Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Subunit

  • acetylcholine receptor subunit
  • achr subunit
  • alpha subunit
  • ampa receptor subunit
  • b subunit
  • beta subunit
  • c oxidase subunit
  • c subunit
  • catalytic subunit
  • channel subunit
  • cholera toxin b subunit
  • complex subunit
  • core subunit
  • cytochrome c oxidase subunit
  • cytochrome oxidase subunit
  • dehydrogenase subunit
  • different subunit
  • distinct subunit
  • enzyme subunit
  • g protein subunit
  • gabaa receptor subunit
  • glur2 subunit
  • glutamate receptor subunit
  • glutenin subunit
  • i subunit
  • identical subunit
  • individual subunit
  • integrin subunit
  • isolated subunit
  • kainate receptor subunit
  • kda subunit
  • large ribosomal subunit
  • large subunit
  • largest subunit
  • major subunit
  • nachr subunit
  • nadh dehydrogenase subunit
  • neighbouring subunit
  • nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit
  • nmda receptor subunit
  • nr1 subunit
  • nr2 subunit
  • nr2a subunit
  • nr2b subunit
  • one subunit
  • other subunit
  • oxidase subunit
  • partial large subunit
  • pore-forming subunit
  • potassium channel subunit
  • proteasome subunit
  • protein subunit
  • r1 subunit
  • receptor subunit
  • recombinant cholera toxin b subunit
  • regulatory subunit
  • ribosomal subunit
  • single subunit
  • small subunit
  • specific subunit
  • synthase subunit
  • toxin b subunit

  • Terms modified by Subunit

  • subunit assembly
  • subunit association
  • subunit b
  • subunit bind
  • subunit c
  • subunit composition
  • subunit expression
  • subunit gene
  • subunit i
  • subunit i gene
  • subunit ii
  • subunit immunoreactivity
  • subunit interaction
  • subunit interface
  • subunit isoform
  • subunit level
  • subunit mrna
  • subunit present
  • subunit protein
  • subunit rdna
  • subunit rdna sequence
  • subunit ribosomal dna
  • subunit ribosomal rna
  • subunit ribosomal rna gene
  • subunit rrna
  • subunit rrna gene
  • subunit sequence
  • subunit structure
  • subunit vaccine

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Frederick W. Zechman
    The phylogeny of the green algal Order Dasycladales was inferred by maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of chloroplast-encoded rbcL sequence data. Bayesian analysis suggested that the tribe Acetabularieae is monophyletic but that some genera within the tribe, such as Acetabularia Lamouroux and Polyphysa Lamouroux, are not. Bayesian analysis placed Halicoryne Harvey as the sister group of the Acetabularieae, a result consistent with limited fossil evidence and monophyly of the family Acetabulariaceae but was not supported by significant posterior probability. Bayesian analysis further suggested that the family Dasycladaceae is a paraphyletic assemblage at the base of the Dasycladales radiation, casting doubt on the current family-level classification. The genus Cymopolia Lamouroux was inferred to be the basal-most dasycladalean genus, which is also consistent with limited fossil evidence. Unweighted parsimony analyses provided similar results but primarily differed by the sister relationship between Halicoryne Lamouroux and Bornetella Munier-Chalmas, thus supporting the monophyly of neither the families Acetabulariaceae nor Dasycladaceae. This result, however, was supported by low bootstrap values. Low transition-to-transversion ratios, potential loss of phylogenetic signal in third codon positions, and the 550 million year old Dasycladalean lineage suggest that dasyclad rbcL sequences may be saturated due to deep time divergences. Such factors may have contributed to inaccurate reconstruction of phylogeny, particularly with respect to potential inconsistency of parsimony analyses. Regardless, strongly negative g1 values were obtained in analyses including all codon positions, indicating the presence of considerable phylogenetic signal in dasyclad rbcL sequence data. Morphological features relevant to the separation of taxa within the Dasycladales and the possible effects of extinction on phylogeny reconstruction are discussed relative to the inferred phylogenies. [source]

    Transcription of mammalian cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV-2 is controlled by a novel conserved oxygen responsive element

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 21 2007
    Maik Hüttemann
    Subunit 4 of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a nuclear-encoded regulatory subunit of the terminal complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have recently discovered an isoform of CcO 4 (CcO4-2) which is specific to lung and trachea, and is induced after birth. The role of CcO as the major cellular oxygen consumer, and the lung-specific expression of CcO4-2, led us to investigate CcO4-2 gene regulation. We cloned the CcO4-2 promoter regions of cow, rat and mouse and compared them with the human promoter. Promoter activity is localized within a 118-bp proximal region of the human promoter and is stimulated by hypoxia, reaching a maximum (threefold) under 4% oxygen compared with normoxia. CcO4-2 oxygen responsiveness was assigned by mutagenesis to a novel promoter element (5,-GGACGTTCCCACG-3,) that lies within a 24-bp region that is 79% conserved in all four species. This element is able to bind protein, and competition experiments revealed that, within the element, the four core bases 5,-TCNCA-3, are obligatory for transcription factor binding. CcO isolated from lung showed a 2.5-fold increased maximal turnover compared with liver CcO. We propose that CcO4-2 expression in highly oxygenated lung and trachea protects these tissues from oxidative damage by accelerating the last step in the electron transport chain, leading to a decrease in available electrons for free radical formation. [source]

