Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Suite

  • delivery suite
  • distinctive suite
  • diverse suite
  • full suite
  • la suite
  • par la suite
  • particular suite
  • software suite
  • test suite

  • Selected Abstracts

    A test suite for parallel performance analysis tools

    Michael Gerndt
    Abstract Parallel performance analysis tools must be tested as to whether they perform their task correctly, which comprises at least three aspects. First, it must be ensured that the tools neither alter the semantics nor distort the run-time behavior of the application under investigation. Next, it must be verified that the tools collect the correct performance data as required by their specification. Finally, it must be checked that the tools perform their intended tasks and detect relevant performance problems. Focusing on the latter (correctness) aspect, testing can be done using synthetic test functions with controllable performance properties, possibly complemented by real-world applications with known performance behavior. A systematic test suite can be built from synthetic test functions and other components, possibly with the help of tools to assist the user in putting the pieces together into executable test programs. Clearly, such a test suite can be highly useful to builders of performance analysis tools. It is surprising that, up until now, no systematic effort has been undertaken to provide such a suite. In this paper we describe the APART Test Suite (ATS) for checking the correctness (in the above sense) of parallel performance analysis tools. In particular, we describe a collection of synthetic test functions which allows one to easily construct both simple and more complex test programs with desired performance properties. We briefly report on experience with MPI and OpenMP performance tools when applied to the test cases generated by ATS. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Analysis of landslide frequencies and characteristics in a natural system, coastal British Columbia

    R. H. Guthrie
    Abstract Two hundred and one debris slides and debris ,ows were analyzed in a 286 km2 study area on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. The study area remains essentially untouched by humans and therefore affords a natural setting in which to examine slope processes. Landslides were identi,ed and characterized on aerial photographs from 1:15 000 to 1:31 680, and were then mapped and transferred to a GIS for analysis. Based on detailed landslide surveys, we propose a new method to accurately determine volume of landslides of this type by measured total area. Results indicate average denudation rates of 56 m3 y,1 km,2, and higher natural rates of failure than analogous regions in coastal British Columbia. In contrast, the landslide rates are substantially less than those from forested watersheds. Landslide distribution is spatially clustered in air photograph epochs, and we propose intense storm cells within regional events as the causal mechanism. Further, failures occurred preferentially over the West Coast Crystalline Complex (by 1·4 times), a metamorphic assemblage of gabbros, schists and amphibolites, but 1·5 times less often over the Island Plutonic Suite, a granitic intrusive formation. The former result represents a new ,nding, while the latter corroborates ,ndings of previous authors. We examined magnitude,frequency relationships of the data set and present for the ,rst time a strong argument that the rollover effect is not merely an artefact, but is instead a consequence of the physical characteristics of the landslides themselves. We subsequently analyzed magnitude,frequency relationships from two other complete data sets from coastal British Columbia and produced a family of curves corroborating this result. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Overview of the geology, petrology and tectonic framework of the high-pressure,ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt of the Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2000
    S. Maruyama
    Abstract High- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (HP,UHPM) rocks crop out over 150 km along an east,west axis in the Kokchetav Massif of northern Kazakhstan. They are disposed within the Massif as a 2 km thick, subhorizontal pile of sheet-like nappes, predominantly composed of interlayered pelitic and psammitic schists and gneisses, amphibolite and orthogneiss, with discontinuous boudins and lenses of eclogite, dolomitic marble, whiteschist and garnet pyroxenite. On the basis of predominating lithologies, we subdivided the nappe group into four north-dipping, fault-bounded orogen-parallel units (I,IV, from base to top). Constituent metabasic rocks exhibit a systematic progression of metamorphic grades, from high-pressure amphibolite through quartz,eclogite and coesite,eclogite to diamond,eclogite facies. Coesite, diamond and other mineral inclusions within zircon offer the best means by which to clarify the regional extent of UHPM, as they are effectively sequestered from the effects of fluids during retrogression. Inclusion distribution and conventional geothermobarometric determinations demonstrate that the highest grade metamorphic rocks (Unit II: T = 780,1000°C, P = 37,60 kbar) are restricted to a medial position within the nappe group, and metamorphic grade decreases towards both the top (Unit III: T = 730,750°C, P = 11,14 kbar; Unit IV: T = 530°C, P = 7.5,9 kbar) and bottom (Unit I: T = 570,680°C; P = 7,13.5 kbar). Metamorphic zonal boundaries and internal structural fabrics are subhorizontal, and the latter exhibit opposing senses of shear at the bottom (top-to-the-north) and top (top-to-the-south) of the pile. The orogen-scale architecture of the massif is sandwich-like, with the HP,UHPM nappe group juxtaposed across large-scale subhorizontal faults, against underlying low P,T metapelites (Daulet Suite) at the base, and overlying feebly metamorphosed clastic and carbonate rocks (Unit V). The available structural and petrologic data strongly suggest that the HP,UHPM rocks were extruded as a sequence of thin sheets, from a root zone in the south toward the foreland in the north, and juxtaposed into the adjacent lower-grade units at shallow crustal levels of around 10 km. The nappe pile suffered considerable differential internal displacements, as the 2 km thick sequence contains rocks exhumed from depths of up to 200 km in the core, and around 30,40 km at the margins. Consequently, wedge extrusion, perhaps triggered by slab-breakoff, is the most likely tectonic mechanism to exhume the Kokchetav HP,UHPM rocks. [source]

