups along the salinity gradient, typically observed in free-living bacterial communities, was not observed in the sediment-associated community. Among Archaea, the Crenarchaeota were predominant in the bottom freshwater sediments, but the halophilic Halobacteriales of the Euryarchaeota was the most important group in the hypersaline sediments. Multiple isolates were obtained along the whole length of the core, and their salinity tolerance was consistent with the geochemical conditions. Iron-reducing bacteria were isolated in the freshwater sediments, which were capable of reducing structural Fe(III) in the Fe(III)-rich clay minerals predominant in the source sediment. These data have important implications for understanding how microorganisms respond to increased salinity in stable, inland water bodies. [source]

    Fund Manager Succession in Closed-End Mutual Funds

    FINANCIAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2000
    Wei Wang Rowe
    G20/G23/J63 Abstract Managing the succession process by the hiring and firing of key executives is one of the important functions of a board of directors. In this research we study successions of fund managers in the closed-end mutual fund industry. The agency issues inherent in closed-end mutual funds makes them a unique laboratory for such a study. Our results suggest that while the overall abnormal returns of these manager changes are statistically insignificant, that the returns are more positive for funds with large expense ratios and for funds trading at a discount. We also find the abnormal returns are negatively related to the percentage of inside director stock ownership. Corporate bond funds and international equity funds react more negatively to these announcements than other types of funds. The abnormal returns do not appear to be related to board composition, but board composition does vary across fund type, and may therefore indirectly influence the results. [source]

    Succession, palaeoecology, evolution, and speciation of Pennsylvanian non-marine bivalves, Northern Appalachian Basin, USA

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2 2003
    R. M. C. Eagar
    Abstract Seventeen horizons of non-marine bivalves are described within the Appalachian succession from the base of the Pottsville Group of Westphalian A-B age to the Uniontown coal of Stephanian C age at the top of the Carboniferous System. A new highly variable fauna of Anthraconaia from the roof shales of the Upper Freeport coal near Kempton, west Maryland, dates from late Westphalian D or very early Cantabrian time, on the evidence of non-marine shells and megafloras. Below this horizon, the Appalachian sequence reveals zones of Anthraconauta phillipsii and Anthraconauta tenuis in the same order as in Britain, whereas faunas of Anthraconaia of these zones are less common and differ from those of Britain. In all horizons above the Upper Freeport coal all non-marine bivalve faunas consist of stages in the sequences of two natural species, the groups of Anthraconaia prolifera and Anthraconaia puella-saravana. The first shows evidence of having lived in well-oxygenated, probably shallow, fresh water conditions of relatively wide extent. The second group lived preferentially in a plant-rich environment of relatively stagnant fresh water. Both groups are found in horizons associated with coal seams and may be seen together in the same habitats, but diagrams of variation (pictographs) suggest that there was no interbreeding between the two groups in either the Northern Appalachians or in southern Germany where the species split was first recognized. In the northern Spanish coalfields of Guardo-Valderrueda and Central Asturia, facies evidence suggests how an initial split may have taken place in the same morphological directions and into the same palaeoenvironments as the later split into two species. Appalachian deposition was generally slow and intermittent with frequent palaeosols. There is also evidence of erosion and of small palaeontological breaks in the sequence, especially near the eastern edge of the Northern Appalachian Basin in western Maryland. The amount of accumulated sediment was less than one-tenth of that of western Europe when basin centre deposition is compared. We found no evidence of a major palaeontological break representing Westphalian D strata overlain by Stephanian C strata. We figure non-marine bivalve faunas of Stephanian B age in association with the Pittsburgh and the Little Pittsburgh coals. Two new species of non-marine bivalves are described: Anthraconaia anthraconautiformis sp. nov. and Anthraconaia extrema sp. nov. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sir Robert Walpole and Hanover*