    Inhibitors of the Large Ribosomal Subunit from Haloarcula marismortui

    Abstract The crystal structures that have been obtained for 23 different inhibitors bound to the large ribosomal subunit from Haloarcula marismortui are reviewed here. These structures provide important insights into how anti-ribosomal antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis, how species specificity arises, and the relationship between ribosomal mutations and antibiotic resistance. These structural studies also provide compelling evidence that the conformation of the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit is intrinsically variable, and that conformational equilibria play a role in determining its functional properties. [source]

    Deficiency of the ,-Subunit of the Stimulatory G Protein and Severe Extraskeletal Ossification,

    Mark C. Eddy
    Abstract Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a rare disorder characterized by dermal ossification beginning in infancy followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. We describe two unrelated girls with typical clinical, radiographic, and histological features of POH who also have findings of another uncommon heritable disorder, Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). One patient has mild brachydactyly but no endocrinopathy, whereas the other manifests brachydactyly, obesity, and target tissue resistance to thyrotropin and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Levels of the ,-subunit of the G protein (Gs,) were reduced in erythrocyte membranes from both girls and a nonsense mutation (Q12X) in exon 1 of the GNAS1 gene was identified in genomic DNA from the mildly affected patient. Features of POH and AHO in two individuals suggest that these conditions share a similar molecular basis and pathogenesis and that isolated severe extraskeletal ossification may be another manifestation of Gs, deficiency. [source]

    Mutation of Residue Arginine18 of Cytochrome b559,-Subunit and its Effects on Photosystem II Activities in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Jing-Jing Ma
    Abstract It has been known that arginine is used as the basic amino acid in the ,-subunit of cytochrome b559 (Cyt b559) except histidine. However, previous studies have focused on the function of histidine in the activities of photosystem (PS) II and there are no reports regarding the structural and/or functional roles of arginine in PSII complexes. In the present study, two arginine18 (R18) mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis, in which R18 was replaced by glutamic acid (E) and glycine (G). The results show that the oxygen evolution of the PSII complex in the R18G and R18E mutants was approximately 60% of wild-type (WT) levels and that, after irradiation at high light intensity, oxygen evolution for the PSII of mutants was reduced to zero compared with 40% in WT cells. The efficiency of light capture by PSII (Fv/Fm) of R18G and R18E mutants was approximately 42%,46% that of WT cells. Furthermore, levels of the ,-subunit of Cyt b559 and PsbO proteins were reduced in thylakoid membranes compared with WT. Overall, these data suggest that R18 plays a significant role in helping Cyt b559 maintain the structure of the PSII complex and its activity, although it is not directly bound to the heme group. [source]

    Glutamate Receptor Subunit ,2 Is Highly Expressed in a Novel Population of Glial-Like Cells in Rat Pineal Glands in Culture

    Shouki Yatsushiro
    Abstract: The mammalian pineal gland uses L-glutamate as an intercellular chemical transmitter to regulate negatively melatonin synthesis. To receive glutamate signals, pinealocytes express at least three kinds of glutamate receptors: metabotropic receptor types 3 and 5 and an ionotropic receptor, GluR1. In this study, we examined whether or not the fourth class of ionotropic receptor, ,, which is known for its nondefinitive molecular function and its unique expression pattern in brain, is expressed in pineal gland. RT-PCR analyses with specific probes indicated the expression of mRNA of ,2 but not that of ,1 in pineal gland and cultured pineal cells. Western blotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies specific to the carboxyl-terminal region of the ,2 receptor recognized a single 110-kDa polypeptide of cerebellar membranes and specifically immunostained Purkinje cells. The ,2 antibodies recognized a 110-kDa polypeptide of pineal membranes and specifically immunostained huge glial-like cells with the occasional presence of several long, branching processes in a pineal cell culture. ,2 is not uniformly distributed throughout the cells and is relatively abundant at the periphery of the cell bodies and long processes, where the terminals of synaptophysin-positive processes of pinealocytes, a site for glutamate secretion, are frequently present. The ,2-positive cells constitute a very minor population among total pineal cells (,0.03%). Double immunolabeling with ,2 antibodies and antibodies against marker proteins for pineal interstitial cells clearly distinguishes ,2-positive pineal cells and other known interstitial cells, including glial fibrillary acidic protein- or vimentin-positive glial-like cells. These results indicated that the ,2 glutamate receptor is expressed in a novel subpopulation of pineal glial-like cells in culture and suggest the presence of a glutamate-mediated intercellular signal transduction mechanism between pinealocytes and ,2-expressing cells. The pineal cells may provide a good experimental system for studies on the function of glutamate receptor ,2. [source]

