Submucous Fibrosis (submucou + fibrosis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Submucous Fibrosis

  • oral submucou fibrosis

  • Selected Abstracts

    The oral health consequences of chewing areca nut

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    C. R. Trivedy
    Its effects on dental caries and periodontal tissues, two major oral diseases, are less well researched. Areca-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa or tongue are reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers a condition known as betel chewer's mucosa, a discoloured areca nut-encrusted change, is often found where the quid particles are retained. Areca nut chewing is implicated in oral leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes in Asian populations. In 1985 the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence to conclude that areca chewing may directly lead to oral cancer. There is, however, new information linking oral cancer to pan chewing without tobacco, suggesting a strong cancer risk associated with this habit. Public health measures to quit areca use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as submucous fibrosis and oral cancer among Asian populations. [source]

    Prevalence of oral cancer and pre-cancer and associated risk factors among tea estate workers in the central Sri Lanka

    A. Ariyawardana
    Background:, To screen for oral cancer or not is being debated, but for high-risk populations with minimal access to regular dental care systematic oral examinations could provide some benefit. Methods:, We undertook oral mucosal examinations of labourers employed in tea estate plantations in Sri Lanka. In a two-stage screening procedure, first by estate medical officers and then by visiting specialists, we examined 12 716 persons at their workplaces achieving a coverage of one-sixth of the total workforce. Results:, Fourteen oral cancers and 848 subjects with oral pre-cancer (6.7%) were detected giving population prevalences of 46.1 per 1000 for leukoplakia and 16.4 per 1000 for oral submucous fibrosis. Among subjects with any oral mucosal disorder (n = 1159) proportions of current users of betel quid, smokers and alcohol use was recorded at 92%, 31% and 61% respectively. The synergistic effect of these three risk habits on the development of oral leukoplakia was evident in mixed habit groups. Conclusions:, The prevalence of oral pre-cancer in tea estate labourers was higher than estimates reported in previous studies. In the absence of state-sponsored preventive activities, it is necessary to improve the capacity of individual health practitioners and small medical centres to participate in oral health promotion and oral cancer/pre-cancer screening. [source]

    Oral submucous fibrosis: study of 1000 cases from central India

    V. K. Hazarey
    Background:, Very few reports have been published on the gender specificity of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) in relation to habit patterns and the severity of disease in the world literature. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the gender specificity for different habits and severity of OSF. Methods:, A hospital-based cross-sectional study on various habit patterns associated with OSF was performed in Nagpur over a 5-year period. A total of 1000 OSF cases from 266 418 out patients comprised the study sample. Results:, The male-to-female ratio of OSF was 4.9:1. Occurrence of OSF was at a significant younger age group (<30 years) among men when compared with women (OR = 4.62, 3.22,6.63, P = 0.0001). Reduced mouth opening, altered salivation and altered taste sensation were found to be significantly more prevalent in women when compared with men. Exclusive areca nut chewing habit was significantly more prevalent in women (OR = 44.5, 25.4,79.8, P = 0.0001). Whereas significant increase for Gutkha (Areca quid with tobacco) (OR = 2.33, 1.56,3.54, P = 0.0001) and kharra/Mawa (crude combination of areca nut and tobacco) (OR = 6.8, 4.36,11.06, P = 0.0001) chewing was found in men when compared with women. Conclusions:, There is a marked difference in literacy, socioeconomic status, areca nut chewing habits, symptoms and disease severity in women when compared with men in the central Indian population. [source]

    Effect of betel chewing, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on oral submucous fibrosis: a case,control study in Sri Lanka

    A. Ariyawardana
    Background:, Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, insidious, disabling potentially malignant condition of the oral mucosa seen predominantly in south and Southeast Asia. No reports are hitherto available on the aetiological factors of OSMF based on Sri Lankan patients. Methods:, A total of 74 patients with OSMF and 74 controls who consecutively attended the Oral Medicine clinic at the Dental Hospital (Teaching) Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka were included in the study. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to model the influence of betel chewing, smoking and alcohol use and to determine the effects of different combinations of chewing habits on OSMF. Results:, Betel chewing was the only significantly associated factor in the aetiology of OSMF (OR = 171.83, 95% CI: 36.35,812.25). There were no interaction effects of chewing, smoking and alcohol consumption in the causation of OSMF. Conclusion:, The present study has shown a strong association of betel quid chewing (including tobacco as an ingredient) with the causation of OSMF. [source]