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 192 2003
    Nick Harding
    Historical commonplace notwithstanding, Sir Robert Walpole was not instinctively hostile to Hanover. On the contrary, he consistently argued that Britain's dynastic union with the Electorate should hurt neither country. Walpole and his surrogates formulated this policy to reconcile his early misgivings about Hanoverian influence during the Northern War with his later support for Hanover when endangered by British policy after 1725. Hanover's exposure to Britain's enemies and the accession of George II, whose German sentiments were initially less pronounced than his father's, temporarily combined to make the Electorate more popular. Walpole's policy served him well until the War of Austrian Succession, when the British public cared less for equity than for Hanoverian submission within dynastic union. A survey of his career, however, shows Sir Robert Walpole and British public opinion to have been more charitable towards Hanover than previously thought. [source]

    The Raising of American Troops for Service in the West Indies during the War of Austrian Succession, 1740,1

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 180 2000
    David Syrett
    This article is an account of the raising and dispatch to the West Indies of a regiment of troops recruited in the American colonies for the Vernon,Cathcart expedition to Cartagena on the Spanish Main. [source]

    Conquered England: Kingship, Succession and Tenure, 1066,1166 , By George Garnett

    HISTORY, Issue 317 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Struggle for the Succession in Late Elizabethan England: Politics, Polemics and Cultural Representations Edited by Jean-Christophe Mayer with a preface by Jenny Wormald

    HISTORY, Issue 305 2007
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Richard II and the Succession to the Crown

    HISTORY, Issue 303 2006
    The discovery and publication by Michael Bennett of Edward III's entailment of the crown upon his male descendants has raised many questions about the succession in Richard II's reign, very few of which have been examined by scholars. In addition, the supposed declaration by Richard that Roger Mortimer was the heir to the throne has continued to divide opinion. Two hypotheses have recently been put forward by scholars working independently to suggest that in the 1390s Richard pursued a deliberate policy of creating confusion as to the identity of his successor. A close examination of contemporary records and the continuation of the Eulogium Historiarum reveals that Richard II's declaration of the inheritance was made in parliament in 1386 and not 1385. This allows it to be re-contextualized within the crisis of that year and to form the basis of a more accurate appraisal of the succession question in the later 1380s and 1390s. The conclusion has considerable importance for historical understandings of Henry of Bolingbroke's part in the Appellants' crisis of 1387,8, relations between Richard and the Lancastrians in the 1390s, and the inheritance of the throne in 1399. [source]

    Succession of microbial communities during a biostimulation process as evaluated by DGGE and clone library analyses

    A. Ogino
    Aims:,The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the indigenous bacterial community structure for assessing the impact of biostimulation on spilled oil. Methods and Results:,Changes in the bacterial community structure were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library methods based on 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences. The results of DGGE, coupled with the use of the Shannon index and principal component analysis (PCA) and clone library analyses, were consistent. In the treated (fertilized) area, one operational taxonomic unit (OTU) became dominant during the fertilization period, and it was most closely related to Pseudomonas putida. Conclusions:,The bacterial community structure in the treated area was markedly different from that in the control (non-fertilized) area during the fertilization period, but in the two areas it became similar at 14 weeks after the end of fertilization. Significance and Impact of the Study:,The results suggest that the bacterial community structure was disrupted by the biostimulation treatment, but that it recovered immediately after the end of fertilization. [source]

    Succession in Gulf of Mexico Cold Seep Vestimentiferan Aggregations: The Importance of Spatial Variability

    MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    Derk C. Bergquist
    Abstract. The slow rate of change in hydrocarbon seep communities on the upper ­Louisiana slope prevents the use of direct observation in studying successional trends. We used a chronosequence consisting of three presumed stages , juvenile, adult and senescent , to test a previous model which proposed that sulfide availability and vestimentiferan growth and physiological health decline over the lifespan of a vestimenti­feran aggregation. We replicated the chronosequence at two sites to simultaneously ­explore the influence of spatial heterogeneity on the characteristics of these communities. We determined environmental sulfide concentrations and vestimentiferan growth and condition in at least two vestimentiferan aggregations representative of each stage at each of these two sites. Hydrogen sulfide concentrations were highly variable both above and below the sediment's surface, and sulfide was present in high concentrations to sediment depths of 70,cm. Vestimentiferan growth and condition varied significantly on multiple spatial scales from sites separated by tens of kilometers, to aggregations separated by tens to hundreds of meters within a site, to individual vestimentiferans ­separated by tens of centimeters within an aggregation. The striking variability in both environmental sulfide and vestimentiferan growth and condition within individual ­aggregations suggests a crucial role for microhabitat variability in the persistence of vestimentiferan aggregations at these sites. Few significant successional trends in ­environmental sulfide or vestimentiferan growth and condition were found over the three stages tested. [source]

    Qadhafi's Libya and the Prospect of Islamic Succession

    MIDDLE EAST POLICY, Issue 2 2000
    Ray Takeyh

    Women Pirs, Saintly Succession, and Spiritual Guidance in South Asian Sufism

    THE MUSLIM WORLD, Issue 1 2006
    Kelly Pemberton
    First page of article [source]

    A conceptual model of plant community changes following cessation of cultivation in semi-arid grassland

    Nathan K. Wong
    Abstract Question: Can vegetation changes that occur following cessation of cultivation for cereal crop production in semi-arid native grasslands be described using a conceptual model that explains plant community dynamics following disturbance? Location: Eighteen native grasslands with varying time-since-last cultivation across northern Victoria, Australia. Methods: We examined recovery of native grasslands after cessation of cultivation along a space for- time chronosequence. By documenting floristic composition and soil properties of grasslands with known cultivation histories, we established a conceptual model of the vegetation states that occur following cessation of cultivation and inferred transition pathways for community recovery. Results: Succession from an exotic-dominated grassland to native grassland followed a linear trajectory. These changes represent an increase in richness and cover of native forbs, a decrease in cover of exotic annual species and little change in native perennial graminoids and exotic perennial forbs. Using a state-and-transition model, two distinct vegetation states were evident: (1) an unstable, recently cultivated state, dominated by exotic annuals, and (2) a more diverse, stable state. The last-mentioned state can be divided into two further states based on species composition: (1) a never-cultivated state dominated by native perennial shrubs and grasses, and (2) a long-uncultivated state dominated by a small number of native perennial and native and exotic annual species that is best described as a subset of the never-cultivated state. Transitions between these states are hypothesized to be dependent upon landscape context, seed availability and soil recovery. Conclusions: Legacies of past land use on soils and vegetation of semi-arid grasslands are not as persistent as in other Australian communities. Recovery appears to follow a linear, directional model of post-disturbance regeneration which may be advanced by overcoming dispersal barriers hypothesised to restrict recovery. [source]

    The success of succession: a symposium commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Buell-Small Succession Study

    M.L. Cadenasso
    Motivation: The Buell-Small Succession Study (BSS) is the longest running study of post agricultural succession in North America. To honor this program, a symposium at the Ecological Society of America meetings was organized to explore the state of succession theory and its contribution to the field of ecology and its application to restoration. The BSS was originally motivated by two controversies in the literature during the 1950's. The first was between a community versus and individual basis of secondary succession. The second was the validity of the Initial Floristic Composition hypothesis. Location: Hutcheson Memorial Forest, Somerset, New Jersey, USA Methods: Vegetation composition and cover has been continuously quantified in permanent plots established in 10 old fields. Continued Research Motivation: The rich data set has documented population and community dynamics and the spatio-temporal controls and historical contingencies that influence those dynamics. The regulation of community dynamics continues to be a line of inquiry as does the application of results to restoration and understanding the dynamics of non-native species. Conclusions: Long term vegetation studies are uncommon in ecology yet they are uniquely valuable for understanding system dynamics , particularly if the studies capture periodic events or system shifts such as droughts and invasions by non-native species. Resilient long term studies, of which the BSS is an example, maintain methods and data structure while allowing motivating questions to evolve along side advancements in the theoretical and conceptual realms of the field. Succession continues to serve as a basic tenet of ecology which is demonstrated by the papers making up this special issue. [source]