    Suite of three protein crystallography beamlines with single superconducting bend magnet as the source

    Alastair A. MacDowell
    At the Advanced Light Source, three protein crystallography beamlines have been built that use as a source one of the three 6,T single-pole superconducting bending magnets (superbends) that were recently installed in the ring. The use of such single-pole superconducting bend magnets enables the development of a hard X-ray program on a relatively low-energy 1.9,GeV ring without taking up insertion-device straight sections. The source is of relatively low power but, owing to the small electron beam emittance, it has high brightness. X-ray optics are required to preserve the brightness and to match the illumination requirements for protein crystallography. This was achieved by means of a collimating premirror bent to a plane parabola, a double-crystal monochromator followed by a toroidal mirror that focuses in the horizontal direction with a 2:1 demagnification. This optical arrangement partially balances aberrations from the collimating and toroidal mirrors such that a tight focused spot size is achieved. The optical properties of the beamline are an excellent match to those required by the small protein crystals that are typically measured. The design and performance of these new beamlines are described. [source]

    The Cornubian Batholith: an Example of Magmatic Fractionation on a Crustal Scale

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Bruce W. Chappell
    Abstract. The Cornubian Batholith comprises six major and several smaller bodies of S-type granite in southwestern England. These late-Variscan granites comprise two-mica granites, and much less abundant Li-mica granites that are restricted to one of the major bodies (St Austell) and smaller bodies. Some of these intrusive rocks are associated with major Sn mineralization. This paper is concerned with the geochemistry of the two-mica granites, which are felsic, strongly peraluminous, and have a high total alkali content and low Na:K. Rocks with very similar compositions to these granites occur elsewhere, including the Variscan granites of continental Europe, and in southeastern Australia. In detail all of the major plutons of this batholith have distinctive compositions, except for Bodmin Moor and Carnmenellis which cannot be discriminated from each other compositionally. A comparison with experimental data shows that the granites attained their major element composition under conditions of crystal-liquid equilibrium, with the final melt being saturated in H2O, at temperatures close to 770d,C and pressures about 50 MPa. That temperature estimate is in good agreement with values obtained from zircon saturation thermometry. The specific minimum-temperature composition excludes the possibility of widespread transfer of elements during hydrothermal alteration. Minor elements that are relatively very abundant are Li, B, Cs and U, while F, Ga, Ge, Rb, Sn, Ta, W and Tl are quite abundant and P is high for felsic rocks. Sr, Ba, and the trace transition metals Sc to Zn, are low, but not as low as they commonly are in very felsic granites. These trace element abundances, and the EL2O-saturation, resulted from the fractional crystallization of a melt derived by the partial melting of feldspathic greywackes in the crust. The Cornubian granites have compositions very similar to the more felsic rocks of the Koetong Suite of southeastern Australia, where a full range of granites formed at the various stages of magmatic fractionation postulated for the Cornubian granites, can be observed. The operation of fractional crystallization in the Cornubian granites is confirmed by the high P abundances in the feldspars, with P contents of the plagioclase crystals correlating with Ab-con-tent Most of the granites represent solidified melt compositions but within the Dartmoor pluton there is a significant component of granites that are cumulative, shown by their higher Ca contents. The Cornubian plutons define areas of high heat flow, of a magnitude which requires that fractionated magmas were transported laterally from their sources and concentrated in the exposed plutons. The generation of these granite plutons therefore involved magmatic fractionation during the stages of partial melting, removal of unmelted material from that melt, and fractional crystallization. During the later stages of those processes, movement of those magmas occurred on a crustal scale. [source]