    Correlation between functional genotypes in the matrix metalloproteinases-1 promoter and risk of oral squamous cell carcinomas

    Shu-Chun Lin
    Background:, Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), which are highly associated with areca use, are prevalent in most Asian countries. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are superfamily of metal-dependent proteolytic enzymes, mediating the degradation of extracellular matrix. Insertion/deletion (,1607 2G,1G) polymorphism has been described in the promoter region of the human matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) genes, which cause an alteration in the transcriptional activity. This genotype is associated with risks of cancer genesis and metastasis. In this paper, we studied the relationship between such genotype and areca-associated oral diseases. Methods:, Genomic DNA from the blood of OSCC (n = 121), OSF (n = 58) cases and controls (n = 147) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping. The OSCC were further grouped into buccal squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and non-buccal suqmaous cell carcinoma (NBSCC), in accord with the site of involvement. The significance of the differences was assessed by Fisher's exact test. Results:, The 2G genotype in MMP-1 promoter was observed with a higher frequency in both OSCC (0.69, P = 0.06) and NBSCC (0.76, P = 0.03) cases compared with controls (0.63), with an odds ratio of 2.17 and 4.58, respectively. This genotype was not related to the risk of OSF. No other clinicopathologic parameter was associated with the genotypes in OSCC cases. Conclusion:, The results showed that 2G genotype in MMP-1 promoter was associated with the risk of OSCC. [source]

    HLA typing in Taiwanese patients with oral submucous fibrosis

    Hsin-Ming Chen
    Background:, A significant association of certain human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and haplotypic pairs with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) has been reported. However, controversial result of no HLA association with OSF has also been reported. In this study, the phenotype and haplotype frequencies of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 in 135 Taiwanese OSF patients were calculated and compared with those in 540 healthy control Taiwanese. Methods:, The analysis of HLA-A, -B, and -C antigens, and of HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles in OSF patients and healthy control subjects, was performed by serologic typing and DNA typing using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP), respectively. Results:, We found that the phenotype frequency of HLA-B76 (3.0%) in OSF patients was significantly greater than that (0%) in healthy control subjects (corrected P (Pc) = 0.000). In addition, the haplotype frequencies of HLA-B48/Cw7 (3.0%), -B51/Cw7 (6.7%), and -B62/Cw7 (8.2%) in OSF patients were significantly greater than the corresponding haplotype frequencies (0, 0.7, and 1.9%, respectively) in healthy control subjects (Pc = 0.000). The relative risk (RR) values of haplotypes B51/Cw7 (9.57) and B62/Cw7 (4.7) were greater than the RR values of phenotypes B51 (1.81), B62 (2.31), and Cw7 (1.91) in OSF patients. In addition, the etiologic fraction (EF) value of haplotype B51/Cw7 (0.63) was higher than the EF values of phenotypes B51 (0.2) and Cw7 (0.59). Conclusions:, We conclude that some Taiwanese areca quid (AQ) chewers with particular HLA phenotypes and haplotypes are prone to have OSF. In addition, some particular HLA haplotypes may play more important roles than the individual HLA phenotypes for the genetic susceptibility to OSF. However, the significantly increased HLA phenotype B76 and three of the common HLA haplotypes detected are present in only about 20% of incident cases of OSF. [source]

    Association of CTLA-4 gene polymorphism with oral submucous fibrosis in Taiwan

    Yi-Ning Shin
    Background:, Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an insidious, pre-cancerous, chronic disease that may affect the entire oral cavity and sometimes extend to the pharynx. It has been reported to be associated with immune function. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4; CD (cluster of differentiation) 152) is a negative regulator of T-lymphocyte activation. Particular genotypes of the locus encoding the CTLA-4 glycoprotein have been associated with susceptibility to various autoimmune diseases. This study was designed to investigate the role of CTLA-4 polymorphism in susceptibility to OSF. Methods:, We genotyped 62 patients with OSF and 147 healthy controls for allelic determinants at the exon 1 +49 polymorphism site by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Genotype and phenotype frequencies were evaluated with Chi-squared test. Results:, The G allele at position +49 of exon 1 was significantly associated with OSF. The frequency of A/A homozygotes was higher in controls than in patients (17.0% vs. 3.2%; ,2 = 7.65, P = 0.02); the G phenotype was more frequent in patients than in controls (96.8% vs. 83.0%; ,2 = 9.31, P = 0.002). Compared with controls, the G allele genotype and phenotype frequencies were increased in patients with OSF. Conclusion:, This is the first report that the CTLA-4 +49 G allele confers an increased risk of OSF in Taiwan. [source]