    Reduced Expression of the KATP Channel Subunit, Kir6.2, is Associated with Decreased Expression of Neuropeptide Y and Agouti-Related Protein in the Hypothalami of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    A. Gyte
    The link between obesity and diabetes is not fully understood but there is evidence to suggest that hypothalamic signalling pathways may be involved. The hypothalamic neuropeptides, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) are central to the regulation of food intake and have been implicated in glucose homeostasis. Therefore, the expression of these genes was quantified in hypothalami from diabetic Zucker fatty (ZDF) rats and nondiabetic Zucker fatty (ZF) rats at 6, 8, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Although both strains are obese, only ZDF rats develop pancreatic degeneration and diabetes over this time period. In both ZF and ZDF rats, POMC gene expression was decreased in obese versus lean rats at all ages. By contrast, although there was the expected increase in both NPY and AGRP expression in obese 14-week-old ZF rats, the expression of NPY and AGRP was decreased in 6-week-old obese ZDF rats with hyperinsulinaemia and in 14-week-old rats with the additional hyperglycaemia. Therefore, candidate genes involved in glucose, and insulin signalling pathways were examined in obese ZDF rats over this age range. We found that expression of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel component, Kir6.2, was decreased in obese ZDF rats and was lower compared to ZF rats in each age group tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis showed that Kir6.2 protein expression was reduced in the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei of 6-week-old prediabetic ZDF rats compared to ZF rats. The Kir6.2 immunofluorescence colocalised with NPY throughout the hypothalamus. The differences in Kir6.2 expression in ZF and ZDF rats mimic those of NPY and AGRP, which could infer that the changes occur in the same neurones. Overall, these data suggest that chronic changes in hypothalamic Kir6.2 expression may be associated with the development of hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia in ZDF rats. [source]

    Increased Consumption but Not Operant Self-administration of Ethanol in Mice Lacking the RII, Subunit of Protein Kinase A

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2006
    Frank M. Ferraro III
    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is involved in the neurobiological responses to ethanol. Previous reports indicate that mice lacking the RII, subunit of PKA (RII,,/,) voluntarily consume more ethanol than wild-type controls (RII,+/+) using 2-bottle testing procedures. Although such procedures primarily measure consummatory behavior, operant self-administration procedures allow analysis of consummatory as well as appetitive or "ethanol-seeking" behavior (i.e., lever pressing is required to gain access to the ethanol solution). Therefore, we determined whether the high ethanol consumption characteristic of RII,,/, mice would be complemented by increased appetitive ethanol-seeking behavior in an operant paradigm. Methods: RII,,/, (n=8) and RII,+/+ (n=8) mice were initially sucrose-faded until they were lever responding for nonsweetened ethanol (10, 14, and 18%). Following the self-administration testing, RII,+/+ and RII,,/, mice were given access to 2 bottles, one containing water and the other ethanol to replicate the voluntary ethanol drinking data previously from our laboratory. Finally, immediately after voluntary consumption all mice were again tested for self-administration of 10% ethanol. Alterations in the reinforcement schedule were also explored as RII,+/+ and RII,,/, mice were tested for self-administration of 10% ethanol at FR-3 and FR-5 schedules. Results: The RII,,/, mice displayed lower operant responding for ethanol and food reinforcement compared with RII,+/+ controls. However, this effect was driven by a significant increase in lever responses made by female RII,+/+ mice. When the excessive lever responses of the female RII,+/+ mice are accounted for, the RII,,/, mice show ethanol lever responses comparable to controls. Following operant self-administration testing, RII,,/, mice of both sexes consumed more ethanol solution compared with RII,+/+ mice during 2-bottle testing. Conclusions: Increased ingestion of ethanol by RII,,/, mice is likely the result of altered PKA activity within neuronal pathways that control ethanol-consummatory behaviors. Conversely, the RII, subunit of PKA appears not to play a critical role in neuronal pathways that regulate appetitive behaviors directed at obtaining ethanol. Finally, increased operant self-administration of food and ethanol by female wild-type mice was absent in female RII,,/, mice, suggesting that normal PKA signaling may be part of a general, and sex-dependent, mechanism involved with reinforcement-seeking behavior. [source]