    Floating limb behaviors and self-biting are associated in laboratory monkeys

    Kathy L. Bentson
    Abstract Early descriptions of floating limb behaviors in monkeys were associated with isolation rearing, a practice that ended more than two decades ago. The present authors named various forms of behaviors in which a leg is elevated for no apparent reason: "Floating Limb Suite" (FLS). Floating limb behaviors, identified in laboratory monkeys at the Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC), consist of two subcategories distinguished by whether monkeys seem to react to the elevated leg or ignore it. Given the past association of isolation rearing with both self-biting (SB) and floating limb, the investigators predicted that SB and FLS would be associated in monkeys not reared in isolation. The investigators tracked, over a period of 3 years, the presence of FLS and SB in macaques (Macaca nemestrina, M. fascicularis, M. mulatta) and Papio cynocephalus at WaNPRC. SB and both subcategories of FLS occurred in mother-reared and surrogate-peer-nursery-reared monkeys. We analyzed presence of FLS, the two subcategories of FLS, and SB in 1,117 macaques monitored for up to 3 years, and 781 macaques observed for 8,min of structured data collection. The Papio sample size was insufficient for statistical analysis. Both sampling methodologies found FLS and FLS subcategories to be associated with SB. Nearly half the monkeys only engaging in seemingly harmless nonreactive forms of FLS also performed the potentially injurious behavior of self-biting. The positive association between FLS and SB suggests that monkeys exhibiting one of these behaviors are at a heightened risk for developing the other. One impediment to studying floating limb behaviors is lack of consensus on definitions. This study defined seven forms of apparently functionless elevated limb behaviors. Continued research on factors associated with floating limb behaviors across demographic groups and settings may provide insights into the etiology and treatment of self-biting. Am. J. Primatol. 72:725,733, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Economic Analysis Of The Droit De Suite, The Artist's Resale Royalty

    J. D. Stanford
    Interest in the Droit de Suite, the artist's resale royalty, has been re-kindled by the decision of the European Union to introduce such a scheme to apply from 2006. The general nature of the Droit de Suite as an extension of copyright is discussed. The specific proposals for a Droit de Suite in Australia are analysed. Economic arguments support the sceptical view of the Droit de Suite. It is argued that the introduction of the Droit de Suite would be predicted to reduce sales of new paintings, that selling activity would move to jurisdictions which do not have a Droit de Suite and that artists would prefer to alienate their Droit de Suite by sale of a painting. The economic analysis is supplemented by an empirical study of art auction prices of 72 artists in Australia over the period 1973,1989 which reveals that the works few artists achieve a capital gain on sale in the secondary market re-inforcing the view that, if implemented, a Droit de Suite would provide payments to only a small number of artists who are likely to be in good economic circumstances. The burden of the Droit de Suite is shown to fall on the collector when selling paintings. The effect of the imposition of the Droit de Suite will be to lower the gain to collectors of paintings. It is concluded that the Australian proposal for the Droit de Suite is based on an inadequate analysis of the art market and would require a registration procedure for art works incurring heavy costs in relation to the funds available for distribution. [source]

    Provenance patterns in a neotectonic basin: Pliocene and Quaternary sediment supply to the South Caspian

    BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2003
    Andrew Morton
    The South Caspian Basin has accumulated a sedimentary succession ,20 km thick. Roughly half of this was deposited in the last 5.5 Ma, mainly in the largely lower Pliocene, fluvio-lacustrine Productive Series, which is also the principal hydrocarbon reservoir succession in the basin. Heavy mineral data identify different sediment sources for both Productive Series sandstones and modern river sands. Lesser Caucasus sediment was supplied by the Palaeo-Kura into the western part of the South Caspian Basin. Productive Series strata in the north of the basin were supplied by the Palaeo-Volga, and represent a mixture of sediment from the Greater Caucasus and Russian Platform/Urals. Greater Caucasus sand input to the Palaeo-Volga increased at the start of deposition of the Pereriva Suite, which is an important reservoir subunit of the Productive Series. We interpret this provenance shift as indicating enhanced uplift and exhumation of the Greater Caucasus within the Pliocene, during regional re-organization of the Arabia,Eurasia collision, although late Cenozoic climate changes may have played a role. [source]

    Rectal analgesia for the relief of perineal pain after childbirth: a randomised controlled trial of diclofenac suppositories