    Impact of land use changes on mountain vegetation

    Erich Tasser
    Abstract. In this study the impact of land use changes on vegetation in the sub-alpine-alpine belt is analysed. The study sites (4.7 km2) are located in the Passeier Valley (South Tyrol, Italy), at an elevation of 1500,2300 m a.s.l. The whole study area was used for hay-making ca. 60 yr ago. Today, part of the meadows are more intensively used, while other parts have been converted to pasture or have been abandoned. We analysed the reasons for these land use changes and the effects on vegetation with a Geographical Information System and geostatistical analysis. The result of these analyses are: (1) Current land use is mainly controlled by the degree of accessibility for vehicles. Accessible areas are being used more and more intensively, while poorly accessible areas are being abandoned or used as pasture. (2) Current vegetation is highly determined by current land use. Particular vegetation units can be assigned to each form of land use. (3) Succession starts immediately after abandonment. Depending on altitude, succession proceeds at different speeds and with different numbers of stages. Hence the type of vegetation indicates the time passed since abandonment. (4) Land use changes lead to characteristic changes in vegetation; they are considered to be the most important driving force for vegetation change. (5) Measures of intensification and abandonment of extensively used areas both lead to a decrease in the number of species. [source]

    Succession during the re-creation of a flood-meadow 1985-1999

    Alison W. McDonald
    Rodwell (1993; 2000) for vascular plants Abstract. The study site, Somerford Mead, is located on the river Thames floodplain and was a species-rich flood-meadow in the 1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s it was subjected to intensive grassland management with regular NPK additions and occasional herbicide treatment. In 1981 Somerford Mead was ploughed for the first time and converted to arable land. Seeds of an Alopecuruspratensis-Sanguisorba officinalis flood-meadow community (MG4; Rodwell 1992) were sown onto prepared soil in the autumn of 1986, and botanical records were made from 1985 to 1999. From 1989 to 1999, three replicates of three treatments: cow-grazing, sheep-grazing and no-grazing were introduced after hay-cutting. Analysis successfully separated the establishment phase from the experimental phase and showed a significant difference between the grazed and ungrazed treatments. Abiotic and biotic factors which might contribute to successional trends are discussed. A convoluted pattern for each treatment could be attributed in part to intrinsic,cycles'of perennial hemicryptophytes behaving as short-lived species and in part to the percentage frequency of many species which was reduced in 1990 and 1995/1996, years of drought. After the initial inoculation of MG4 seed and the disappearance of arable therophytes, recruitment of new species was very slow. Coefficients for Somerford Mead matched against MG4 (Rodwell 1992) produced an equilibrium within three years. It subsequently fluctuated over a 10-yr period well below the level of Oxey Mead, the donor site. Land managers should ensure that their proposed site has the right soils and hydrology for MG4 grassland and that traditional management of hay-cutting and aftermath grazing is practised. Only one cut a year in July could lead to a reduction in percentage frequency of most species except Arrhenatherum elatius. [source]

    The role of spontaneous vegetation succession in ecosystem restoration: A perspective

    Karel Prach
    Abstract. The paper summarizes ideas which were discussed during the ,Spontaneous Succession in Ecosystem Restoration' conference and elaborated through further discussion among the authors. It seeks to promote the integration of scientific knowledge on spontaneous vegetation succession into restoration programs. A scheme illustrating how knowledge of spontaneous succession may be applied to restoration is presented, and perspectives and possible future research on using spontaneous vegetation succession in ecosystem restoration are proposed. It is concluded that when implementing spontaneous succession for ecological restoration the following points must be considered: setting clear aims; evaluation of environmental site conditions; deciding whether spontaneous succession is an appropriate way to achieve the aims; prediction of successional development; monitoring of the results. The need for interdisciplinary approaches and communication between scientists, engineers and decision-makers is emphasized. [source]