    On the mechanism of loading the PCNA sliding clamp by RFC

    Isabelle Dionne
    Summary Sliding clamps play central roles in a broad range of DNA replication and repair processes. The clamps form circular molecules that must be opened and resealed around DNA by the clamp loader complex to fulfil their function. While most eukaryotes and many archea possess a homo-trimeric PCNA, the PCNA of Sulfolobus solfataricus is a heterotrimer. Here, we exploit the asymmetry of S. solfataricus PCNA to create a series of circularly permuted PCNA subunit fusions, thereby covalently closing defined interfaces within the heterotrimer. Using these concatamers, we investigate the requirements for loading the clamp onto DNA and reveal that a single defined interface within the heterotrimer is opened during the loading process. Subunit,specific interactions between S. solfataricus RFC clamp loader and PCNA permit us to superimpose our data upon the structure of yeast RFC,PCNA complex, thereby presenting a general model for PCNA loading by RFC in archaea and eukaryotes. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: A Facile Synthesis of ,-Aryl ,-Oxoheterocyclic Ketene N,N-Acetals Bearing an Electron-Rich Catechol Subunit , An Electrochemical Oxidative Approach.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 11 2010
    Cheng-Chu Zeng
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Synthesis of ,-Alkylidene ,,,-Unsaturated ,-Lactones by Ring-Closing Metathesis: Application to the Synthesis of the C1,C8 Subunit of Biselide E.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 8 2009
    Anne-Frederique Salit
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 6-Aryl-6H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyridazine Derivatives as High-Affinity Ligands of the ,2, Subunit of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 35 2004
    Tao Hu
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Synthesis of Calix[4]arene Diazacrown Containing m-Xylylene Phenol Subunit.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 52 2002
    Xiao-Bing Wan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Crown Type Macrocycles (V)/(VI) from a Polyether with 4-Pyrone Subunit (I).

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 26 2001
    Werner Loewe
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Self-Assembly of [B -SbW9O33]9, Subunit with Transition Metal Ions (Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+) in Aqueous Solution: Syntheses, Structures and Magnetic Properties of Sandwich Type Polyoxometalates with Subvalent SbIII Heteroatom

    Jing-Ping Wang Prof.
    Abstract Rational self-assembly of Sb2O3 and Na2WO4, or (NH4)18[NaSb9W21O86] with transition-metal ions (Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+), in aqueous solution under controlled conditions yield a series of sandwich type complexes, namely, Na2H2[Mn2.5W1.5(H2O)8(B -,-SbW9O33)2],32,H2O (1), Na4H7[Na3(H2O)6Mn3(,-OAc)2(B -,-SbW9O33)2],20,H2O (OAc=acetate anion) (2), NaH8[Na2Cu4Cl(B -,-SbW9O33)2],21,H2O (3), Na8K[Na2K(H2O)2{Co(H2O)}3(B -,-SbW9O33)2], 10,H2O (4), and Na5H[{Co(H2O)2}3W(H2O)2(B -,-SbW9O33)2],11.5,H2O (5). These structures are determined by using the X-ray diffraction technique and further characterized by obtaining IR spectra and performing elemental analysis. Structure analysis reveals that polyoxoanions in 1 and 5 comprise of two [B -,-SbW9O33]9, building units, whereas 2, 3, and 4 consist of two isomerous [B -,-SbW9O33]9, building blocks, which are all linked by different transition-metal ions (Mn2+, Cu2+, or Co2+) with different quantitative nuclearity. It should be noted that compound 2 represents the first one-dimensional sinusoidal chain based on sandwich like tungstoantimonate building blocks through the carboxylate-bridging ligands. Additionally, 3 is constructed from sandwiched anions [Na2Cu4Cl(B -,-SbW9O33)2]9, linked to each other to form an infinitely extended 2D network, whereas 5 shows an interesting 3D framework built up from offset sandwich type polyoxoanion [{Co(H2O)2}3W(H2O)2(B -,-SbW9O33)2]6, linked by Co2+ and Na+ ions. EPR studies performed at 110,K and room temperature reveal that the metal cations (Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+) reside in a square-pyramidal geometry in 2, 3, and 4. The magnetic behavior of 1,4 suggests the presence of weak antiferromagnetic coupling interactions between magnetic metal centers with the exchange integral J=,0.552,cm,1 in 2. [source]

    Asymmetric Synthesis of the C(17),C(28) Subunit of Didemnaketal B

    Xue-Qiang Li
    Abstract The stereocontrolled synthesis of the C(17),C(28) fragment 3 of didemnaketal B was accomplished in 21 steps from the natural (R)-(+)-pulegone and (S)-(,)-citronellal. The key steps involved diastereoselective construction of two chiral carbon centers through the intramolecular chiral induction and uncommon Julia olefination of ketone forming the E -trisubstituted C(22),C(23) double bound. [source]

    Ataxic mutant mice with defects in Ca2+ channel ,1A subunit gene: morphological and functional abnormalities in cerebellar cortical neurons