    Jodie M. Dodd
    Objective To evaluate rectal diclofenac in the relief of perineal pain after trauma during childbirth. Design A randomised, double-blind trial. Setting Delivery Suite, Women's and Children's Hospital, South Australia. Population Women with a second-degree (or greater) perineal tear or episiotomy. Methods Women were randomly allocated to either diclofenac or placebo suppositories (Anusol), using a computer-generated randomisation schedule with stratification for parity and mode of birth. Treatment packs contained two × 100 mg diclofenac or two placebo suppositories, the first being inserted when suturing was complete, and the second 12,24 hours after birth. Women were asked to complete questionnaires at 24 and 48 hours after birth relating to their degree of perineal pain using the validated Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Main outcome measures Pain scores at 24 and 48 hours after birth. Results A total of 133 women were recruited, with 67 randomised to diclofenac suppositories and 66 to placebo. Women in the diclofenac group were significantly less likely to experience pain at 24 hours while walking (RR 0.8; 95% CI 0.6 to 1.0), sitting (RR 0.8; 95% CI 0.6 to 1.0), passing urine (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0) and on opening their bowels (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9) compared with those women who received placebo. These differences were not sustained 48 hours after birth. Conclusions The use of rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug suppositories is a simple, effective and safe method of reducing the pain experienced by women following perineal trauma within the first 24 hours after childbirth. [source]

    Animated instructional software for mechanics of materials: Implementation and assessment

    Timothy A. Philpot
    Abstract During the past 3 years, the Basic Engineering Department at the University of Missouri, Rolla has been developing a second-generation suite of instructional software called MecMovies for the Mechanics of Materials course. The MecMovies suite consists of over 110 animated example problems, drill-and-practice games, and interactive exercises. Students generally respond favorably to software of this type; however, much of the data that has been gathered to assess the effectiveness of similar software has been anecdotal. The method by which instructional software is incorporated into the engineering class is partly responsible for this lack of systematic evaluation. Often, software packages have been implemented in the classroom as supplemental material,recommended but not required. In the Fall 2003 semester, MecMovies was integrated thoroughly into the course assignments for one of the six UMR Mechanics of Materials sections. Four professors were involved in the study, and student performance in the experimental MecMovies section was compared to performance in the five control sections through a common final exam. At the end of the semester, students who used the MecMovies software also completed a survey questionnaire consisting of a number of subjective rating items. This paper presents a comparison of student performance in the experimental and control sections along with discussion of student qualitative ratings and comments. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 14: 31,43, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20065 [source]

    Spin-lattice relaxation of spin-½ nuclei in solids containing diluted paramagnetic impurity centers.


    Abstract Dynamic nuclear polarization of nuclear spins via the solid-state and thermal mixing effects is discussed. Continuous-wave S- and X-band microwave radiation have been employed to measure 13C signal enhancements and polarization times for 13C nuclei in a natural type Ib diamond as a function of magnetic field. It was found that thermal mixing plays an important role in the 13C signal enhancement because the central electron spin resonance (ESR) line width HL , H0,C/,e, resulting in flip-flip and flip-flop forbidden transitions taking place simultaneously. On the other hand, the 13C spin-lattice relaxation rate is determined to a large extent by the solid-state effect (forbidden transitions). 13C polarization rates have also been measured for a suite of natural diamonds. It is shown that the polarization rate is proportional to the paramagnetic impurity concentration, in agreement with the theory. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson 19A: 36,43, 2003. [source]

    Spin-lattice relaxation of spin-½ nuclei in solids containing diluted paramagnetic impurity centers.


    Abstract Dynamic nuclear polarization of nuclei by means of paramagnetic electron spin locking (Hartmann-Hahn cross-polarization between paramagnetic electrons and nuclei, or NOVEL) is discussed. The theory is demonstrated by experiments executed at 2.4 and 9.6 GHz on a natural type Ib diamond. It is shown that the 13C polarization rate is independent of the microwave frequency, in agreement with theory. NOVEL polarization takes place only while the spin-locking pulse is on. The rate at which the nuclei are polarized is proportional to the electron polarization in the rotating frame. Therefore, the length of the spin-locking pulse is limited by the value of T1,(e), and because T1,(e) , T1(e) for diamond the effective NOVEL polarization rate of 13C nuclei is usually relatively low. A comparison between the relative effectiveness of 13C polarization rates between NOVEL and the solid-state effect is made for high and low paramagnetic impurity concentrations. The dependence of the 13C polarization rate on the paramagnetic impurity concentration has been determined for a suite of natural diamonds. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson 19A: 44,49, 2003. [source]

    HPCTOOLKIT: tools for performance analysis of optimized parallel programs,

    L. Adhianto
    Abstract HPCTOOLKIT is an integrated suite of tools that supports measurement, analysis, attribution, and presentation of application performance for both sequential and parallel programs. HPCTOOLKIT can pinpoint and quantify scalability bottlenecks in fully optimized parallel programs with a measurement overhead of only a few percent. Recently, new capabilities were added to HPCTOOLKIT for collecting call path profiles for fully optimized codes without any compiler support, pinpointing and quantifying bottlenecks in multithreaded programs, exploring performance information and source code using a new user interface, and displaying hierarchical space,time diagrams based on traces of asynchronous call path samples. This paper provides an overview of HPCTOOLKIT and illustrates its utility for performance analysis of parallel applications. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Service selection and workflow mapping for Grids: an approach exploiting quality-of-service information