    The Role of Frugivorous Bats in Tropical Forest Succession

    BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Issue 4 2007
    Robert Muscarella
    Abstract Discussion of successional change has traditionally focused on plants. The role of animals in producing and responding to successional change has received far less attention. Dispersal of plant propagules by animals is a fundamental part of successional change in the tropics. Here we review the role played by frugivorous bats in successional change in tropical forests. We explore the similarities and differences of this ecological service provided by New and Old World seed-dispersing bats and conclude with a discussion of their current economic and conservation implications. Our review suggests that frugivorous New World phyllostomid bats play a more important role in early plant succession than their Old World pteropodid counterparts. We propose that phyllostomid bats have shared a long evolutionary history with small-seeded early successional shrubs and treelets while pteropodid bats are principally dispersers of the seeds of later successional canopy fruits. When species of figs (Ficus) are involved in the early stages of primary succession (e.g. in the river meander system in Amazonia and on Krakatau, Indonesia), both groups of bats are important contributors of propagules. Because they disperse and sometimes pollinate canopy trees, pteropodid bats have a considerable impact on the economic value of Old World tropical forests; phyllostomid bats appear to make a more modest direct contribution to the economic value of New World tropical forests. Nonetheless, because they critically influence forest regeneration, phyllostomid bats make an important indirect contribution to the economic value of these forests. Overall, fruit-eating bats play important roles in forest regeneration throughout the tropics, making their conservation highly desirable. [source]

    Changes in Structure, Composition, and Nutrients During 15 Yr of Hurricane-Induced Succession in a Subtropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 4 2010
    Tamara Heartsill Scalley
    ABSTRACT The trajectory of hurricane-induced succession was evaluated in a network of forest plots measured immediately before and 3 mo, 5, 10, and 15 yr after the direct impact of a Category 4 hurricane. Comparisons of forest structure, composition, and aboveground nutrients pools were made through time, and between species, life-history groups and geomorphic settings. The hurricane reduced aboveground biomass by 50 percent, causing an immediate decrease in stem density and diversity indices among all geomorphic settings. After 15 yr, basal area and aboveground biomass returned to pre-hurricane levels, while species richness, diversity indices, and stem densities exceeded pre-hurricane levels. Differences in species composition among geomorphic settings had not returned after 15 yr but differences in stem densities and structure were beginning to emerge. Significant differences were observed in the nutrient concentration of the three species that comprised the most aboveground biomass, and between species categorized as secondary high-light species and primary, low-light species. Species whose abundance was negatively correlated with the mature forest dominant also had distinct nutrient concentrations. When total aboveground nutrient pools were compared over time, differences in leaf nutrients among species were hidden by similarities in wood nutrient concentrations and the biomass dominance of a few species. The observed successional trajectory indicates that changes in species composition contributed to fast recovery of aboveground biomass and nutrient pools, while the influence of geomorphic setting on species composition occurs at time scales >15 yr of succession. Abstract in Spanish is available at [source]

    Succession and Micro-elevation Effects on Seedling Establishment of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. (Clusiaceae) in an Amazonian River Meander Forest1