    Synergistic effects of nicotine on arecoline-induced cytotoxicity in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts

    Yu-Chao Chang
    Abstract: Areca quid chewing has been linked to oral submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, is considered to be the most important etiologic factor in the areca nut. In order to elucidate the pathobiological effects of arecoline, cytotoxicity assays, cellular glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and lipid peroxidation assay were employed to investigate cultured human buccal mucosal fibroblasts. To date, there is a large proportion of areca quid chewers who are also smokers. Furthermore, nicotine, the major product of cigarette smoking, was added to test how it modulated the cytotoxicity of arecoline. At a concentration higher than 50 ,g/ml, arecoline was shown to be cytotoxic to human buccal fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner by the alamar blue dye colorimetric assay (P<0.05). In addition, arecoline significantly decreased GST activity in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). At concentrations of 100 ,g/ml and 400 ,g/ml, arecoline reduced GST activity about 21% and 46%, respectively, during a 24 h incubation period. However, arecoline at any test dose did not increase lipid peroxidation in the present human buccal fibroblast test system. The addition of extracellular nicotine acted synergistically on the arecoline-induced cytotoxicity. Arecoline at a concentration of 50 ,g/ml caused about 30% of cell death over the 24 h incubation period. However, 2.5 mM nicotine enhanced the cytotoxic response and caused about 50% of cell death on 50 ,g/ml arecoline-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, arecoline may render human buccal mucosal fibroblasts more vulnerable to other reactive agents in cigarettes via GST reduction. The compounds of tobacco products may act synergistically in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal lesions in areca quid chewers. The data presented here may partly explain why patients who combined the habits of areca quid chewing and cigarette smoking are at greater risk of contracting oral cancer. [source]

    Copper stimulates human oral fibroblasts in vitro: a role in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis

    C. Trivedy
    Abstract: Copper is implicated in the pathogenesis of several fibrotic disorders. Areca nut has been shown to have a high copper content and areca chewing is associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). The effects of copper on human oral fibroblasts were investigated in vitro. Human oral fibroblasts were incubated with copper chloride (CuCl2) at concentrations ranging from 0.01 ,M to 500 ,M for 24 h, and in vitro cell proliferation was assayed by incorporation of tritiated,thymidine; soluble and non-soluble collagen synthesis was assayed using tritiated-proline. Addition of copper chloride at concentrations ranging from 0.1 ,M to 50 ,M increased the collagen synthesis by the oral fibroblasts compared with growth without copper (P<0.05). The addition of copper chloride neither increased the synthesis of non-collagenous proteins by the fibroblasts nor influenced their proliferation rate. We conclude that copper upregulates collagen production in oral fibroblasts. This appears to be concentration dependent, with peak collagen synthesis at 50 ,M CuCl2. These in vitro results taken together with the recent findings of copper in oral biopsies from OSF subjects support the hypothesis that copper in areca nut acts as a mediator of OSF. [source]

    Diffusion of reduced arecoline and arecaidine through human vaginal and buccal mucosa

    P. Van der Bijl
    Abstract: Because alkaloids from areca nut, arecoline and arecaidine, have been implicated in the development of oral submucous fibrosis, we determined their diffusion kinetics through human buccal and vaginal mucosa. Four clinically healthy vaginal mucosa specimens (mean patient age± standard deviation: 47±15 years; age range: 31,60 years) and 4 buccal mucosa specimens from 2 male patients and 2 female patients (mean patient age±standard deviation: 31±9 years; age range: 17,53 years) were obtained during surgery. In vitro flux rates of reduced arecoline and arecaidine (r-arecoline and r-arecaidine) were determined by use of a flow-through diffusion apparatus. Analysis of variance, a Duncan multiple range test, and an unpaired t -test were used to determine steady state kinetics and flux differences over time intervals. Although statistically significant differences were observed between flux values for both alkaloids and tissues at certain time points, these were not considered to be of biological (clinical) significance. However, the flux rates across both mucosa of r-arecoline were significantly higher statistically than those of r-arecaidine. The findings demonstrated the differences in the diffusion kinetics between r-arecoline and r-arecaidine across human buccal and vaginal mucosa, an observation that could be explained in terms of their ionisation characteristics. Additionally, the results obtained further support the hypothesis that human vaginal mucosa can be used as a model for buccal mucosa in studies of permeability to various chemical compounds. [source]