    Dimosthenis Kyriazis
    Abstract The advent of heterogeneous and distributed environments, such as Grid environments, made feasible the solution to computational-intensive problems in a reliable and cost-effective manner. In parallel, workflows with increased complexity that require specialized systems to deal with them are emerging, so as to carry out more composite and mission-critical applications. In that rationale, quality-of-service (QoS) issues need to be tackled in order to ensure that each application satisfies the corresponding user requirements. Therefore, considering the quality provision aspect as fundamental for enabling Grid applications to become QoS compliant, we present an approach for service selection using QoS criteria. The latter is achieved with a suite of components that allow the different mappings of application workflow processes to Grid services that not only meet the user goals and requirements but also maximize his/her benefit in terms of the offered QoS level. We also demonstrate the operation of the aforementioned suite of components and evaluate its performance and effectiveness using a Grid scenario, based on a 3D image rendering application. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Coupling integrated Earth System Model components with BFG2

    C. W. Armstrong
    Abstract GENIE is a suite of modular Earth System Model components coupled in a variety of configurations used to investigate climate phenomena. As part of the GENIEfy project, there is a desire to make the activity of coupling GENIE configurations more flexible in order to ease the integration of new components, permit experimentation with alternative model orderings and connectivity, and execute GENIE components in distributed environments. The current coupling framework is inflexible because models are run in a fixed order by a prescriptive main code. This paper shows how the BFG2 (Bespoke Framework Generator,version 2) coupling tool offers significantly more flexibility. Using BFG2, scientists describe GENIE configurations as metadata that can then be transformed automatically into the desired framework. It is demonstrated that BFG2 provides flexibility in composition and deployment, improvements that are brought without modification to the GENIE components, without loss of performance and in a such a manner that it is possible to produce exactly the same results as under the original framework. We also demonstrate how BFG2 may be used to improve the performance of future GENIE coupled models. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A test suite for parallel performance analysis tools

    Michael Gerndt
    Abstract Parallel performance analysis tools must be tested as to whether they perform their task correctly, which comprises at least three aspects. First, it must be ensured that the tools neither alter the semantics nor distort the run-time behavior of the application under investigation. Next, it must be verified that the tools collect the correct performance data as required by their specification. Finally, it must be checked that the tools perform their intended tasks and detect relevant performance problems. Focusing on the latter (correctness) aspect, testing can be done using synthetic test functions with controllable performance properties, possibly complemented by real-world applications with known performance behavior. A systematic test suite can be built from synthetic test functions and other components, possibly with the help of tools to assist the user in putting the pieces together into executable test programs. Clearly, such a test suite can be highly useful to builders of performance analysis tools. It is surprising that, up until now, no systematic effort has been undertaken to provide such a suite. In this paper we describe the APART Test Suite (ATS) for checking the correctness (in the above sense) of parallel performance analysis tools. In particular, we describe a collection of synthetic test functions which allows one to easily construct both simple and more complex test programs with desired performance properties. We briefly report on experience with MPI and OpenMP performance tools when applied to the test cases generated by ATS. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A method-level comparison of the Java Grande and SPEC JVM98 benchmark suites

    David Gregg
    Abstract In this paper we seek to provide a foundation for the study of the level of use of object-oriented techniques in Java programs in general, and scientific applications in particular. Specifically, we investigate the profiles of Java programs from a number of perspectives, including the use of class library methods, the size of methods called, the mode of invoke instruction used and the polymorphicity of call sites. We also present a categorization of the nature of small methods used in Java programs. We compare the Java Grande and SPEC JVM98 benchmark suites, and note a significant difference in the nature and composition of these suites, with the programs from the Java Grande suite demonstrating a less object-oriented approach. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Performance evaluation of the SX-6 vector architecture for scientific computations

    Leonid Oliker
    Abstract The growing gap between sustained and peak performance for scientific applications is a well-known problem in high-performance computing. The recent development of parallel vector systems offers the potential to reduce this gap for many computational science codes and deliver a substantial increase in computing capabilities. This paper examines the intranode performance of the NEC SX-6 vector processor, and compares it against the cache-based IBM Power3 and Power4 superscalar architectures, across a number of key scientific computing areas. First, we present the performance of a microbenchmark suite that examines many low-level machine characteristics. Next, we study the behavior of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks. Finally, we evaluate the performance of several scientific computing codes. Overall results demonstrate that the SX-6 achieves high performance on a large fraction of our application suite and often significantly outperforms the cache-based architectures. However, certain classes of applications are not easily amenable to vectorization and would require extensive algorithm and implementation reengineering to utilize the SX-6 effectively. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    HLA real-time extension