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 4 2003
    Rachel T. King
    ABSTRACT I investigated the effects of successional stage and micro-elevation on seedling establishment of Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae), a common canopy tree of seasonally flooded lowland forest along the Manú River meander zone in southeastern Peru. To compare seedling establishment between microhabitat types, I planted C. brasiliense seeds in a fully crossed experimental design of three successional stages (early, mid, and mature) and two micro-elevations (levees and backwaters). Seedling establishment success in this study was affected by both successional stage and micro-elevation, but micro-elevation was most important in mid-successional habitats. In general, seedlings in early succession experienced better conditions than in mature forest; light levels were higher, herbivory lower, and seedling growth higher. In mid-successional forest, micro-elevation determined habitat quality; backwaters had higher light levels, lower herbivory, and higher seedling growth and survival than levees. Mid-successional backwaters were similar in quality to early successional forest for seedling establishment, while levees in that same successional stage were the poorest microhabitats for establishment. Although mid-successional backwaters are similar to early succession for seedling establishment, in the long run, seedlings that establish in mid-succession have a lower chance of reaching reproductive size before their habitat ages to mature forest than members of their cohort that established in early succession. I hypothesize that successful recruitment for C. brasiliense in the Manú River meander system requires dispersal to early successional habitat. RESUMEN Yo investingé el efecto de microhábitats del sistema serpentine ribereño, los cuales se diferencian en estado sucesional y en microelevación, en el establecimiento de plántulas de Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae), un árbol común en bosques estacionalmente inundados alrededor de los meandros del Río Manú en Perú. Para comparar establecimiento de plántulas entre los microhábitats, sembré semillas de C. brasiliense en seis condiciones de microhábitat, combinando los efectos de tres estados sucesionales (bosque temprano, mediano, y maduro) y dos microelevaciones (lomos y depresiones). El establecimiento de plántulas en este estudio fue afectado por estado sucesional y por microelevación, pero microelevación fue más importante en sucesión mediana. En general, plántulas en sucesión temprana tenían mejores condiciones que plántulas de bosque maduro; niveles de luz más altos, menor herbivoría, y una mayor tasa de crecimiento. En sucesión mediana, microelevacion determinó calidad de hábitat; depresiones presentaron más luz, menos herbivoria, y mayor crecimiento y sobreviviencia de plántulas que los lomos. Depresiones en sucesión mediano fueran similares en calidad a sucesión temprano en cuanto al establecimiento de plántulas, mientras que lomos en este mismo estado sucesional fueron los peores microhábitats para establecimiento. A largo plazo, las plántulas establecidas en sucesión mediano tienen menos probabilidad de alcanzar el tamaño reproductive (antes de que el hábitat llega a ser bosque maduro) que las plántulas de la misma edad, establecidas en sucesión temprana. El reclutamiento efectivo de C. brasiliense en el sistema serpentino del Río Manú probablemente requiere la dispersión al hábitat de sucesión temprana. [source]

    The Role of Cloud Combing and Shading by Isolated Trees in the Succession from Maquis to Rain Forest in New Caledonia1

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2002
    L. S. Rigg
    ABSTRACT This study examined the role of shading and cloud combing of moisture by scattered trees of the emergent conifer Araucaria laubenfelsii (Corbass.) in montane shrubland-maquis at Mont Do, New Caledonia, in facilitating the succession from shrubland to rain forest. Water collection experiments showed that these trees combed significant amounts of water from low clouds on days when no rainfall was recorded and deposited this moisture on the ground beneath the tree canopy. Analysis of photosystem II function in A. laubenfelsii and five other plant species using fluorometry revealed much lower photosystem stress in plants beneath scattered A. laubenfelsii than for individuals exposed to full sunlight in the open maquis. Transition matrix analyses of vegetation change based on "the most likely recruit to succeed" indicated that the transition from maquis to forest was markedly faster when emergent trees of A. laubenfelsii acted as nuclei for forest species invasion of die maquis. On the basis of these lines of evidence, it is argued that increased moisture and shading supplied to the area directly below the crown of isolated A. laubenfelsii trees in the maquis facilitates the establishment of both conifer seedlings and other rain forest tree and shrub species. In the absence of fire, rain forest can reestablish through spread in two ways: first, by expansion from remnant patches, and second, from coalescence of small rain forest patches formed around individual trees of A. laubenfelsii. [source]