    Kazuhiko Sawada
    ABSTRACT This review summarizes recent studies in the morphological and functional abnormalities of cerebella in three ataxic mutant mice, i.e. tottering mouse, leaner mouse, and rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN). These mutants carry mutations in the Ca2+ channel ,1A subunit gene, and become useful models for human neurological diseases such as episodic ataxia type-2, familial hemiplegic migraine, and spinocerebellar ataxia type-6. All three mutants exhibited altered morphology of the Purkinje cells, ectopic synaptic contacts between granule cell axons (parallel fibers) and Purkinje cell dendritic spines and abnormal expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in Purkinje cells. In leaner mice, Purkinje cell loss was observed in alternating sagittal compartments of the cerebellar cortex corresponding to the Zebrin II-negative zones. The mutated Ca2+ channel ,1A subunit was highly expressed in granule and Purkinje cells, and the P-type Ca2+ currents in Purkinje cells were selectively reduced in the mutant mice. Therefore, we concluded that altered Ca2+ currents through the mutated Ca2+ channel ,1A subunit might be involved in the functional and morphological abnormalities in granule and Purkinje cells, and might result in expressions of behavioral phenotypes including ataxia. Increased levels of corticotropin-releasing factor and cholecystokinin in some climbing and mossy fibers were observed in RMN. These neuropeptides modulated the excitability of granule and Purkinje cells, indicating the possible expression of ataxic symptoms. [source]

    Thyroid hormone receptor , can control action potential duration in mouse ventricular myocytes through the KCNE1 ion channel subunit

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    A. Mansén
    Abstract Aims:, The reduced heart rate and prolonged QTend duration in mice deficient in thyroid hormone receptor (TR) ,1 may involve aberrant expression of the K+ channel ,-subunit KCNQ1 and its regulatory ,-subunit KCNE1. Here we focus on KCNE1 and study whether increased KCNE1 expression can explain changes in cardiac function observed in TR,1-deficient mice. Methods:, TR-deficient, KCNE1-overexpressing and their respective wildtype (wt) mice were used. mRNA and protein expression were assessed with Northern and Western blot respectively. Telemetry was used to record electrocardiogram and temperature in freely moving mice. Patch-clamp was used to measure action potentials (APs) in isolated cardiomyocytes and ion currents in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results:, KCNE1 was four to 10-fold overexpressed in mice deficient in TR,1. Overexpression of KCNE1 with a heart-specific promoter in transgenic mice resulted in a cardiac phenotype similar to that in TR,1-deficient mice, including a lower heart rate and prolonged QTend time. Cardiomyocytes from KCNE1-overexpressing mice displayed increased AP duration. CHO cells transfected with expression plasmids for KCNQ1 and KCNE1 showed an outward rectifying current that was maximal at equimolar plasmids for KCNQ1-KCNE1 and decreased at higher KCNE1 levels. Conclusion:, The bradycardia and prolonged QTend time in hypothyroid states can be explained by altered K+ channel function due to decreased TR,1-dependent repression of KCNE1 expression. [source]

    Structure and function of AMP-activated protein kinase

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    J. S. Oakhill
    Abstract AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates metabolism in response to energy demand and supply. AMPK is activated in response to rises in intracellular AMP or calcium-mediated signalling and is responsible for phosphorylating a wide variety of substrates. Recent structural studies have revealed the architecture of the ,,, subunit interactions as well as the AMP binding pockets on the , subunit. The , catalytic domain (1,280) is autoinhibited by a C-terminal tail (313,335), which is proposed to interact with the small lobe of the catalytic domain by homology modelling with the MARK2 protein structure. Two direct activating drugs have been reported for AMPK, the thienopyridone compound A769662 and PTI, which may activate by distinct mechanisms. [source]

    AMP-activated protein kinase: a core signalling pathway in the heart

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    A. S. Kim
    Abstract Over the past decade, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as an important intracellular signalling pathway in the heart. Activated AMPK stimulates the production of ATP by regulating key steps in both glucose and fatty acid metabolism. It has an inhibitory effect on cardiac protein synthesis. AMPK also interacts with additional intracellular signalling pathways in a coordinated network that modulates essential cellular processes in the heart. Evidence is accumulating that AMPK may protect the heart from ischaemic injury and limit the development of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy to various stimuli. Heart AMPK is activated by hormones, cytokines and oral hypoglycaemic drugs that are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The tumour suppressor LKB1 is the major regulator of AMPK activity, but additional upstream kinases and protein phosphatases also contribute. Mutations in the regulatory ,2 subunit of AMPK lead to an inherited syndrome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and ventricular pre-excitation, which appears to be due to intracellular glycogen accumulation. Future research promises to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for AMPK activation, novel downstream AMPK targets, and the therapeutic potential of targeting AMPK for the prevention and treatment of myocardial ischaemia or cardiac hypertrophy. [source]

    Intracellular sodium modulates the state of protein kinase C phosphorylation of rat proximal tubule Na+,K+ -ATPase