    Hui Zhao
    Abstract The IEEE 1516 Standard ,High Level Architecture (HLA)' and its implementation ,Run-Time Infra-structure (RTI)' defines a general-purpose network communication mechanism for Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS). However, it does not address real-time requirements of DIS. Current operating system technologies can provide real-time processing through some real-time operating systems (RTOSs) and the Internet is also moving to an age of Quality of Service (QoS), providing delay and jitter bounded services. With the availability of RTOSs and IP QoS, it is possible for HLA to be extended to take advantage of these technologies in order to construct an architecture for Real-Time DIS (RT-DIS). This extension will be a critical aspect of applications in virtual medicine, distributed virtual environments, weapon simulation, aerospace simulation and others. This paper outlines the current real-time technology with respect to operating systems and at the network infrastructure level. After summarizing the requirements and our experiences with RT-DIS, we present a proposal for HLA real-time extension and architecture for real-time RTI. Similar to the growth of real-time CORBA (Common Object Request Broker) after the mature based CORBA standard suite, Real-Time HLA is a natural extension following the standardization of HLA into IEEE 1516 in September 2000. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Le monde a changé,peut-on en dire autant des méthodes utilisées dans la mise en ,uvre des procédures analytiques?

    M1; M42 Les procédures analytiques procurent aux auditeurs un mécanisme d'évaluation de la « vraisemblance » des informations financières, grâce à la comparaison de la performance présentée par l'entité cliente et des attentes découlant de leur connaissance de l'entité cliente, fondée sur l'expérience passée et l'évolution de l'organisation et de son secteur d'activité. Les procédures analytiques diffèrent donc foncièrement des autres procédures d'audit, du fait que la performance de l'entité est envisagée dans une perspective plus large, dans le contexte de son environnement. Cela explique que les procédures analytiques se soient révélées efficientes dans le dépistage des anomalies, et nombreux sont ceux qui affirment que plusieurs des fraudes financières passées auraient été décelées si les auditeurs avaient mis en ,uvre des procédures analytiques efficaces. Compte tenu de l'ampleur et de la portée des progrès réalisés au cours de la dernière décennie, les auteurs se demandent si les procédures analytiques ont changé au fil de ces années et, le cas échéant, comment ces changements se sont manifestés. Ils s'intéressent en particulier à l'incidence de « facilitateurs » et d'« inducteurs » de changement importants, comme les progrès technologiques et l'adoption de la loi Sarbanes-Oxley. Ils comparent également leurs observations aux résultats d'une étude marquante sur les méthodes utilisées dans la mise en ,uvre des procédures analytiques, réalisée par Hirst et Koonce (1996) il y a plus de 10 ans. Les auteurs interrogent en entrevue 36 auditeurs (11 chargés de missions, 13 chefs de groupe et 12 associés) provenant tous des Quatre Grands cabinets d'expertise comptable, à l'aide d'un questionnaire structuré. Les données recueillies révèlent certaines similitudes dans les observations lorsqu'elles sont comparées aux résultats des études antérieures (par exemple, les auditeurs continuent d'utiliser des procédures analytiques relativement simples). Toutefois, les auteurs relèvent bon nombre de différences sensibles attestant de l'évolution des méthodes utilisées dans la mise en ,uvre des procédures analytiques. Ainsi, par suite des progrès de la technologie, les auditeurs s'appuient maintenant plus largement qu'ils ne le faisaient auparavant sur les données sectorielles et les données des analystes. En outre, les auditeurs disent élaborer des prévisions quantitatives plus précises et utiliser davantage d'informations non financières. Ils semblent également confier plus fréquemment la mise en ,uvre des procédures analytiques au personnel d'audit d'échelon inférieur, prennent une quantité plus grande d'informations auprès du personnel non comptable et sont disposés à réduire davantage les tests de corroboration, compte tenu des procédures analytiques mises en ,uvre à la phase de planification. Enfin, la loi Sarbanes-Oxley a favorisé l'augmentation de la prise en compte et de la connaissance des contrôles internes, facteur que l'on estime avoir joué le rôle le plus important dans la recrudescence de l'utilisation des procédures analytiques et le renforcement de la confiance accordée à ce type de procédures. [source]