    Forest Succession in Tropical Hardwood Hammocks of the Florida Keys: Effects of Direct Mortality from Hurricane Andrew,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 1 2001
    Michael S. Ross
    ABSTRACT A tree species replacement sequence for dry broadleaved forests (tropical hardwood hammocks) in the upper Florida Keys was inferred from species abundances in stands abandoned from agriculture or other anthropogenic acitivities at different times in the past. Stands were sampled soon after Hurricane Andrew, with live and hurricane-killed trees recorded separately; thus it was also possible to assess the immediate effect of Hurricane Andrew on stand successional status. We used weighted averaging regression to calculate successional age optima and tolerances for all species, based on the species composition of the pre-hurricane stands. Then we used weighted averaging calibration to calculate and compare inferred successional ages for stands based on (1) the species composition of the pre-hurricane stands and (2) the hurricane-killed species assemblages. Species characteristic of the earliest stages of post-agricultural stand development remains a significant component of the forest for many years, but are gradually replaced by taxa not present, even as seedlings, during the first few decades. This compositional sequence of a century or more is characterized by the replacement of deciduous by evergreen species, which is hypothesized to be driven by increasing moisture storage capacity in the young organic soils. Mortality from Hurricane Andrew was concentrated among early-successional species, thus tending to amplify the long-term trend in species composition. [source]

    Diagenesis and Their Succession of Gas-bearing and Non-gas-bearing Reservoirs in the Sulige Gas Field of Ordos Basin, China

    ZHU Xiaomin
    Abstract: Comparisons have been made among lithology, diagenesis, and reservoir characteristics of gas-bearing and non-gas-bearing ones in the Sulige gas field of the Ordos Basin based on the laboratory analysis of thin sections, scanning electron microscope, and liquid inclusion of the reservoirs. The reservoirs of the Sulige gas field are now in the middle stage of diagenesis and have undergone compaction, cementation and dissolution. The secondary pore of the reservoir originated from the dissolution of the feldspar and tuff because of the organic acid action from the source rocks during the diagenetic middle stage. Gas-bearing reservoirs are common in soluble pore diagenetic facies of coarse detritus quartzose sandstone, whereas non-gas-bearing ones are common in tense compaction diagenetic facies of mud-bearing medium-fine detritus quartzose sandstone and residual intergranular pore diagenetic facies of mud-bearing medium-coarse detritus quartzose sandstone. The secondary pore is developed in gas-bearing reservoirs of the Sulige gas-field as the medium-coarse grain reservoirs formed in a powerful sedimentary environment and experienced strong dissolution. However, the sediments of fine grain size form the non-gas-bearing reservoirs because of less residual primary pore and secondary pore. [source]

    Permo-Triassic development from Ireland to Norway: basin architecture and regional controls

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 6 2009
    Abstract Extensive occurrences of Permo-Triassic strata are preserved along the Northwest European Atlantic margin. Seismic reflection and well data are used to describe large-scale Permo-Triassic basin geometries along a swath of the continental shelf more than 2000,km long extending from the Irish to the mid-Norwegian sectors. Successions in the Celtic Sea, the flanks of the Irish Rockall Basin, basins west and north of Scotland, and the Trøndelag and Horda platforms west of Norway are described. The large-scale Permo-Triassic depositional geometries commonly represent erosional remnants of larger basins modified by later rifting episodes, uplift, inversion and continental breakup. However, the interpreted geometries reveal spatial and temporal differences in rifting style. The basins developed above a complex mosaic of petrologically heterogeneous crustal terranes with inherited crustal fabrics, which had a significant impact on the depositional basin geometries. Small Permian basins with growth faulting developed in the southern Celtic Sea region. Extensive, uniformly thick Triassic strata are characteristic of the wide rift basins in the southeastern Rockall Basin and northwest of the Solan Bank High. Thick, fault-controlled basins developed in the Horda and Trøndelag platform regions. The main controls on Permo-Triassic basin architecture are (a) crustal thickness and composition, which determined the development of narrow or wide rift basin geometries, (b) inherited Variscan, Caledonian and Precambrian basement structures and (c) pre-rift palaeotopography. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Art of Handing Over: (Mis)Managing Party Leadership Successions