    Interferon gamma (IFN-,) may reverse oral submucous fibrosis

    M. F. Haque
    Abstract: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic disease of the oral cavity and oropharyngx characterised by fibrosis in the submucosa leading to progressive limitation of the mouth opening. Interferon gamma (IFN-,) is a known anti-fibrotic cytokine. In this study we have investigated: a) the effect of IFN-, on collagen synthesis by arecoline-stimulated OSF fibroblasts in vitro (n=5), b) the effect of intra-lesional IFN-, on the fibrosis of OSF patients (n=29) and c) the immunohistochemical analysis of pre- and post-treatment inflammatory cell infiltrates and cytokine levels in the lesional tissue (n=29). The results show that the increased collagen synthesis in vitro in response to arecoline was inhibited in the presence of IFN-, (0.01,10.0 U/ml) in a dose-related way. In an open uncontrolled study intra-lesional IFN-, treatment showed improvement in the patients mouth opening from an inter-incisal distance before treatment of 21±7 mm, to 30±7 mm immediately after treatment and 30±8 mm 6-months later, giving a net gain of 8±4 mm (42%) (range 4,15 mm). Patients also reported reduced burning dysaesthesia and increased suppleness of the buccal mucosa. The post-treatment immunohistochemistry showed a decreased amount of inflammatory cell infiltrate and an altered level of cytokines compared with the pre-treatment lesional tissue. The effect of IFN-, on collagen synthesis appears to be a key to the treatment of these patients, and intra-lesional injections of the cytokine may have a significant therapeutic effect on OSF. [source]

    Regulation of oxidative-stress responsive genes by arecoline in human keratinocytes

    G. S. Thangjam
    Background and Objective:, Arecoline, an arecanut alkaloid present in the saliva of betel quid chewers, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory oral diseases, including oral submucous fibrosis and periodontitis. To understand the molecular basis of arecoline action in epithelial changes associated with these diseases, we investigated the effects of arecoline on human keratinocytes with respect to cell growth regulation and the expression of stress-responsive genes. Material and Methods:, Human keratinocyte cells (of the HaCaT cell line) were treated with arecoline, following which cell viability was assessed using the Trypan Blue dye-exclusion assay, cell growth and proliferation were analyzed using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation assays, cell cycle arrest and generation of reactive oxygen species were examined using flow cytometry, and gene expression changes were investigated using the reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction technique. The role of oxidative stress, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were studied using specific inhibitors. Western blot analysis was performed to study p38 MAPK activation. Results:, Arecoline induced the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase in HaCaT cells without affecting the expression of p21/Cip1. Arecoline-induced epithelial cell death at higher concentrations was caused by oxidative trauma without eliciting apoptosis. Sublethal concentrations of arecoline upregulated the expression of the following stress-responsive genes: heme oxygenase-1; ferritin light chain; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit; and glutathione reductase. Additionally, there was a dose-dependent induction of interleukin-1alfa mRNA by arecoline via oxidative stress and p38 MAPK activation. Conclusion:, Our data highlight the role of oxidative stress in arecoline-mediated cell death, gene regulation and inflammatory processes in human keratinocytes. [source]

    Uvular abnormalities in patients with submucous fibrosis

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 7 2009
    P Chaturvedi

    Molecular genetics of premalignant oral lesions

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 2 2007
    SK Mithani
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by cellular and subcellular alterations that are associated with a progression towards dedifferentiation and growth. There are several histologically distinct lesions of the oral cavity which have malignant potential. These are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, lichen planus, and submucous fibrosis. These are characterized by a spectrum of chromosomal, genetic, and molecular alterations that they share with each other as well as with the malignant lesions that develop from them. In this review we summarize the investigation of the molecular genetics of each of these lesions and relate them to the alterations, which have been demonstrated in OSCC, to define their location on the continuum of changes, which lead to malignant transformation. [source]