    MR imaging in assessing cardiovascular interventions and myocardial injury

    Alexis Jacquier
    Abstract Performing an MR-guided endovascular intervention requires (1) real-time tracking and guidance of catheters/guide wires to the target, (2) high-resolution images of the target and its surroundings in order to define the extent of the target, (3) performing a therapeutic procedure (delivery of stent or injection of gene or cells) and (4) evaluating the outcome of the therapeutic procedure. The combination of X-ray and MR imaging (XMR) in a single suite was designed for new interventional procedures. MR contrast media can be used to delineate myocardial infarcts and microvascular obstruction, thereby defining the target for local delivery of therapeutic agents under MR-guidance. Iron particles, or gadolinium- or dysprosium-chelates are mixed with the soluble injectates or stem cells in order to track intramyocardial delivery and distribution. Preliminary results show that genes encoded for vascular endothelial and fibroblast growth factor and cells are effective in promoting angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, perfusion and LV function. Angiogenic growth factors, genes and cells administered under MR-guided minimally invasive catheter-based procedures will open up new avenues in treating end-stage ischemic heart disease. The optimum dose of the therapeutic agents, delivery devices and real-time imaging techniques to guide the delivery are currently the subject of ongoing research. The aim of this review is to (1) provide an updated review of experiences using MR imaging to guide transcatheter therapy, (2) address the potential of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR contrast media in assessing myocardial injury at a molecular level and labeling cells and (3) illustrate the applicability of the non-invasive MR imaging in the field of angiogenic therapies through recent clinical and experimental publications. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Of Dodos and Dutchmen: reflections on the nature of history

    CRITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2005
    History-making is a defining property of the human species; the ability to retain information in symbolic form over time (an ability which is granted principally by the presence of true natural language) is a unique attribute of the human animal. It has allowed human beings to enter in a qualitatively different relationship with the physical environment, and to operate in and alter that environment in highly complex, highly effective ways. To a great extent, the types of events that structure this way of life are absent from the rest of the natural world; in order to describe them accurately, it is necessary to attend to the special quality which defines them, a quality which we can characterise as their 'historical-ness'. Descriptions of human events cannot overlook the histories that organise and determine them, and to that extent they are not fruitfully apprehended with the tools of the exact sciences and instead require attention from the social sciences; but nevertheless, the phenomena of history are a part of the natural world, since they are part of the life of the organism. History itself arises in the non-historical crucible of biology. The paper examines a particular suite of events which have distinct historical and non-historical aspects - the extinction of the Dodo - in order to explore the epistemological difficulties which necessarily complicate any attempt to view human conduct as an integrated part of the natural world. [source]

    Age-dependent differential expression of genes involved in steroid signalling pathway in the brain of protandrous black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli

    Sherly Tomy
    Abstract The mechanisms underlying brain sex differentiation in animals are poorly understood. In the present study, using black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, as primary experimental model, we investigated the temporal expression patterns of receptors for androgen (ar) and estrogen (esr1 and esr2a) in the brain during posthatching ages and analyzed them against the timing of gonadal germ cell development. We hypothesized that endogenous estrogens naturally masculinize the brain of black porgy. The expression of sex steroid receptors was studied in relation to a wider suite of other related genes (nr5a2, nr0b1, star, and cyp19a1b) to provide some insight into the monomale sex differentiation pattern observed in this species. Our results revealed a highly significant increase in esr1 together with the increase in esr2a at 120 dph (days posthatching), suggesting a significant role for esr in sex differentiation in this species. Temporal expression patterns of nr5a2, nr0b1, star, sex steroid receptors, and cyp19a1b in the brain provided evidence for their physiological roles in the monomale sex differentiation in this species. The expression of nr5a2, star, ar, esr1, esr2a, and cyp19a1b increased at 120 dph, a period when brain sex differentiation probably occurs in this species. The study also suggests that neurosteroidogenesis in black porgy may be regulated by both nr5a2 -dependent and nr5a2 -independent mechanisms. The results demonstrated striking differences in the abundance of the gene transcripts in discrete brain region throughout ontogeny. In addition, the sex steroid hormone levels and aromatase activity in brain at different developmental states and the changes in the gene expression patterns in response to aromatase inhibitor treatment are also discussed. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009 [source]

    Radiologically guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver: Retrospective study of 119 cases evaluating diagnostic effectiveness and clinical complications

    Ph.D., Ziwen Guo M.D.
    Abstract We reviewed 119 percutaneous, radiologically guided fine-needle aspirations (FNA) from 114 patients with liver masses to evaluate diagnostic effectiveness and complications of this procedure. Satisfactory material was obtained in 118 cases (99%), of which 78 were diagnosed as positive (66%), three suspicious (2%), five atypical (4%), and 32 (27%) as negative for malignancy. Compared to surgical biopsy (48 cases) and clinical data, the sensitivity and specificity of FNA for malignancy was 95.1% and 100%, respectively, yielding a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 88.8%. Four cytology cases (3.4%) were false-negatives (FN); all were interpretive errors. Four FN surgical biopsies (8.3%) were sampling errors. Minor complications occurred in three cases (2.5%). We conclude that FNA is safe and effective for determining the malignant potential of liver masses and should be the procedure of choice. Our experience suggests that having a pathologist present in the radiology suite provides optimal patient care. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2002;26:283,289. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The role of fruit traits of bird-dispersed plants in invasiveness and weed risk assessment