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2002
    F. R. IBARRA
    ABSTRACT The natriuretic hormone dopamine and the antinatriuretic hormone noradrenaline, acting on , -adrenergic receptors, have been shown to bidirectionally modulate the activity of renal tubular Na+,K+ -adenosine triphosphate (ATPase). Here we have examined whether intracellular sodium concentration influences the effects of these bidirectional forces on the state of phosphorylation of Na+,K+ -ATPase. Proximal tubules dissected from rat kidney were incubated with dopamine or the , -adrenergic agonist, oxymetazoline, and transiently permeabilized in a medium where sodium concentration ranged between 5 and 70 mM. The variations of sodium concentration in the medium had a proportional effect on intracellular sodium. Dopamine and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylate the catalytic subunit of rat Na+,K+ -ATPase on the Ser23 residue. The level of PKC induced Na+,K+ -ATPase phosphorylation was determined using an antibody that only recognizes Na+,K+ -ATPase, which is not phosphorylated on its PKC site. Under basal conditions Na+,K+ -ATPase was predominantly in its phosphorylated state. When intracellular sodium was increased, Na+,K+ -ATPase was predominantly in its dephosphorylated state. Phosphorylation of Na+,K+ -ATPase by dopamine was most pronounced when intracellular sodium was high, and dephosphorylation by oxymetazoline was most pronounced when intracellular sodium was low. The oxymetazoline effect was mimicked by the calcium ionophore A23187. An inhibitor of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin, increased the state of Na+,K+ -ATPase phosphorylation. The results imply that phosphorylation of renal Na+,K+ -ATPase activity is modulated by the level of intracellular sodium and that this effect involves PKC and calcium signalling pathways. The findings may have implication for the regulation of salt excretion and sodium homeostasis. [source]

    AKAP-independent localization of type-II protein kinase A to dynamic actin microspikes

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 9 2009
    Robert L. Rivard
    Abstract Regulation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in subcellular space is required for cytoskeletal dynamics and chemotaxis. Currently, spatial regulation of PKA is thought to require the association of PKA regulatory (R) subunits with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Here, we show that the regulatory RII, subunit of PKA associates with dynamic actin microspikes in an AKAP-independent manner. Both endogenous RII, and a GFP-RII, fusion protein co-localize with F-actin in microspikes within hippocampal neuron growth cones and the leading edge lamellae of NG108-15 cells. Live-cell imaging demonstrates that RII,-associated microspikes are highly dynamic and that the coupling of RII, to actin is tight, as the movement of both actin and RII, are immediately and coincidently stopped by low-dose cytochalasin D. Importantly, co-localization of RII, and actin in these structures is resistant to displacement by a cell-permeable disrupter of PKA-AKAP interactions. Biochemical fractionation confirms that a substantial pool of PKA RII, is associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton and is resistant to extraction by a peptide inhibitor of AKAP interactions. Finally, mutation of the AKAP-binding domain of RII, fails to disrupt its association with actin microspikes. These data provide the first demonstration of the physical association of a kinase with such dynamic actin structures, as well as the first demonstration of the ability of type-II PKA to localize to discrete subcellular structures independently of canonical AKAP function. This association is likely to be important for microfilament dynamics and cell migration and may prime the investigation of novel mechanisms for localizing PKA activity. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Protein kinase A RII-like (R2D2) proteins exhibit differential localization and AKAP interaction,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 7 2008
    Amy E. Hanlon Newell
    Abstract A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) bind to protein kinase A (PKA) via an amphipathic helix domain that interacts with a dimerization/docking domain on the regulatory (R) subunit of PKA. Four other mammalian proteins (ROPN1, ASP, SP17, and CABYR) also contain a highly conserved RII dimerization/docking (R2D2) domain, suggesting all four proteins may interact with all AKAPs in a manner similar to RII. All four of these proteins were originally detected in the flagellum of mammalian sperm. In this report, we demonstrate that all four R2D2 proteins are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and three of the proteins SP17, CABYR, and ASP are located in motile cilia of human bronchus and fallopian tubes. In addition, we detect SP17 in primary cilia. We also provide evidence that ROPN1 and ASP bind to a variety of AKAPs and this interaction can be disrupted with anchoring inhibitor peptides. The interaction of SP17 and CABYR with AKAPs appears to be much more limited. None of the R2D2 proteins appears to bind cAMP, a fundamental characteristic of the regulatory subunits of PKA. These observations suggest that R2D2 proteins utilize docking interactions with AKAPs to accomplish their function of regulating cilia and flagella. Based on location, affinity for AKAPs and lack of affinity for cAMP, it appears that each R2D2 protein has a unique role in this process. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The M3/M4 cytoplasmic loop of the ,1 subunit restricts GABAARs lateral mobility: A study using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 12 2006
    Macarena Perán
    Abstract A crucial problem in neurobiology is how neurons are able to maintain neurotransmitter receptors at specific membrane domains. The large structural heterogeneity of gamma aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) led to the hypothesis that there could be a link between GABAAR gene diversity and the targeting properties of the receptor complex. Previous studies using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) have shown a restricted mobility in GABAARs containing the ,1 subunit. The M3/M4 cytoplasmic loop is the region of the ,1 subunit with the lowest sequence homology to other subunits. Therefore, we asked whether the M3/M4 loop is involved in cytoskeletal anchoring and GABAAR clustering. A series of ,1 chimeric subunits was constructed: ,1CH (control subunit), ,1CD (Cytoplasmic loop deleted), ,1CD2, and ,1CD3 (,1 with the M3/M4 loop from the ,2 and ,3 subunits, respectively). Our results using FRAP indicate an involvement of the M3/M4 cytoplasmic loop of the ,1 subunit in controlling receptor lateral mobility. On the other hand, inmunocytochemical approaches showed that this domain is not involved in subunit targeting to the cell surface, subunit-subunit assembly, or receptor aggregation. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Native nonmuscle myosin II stability and light chain binding in Drosophila melanogaster