    Fredrik Bynander
    First page of article [source]

    One Hundred Fifty Years of Change in Forest Bird Breeding Habitat: Estimates of Species Distributions

    aptitud del hábitat; ecología aviar; ecología de paisaje; planificación de conservación Abstract:,Evaluating bird population trends requires baseline data. In North America the earliest population data available are those from the late 1960s. Forest conditions in the northern Great Lake states (U.S.A.), however, have undergone succession since the region was originally cut over around the turn of the twentieth century, and it is expected that bird populations have undergone concomitant change. We propose pre-Euro-American settlement as an alternative baseline for assessing changes in bird populations. We evaluated the amount, quality, and distribution of breeding bird habitat during the mid-1800s and early 1990s for three forest birds: the Pine Warbler (Dendroica pinus), Blackburnian Warbler (D. fusca), and Black-throated Green Warbler (D. virens). We constructed models of bird and habitat relationships based on literature review and regional data sets of bird abundance and applied these models to widely available vegetation data. Original public-land survey records represented historical habitat conditions, and a combination of forest inventory and national land-cover data represented current conditions. We assessed model robustness by comparing current habitat distribution to actual breeding bird locations from the Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas. The model showed little change in the overall amount of Pine Warbler habitat, whereas both the Blackburnian Warber and the Black-throated Green Warbler have experienced substantial habitat losses. For the species we examined, habitat quality has degraded since presettlement and the spatial distribution of habitat shifted among ecoregions, with range expansion accompanying forest incursion into previously open habitats or the replacement of native forests with pine plantations. Sources of habitat loss and degradation include loss of conifers and loss of large trees. Using widely available data sources in a habitat suitability model framework, our method provides a long-term analysis of change in bird habitat and a presettlement baseline for assessing current conservation priority. Resumen:,La evaluación de tendencias de las poblaciones de aves requiere de datos de referencia. En Norte América, los primeros datos disponibles de poblaciones son del final de la década de 1960. Sin embargo, las condiciones de los bosques en los estados de los Grandes Lagos (E.U.A.) han experimentado sucesión desde que la región fue talada en los inicios del siglo veinte, y se espera que las poblaciones de aves hayan experimentado cambios concomitantes. Proponemos que se considere al período previo a la colonización euro americana como referencia alternativa para evaluar los cambios en las poblaciones de aves. Evaluamos la cantidad, calidad y distribución del hábitat para reproducción de tres especies de aves de bosque (Dendroica pinus, D. fusca y D. virens) a mediados del siglo XIX e inicios del XX. Construimos modelos de las relaciones entre las aves y el hábitat con base en la literatura y conjuntos de datos de abundancia de aves y los aplicamos a los datos de vegetación ampliamente disponibles. Los registros topográficos de tierras públicas originales representaron las condiciones históricas del hábitat, y una combinación de datos del inventario forestal y de cobertura de suelo representaron las condiciones actuales. Evaluamos la robustez del modelo mediante la comparación de la distribución de hábitat actual con sitios de reproducción de aves registrados en el Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas. El modelo mostró poco cambio en la cantidad total de hábitat de Dendroica pinus, mientras que tanto D. fusca como D. virens han experimentado pérdidas sustanciales de hábitat. Para las especies examinadas, la calidad del hábitat se ha degradado desde antes de la colonización y la distribución espacial del hábitat cambió entre ecoregiones, con la expansión del rango acompañando la incursión de bosques en hábitats anteriormente abiertos o el reemplazo de bosques nativos con plantaciones de pinos. Las fuentes de pérdida y degradación de hábitats incluyen la pérdida de coníferas y de árboles grandes. Mediante la utilización de fuentes de datos ampliamente disponibles en un modelo de aptitud de hábitat, nuestro método proporciona un análisis a largo plazo de los cambios en el hábitat de aves y una referencia precolonización para evaluar prioridades de conservación actuales. [source]