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 10 2006
    Josef D. Franke
    Abstract Native nonmuscle myosin IIs play essential roles in cellular and developmental processes throughout phylogeny. Individual motor molecules consist of a heterohexameric complex of three polypeptides which, when properly assembled, are capable of force generation. Here, we more completely characterize the properties, relationships and associations that each subunit has with one another in Drosophila melanogaster. All three native nonmuscle myosin II polypeptide subunits are expressed in close to constant stoichiometry to each other throughout development. We find that the stability of two subunits, the heavy chain and the regulatory light chain, depend on one another whereas the stability of the third subunit, the essential light chain, does not depend on either the heavy chain or regulatory light chain. We demonstrate that heavy chain aggregates, which form when regulatory light chain is lacking, associate with the essential light chain in vivo,thus showing that regulatory light chain association is required for heavy chain solubility. By immunodepletion we find that the majority of both light chains are associated with the nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain but pools of free light chain and/or light chain bound to other proteins are present. We identify four myosins (myosin II, myosin V, myosin VI and myosin VIIA) and a microtubule-associated protein (asp/Abnormal spindle) as binding partners for the essential light chain (but not the regulatory light chain) through mass spectrometry and co-precipitation. Using an in silico approach we identify six previously uncharacterized genes that contain IQ-motifs and may be essential light chain binding partners. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Actin filament binding by a monomeric IQGAP1 fragment with a single calponin homology domain

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2004
    Scott C. Mateer
    Abstract IQGAP1 is a homodimeric protein that reversibly associates with F-actin, calmodulin, activated Cdc42 and Rac1, CLIP-170, ,-catenin, and E-cadherin. Its F-actin binding site includes a calponin homology domain (CHD) located near the N-terminal of each subunit. Prior studies have implied that medium- to high-affinity F-actin binding (5,50 ,M Kd) requires multiple CHDs located either on an individual polypeptide or on distinct subunits of a multimeric protein. For IQGAP1, a series of six tandem IQGAP coiled-coil repeats (IRs) located past the C-terminal of the CHD of each subunit support protein dimerization and, by extension, the IRs or an undefined subset of them were thought to be essential for F-actin binding mediated by its CHDs. Here we describe efforts to determine the minimal region of IQGAP1 capable of binding F-actin. Several truncation mutants of IQGAP1, which contain progressive deletions of the IRs and CHD, were assayed for F-actin binding in vitro. Fragments that contain both the CHD and at least one IR could bind F-actin and, as expected, removal of all six IRs and the CHD abolished binding. Unexpectedly, a fragment called IQGAP12-210, which contains the CHD, but lacks IRs, could bind actin filaments. IQGAP12-210 was found to be monomeric, to bind F-actin with a Kd of ,47 ,M, to saturate F-actin at a molar ratio of one IQGAP12-210 per actin monomer, and to co-localize with cortical actin filaments when expressed by transfection in cultured cells. These collective results identify the first known example of high-affinity actin filament binding mediated by a single CHD. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 58:231,241, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    CLIP-170 interacts with dynactin complex and the APC-binding protein EB1 by different mechanisms

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 3 2003
    Holly V. Goodson
    Abstract CLIP-170 is a "cytoplasmic linker protein" implicated in endosome-microtubule interactions and in control of microtubule dynamics. CLIP-170 localizes dynamically to growing microtubule plus ends, colocalizing with the dynein activator dynactin and the APC-binding protein EB1. This shared "plus-end tracking" behavior suggests that CLIP-170 might interact with dynactin and/or EB1. We have used site-specific mutagenesis of CLIP-170 and a transfection/colocalization assay to address this question in mammalian tissue culture cells. Our results indicate that CLIP-170 interacts, directly or indirectly, with both dynactin and EB1. We find that the CLIP-170/dynactin interaction is mediated by the second metal binding motif of the CLIP-170 tail. In contrast, the CLIP-170/EB1 interaction requires neither metal binding motif. In addition, our experiments suggest that the CLIP-170 /dynactin interaction occurs via the shoulder/sidearm subcomplex of dynactin and can occur in the cytosol (i.e., it does not require microtubule binding). These results have implications for the targeting of both dynactin and EB1 to microtubule plus ends. Our data suggest that the CLIP-170/dynactin interaction can target dynactin complex to microtubule plus ends, although dynactin likely also targets MT plus ends directly via the microtubule binding motif of the p150Glued subunit. We find that CLIP-170 mutants alter p150Glued localization without affecting EB1, indicating that EB1 can target microtubule plus ends independently of dynactin. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 55:156,173, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Hemidesmosome protein dynamics in live epithelial cells

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 2 2003
    Daisuke Tsuruta
    Abstract Hemidesmosomes mediate stable anchorage of epithelial cells to laminin-5 in the basement membrane zone and have been likened to spot-welds. Indeed, it has been assumed that hemidesmosomes are not dynamic, at least when compared to other matrix adhesion sites including focal contacts. We tested this notion by monitoring the fate of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human integrin ,4 subunit (GFP-h,4) and GFP-tagged 180-kD human bullous pemphigoid (BP) autoantigen (GFP-BP180) in live cultures of 804G cells that assemble numerous mature hemidesmosomes. In subconfluent 804G cells, both GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 protein clusters are not stable but assemble into and disassemble out of cat paw,like arrays at a relatively rapid rate. In confluent populations of 804G cells, although some cat paw,like clusters of both GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 are stable over periods of >60 min, other GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 protein arrays form and/or disappear during the same time period. Moreover, individual labeled particles show considerable motility in the plane of the membrane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses provide a further indication of the dynamics of hemidesmosome proteins. In particular, bleached GFP-h,4 protein clusters in confluent cells recover signal within about 30 min, indicating that there is a relatively rapid turnover of hemidesmosome components in protein arrays clustered along the substratum attached surface of a cell. The rate of recovery is dependent on an intact microfilament system. In sharp contrast, bleached GFP-BP180 protein clusters in confluent cells fail to recover signal even when observed for longer than 60 min. To evaluate hemidesmosome protein dynamics in motile cells, we monitored GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 in 804G cells populating scrape wound sites in vitro. In these migratory cells, which lack mature hemidesmosomes, integrin ,4 subunit and BP180 protein clusters progressively assemble and disassemble into linear and cat-paw arrays. In summary, hemidesmosome protein clusters, like their counterparts in focal contacts, are dynamic. We discuss these results in relation to hemidesmosome functions. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 54:122,134, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Recovery of flagellar dynein function in a Chlamydomonas actin/dynein-deficient mutant upon introduction of muscle actin by electroporation

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 3 2001
    Masahito Hayashi
    Abstract Flagellar and ciliary inner-arm dyneins contain actin as a subunit; however, the function of this actin subunit remains unknown. As a first step toward experimental manipulation of actin in dynein, we developed a method for introducing exogenous actin into Chlamydomonas cells by electroporation. A non-motile mutant, ida5oda1, lacking inner-arm dyneins due to the absence of conventional actin, was electroporated in the presence of rabbit skeletal muscle actin. About 20% of the electroporated cells recovered motility under optimal conditions. In addition, by taking advantage of their phototactic behavior, the rescued cells could be concentrated. Motility was also recovered with fluorescently labeled actin; in this case, axonemes became fluorescent after electroporation, suggesting that actin was in fact incorporated as a dynein subunit. The feasibility of incorporating a substantial amount of macromolecules by electroporation will be useful not only for studying actin function, but also for a variety of studies using Chlamydomonas in which no efficient methods have been developed for expressing or introducing foreign proteins and other macromolecules. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 49:146,153, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A novel role of differentiation-inducing factor-1 in Dictyostelium development, assessed by the restoration of a developmental defect in a mutant lacking mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2

    Hidekazu Kuwayama
    It has been previously reported that the differentiating wild-type cells of Dictyostelium discoideum secrete a diffusible factor or factors that are able to rescue the developmental defect in the mutant lacking extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), encoded by the gene erkB. In the present study, it is demonstrated that differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) for stalk cells can mimic the role of the factor(s) and the mechanism of the action of DIF-1 in the erkB null mutant is also discussed. The mutant usually never forms multicellular aggregates, because of its defect in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling. In the presence of 100 n M DIF-1, however, the mutant cells formed tiny slugs, which eventually developed into small fruiting bodies. In contrast, DIF-1 never rescued the developmental arrest of other Dictyostelium mutants lacking adenylyl cyclase A (ACA), cAMP receptors cAR1 and cAR3, heterotrimeric G-protein, the cytosolic regulator of ACA, or the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-C). Most importantly, it was found that DIF-1 did not affect the cellular cAMP level, but rather elevated the transcriptional level of pka during the development of erkB null cells. These results suggest that DIF-1 may rescue the developmental defect in erkB null cells via the increase in PKA activity, thus giving the first conclusive evidence that DIF-1 plays a crucial role in the early events of Dictyostelium development as well as in prestalk and stalk cell induction. [source]