    Carl R. Gosper
    Abstract Aim, Birds play a major role in the dispersal of seeds of many fleshy-fruited invasive plants. The fruits that birds choose to consume are influenced by fruit traits. However, little is known of how the traits of invasive plant fruits contribute to invasiveness or to their use by frugivores. We aim to gain a greater understanding of these relationships to improve invasive plant management. Location, South-east Queensland, Australia. Methods, We measure a variety of fruit morphology, pulp nutrient and phenology traits of a suite of bird-dispersed alien plants. Frugivore richness of these aliens was derived from the literature. Using regressions and multivariate methods, we investigate relationships between fruit traits, frugivore richness and invasiveness. Results, Plant invasiveness was negatively correlated to fruit size, and all highly invasive species had quite similar fruit morphology [smaller fruits, seeds of intermediate size and few (< 10) seeds per fruit]. Lower pulp water was the only pulp nutrient trait associated with invasiveness. There were strong positive relationships between the diversity of bird frugivores and plant invasiveness, and in the diversity of bird frugivores in the study region and another part of the plants' alien range. Main conclusions, Our results suggest that weed risk assessments (WRA) and predictions of invasive success for bird-dispersed plants can be improved. Scoring criteria for WRA regarding fruit size would need to be system-specific, depending on the fruit-processing capabilities of local frugivores. Frugivore richness could be quantified in the plant's natural range, its invasive range elsewhere, or predictions made based on functionally similar fruits. [source]

    A PCA-based modelling technique for predicting environmental suitability for organisms from presence records

    M. P. Robertson
    We present a correlative modelling technique that uses locality records (associated with species presence) and a set of predictor variables to produce a statistically justifiable probability response surface for a target species. The probability response surface indicates the suitability of each grid cell in a map for the target species in terms of the suite of predictor variables. The technique constructs a hyperspace for the target species using principal component axes derived from a principal components analysis performed on a training dataset. The training dataset comprises the values of the predictor variables associated with the localities where the species has been recorded as present. The origin of this hyperspace is taken to characterize the centre of the niche of the organism. All the localities (grid-cells) in the map region are then fitted into this hyperspace using the values of the predictor variables at these localities (the prediction dataset). The Euclidean distance from any locality to the origin of the hyperspace gives a measure of the ,centrality' of that locality in the hyperspace. These distances are used to derive probability values for each grid cell in the map region. The modelling technique was applied to bioclimatic data to predict bioclimatic suitability for three alien invasive plant species (Lantana camara L., Ricinus communis L. and Solanum mauritianum Scop.) in South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. The models were tested against independent test records by calculating area under the curve (AUC) values of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and kappa statistics. There was good agreement between the models and the independent test records. The pre-processing of climatic variable data to reduce the deleterious effects of multicollinearity, and the use of stopping rules to prevent overfitting of the models are important aspects of the modelling process. [source]

    Late Devonian tetrapod remains from Red Hill, Pennsylvania, USA: how much diversity?

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    Edward B. Daeschler
    Abstract The remains of Late Devonian tetrapods from the Red Hill locality in Pennsylvania help to elucidate the early stages of tetrapod evolution. Red Hill is a particularly informative site that preserves a diverse fauna and flora within a depositional setting suggesting penecontemporaneous deposition of locally derived material. Here, for the first time, we report on the full suite of early tetrapod remains from Red Hill and consider the implications for tetrapod diversity within the Red Hill ecosystem. Previously described material is reviewed and considered in relation to newly reported specimens. New material described includes isolated skull elements (two jugals, a postorbital, a lacrimal and a coronoid) and postcranial elements (a femur and a gastral scale). The characteristics of many of the Red Hill tetrapod specimens conform to the morphological expectations of Late Devonian forms. Several elements, however, illustrate more derived characteristics and strongly suggest the presence of the oldest known whatcheeriid-like tetrapod. This study demonstrates the difficulty in making taxonomic associations with isolated remains, even when found in close proximity to one another. Exploration of the characteristics of each element, however, demonstrates the presence of at least three early tetrapod taxa at the Red Hill site. [source]

    The role of vegetation patterns in structuring runoff and sediment fluxes in drylands

    Juan Puigdefábregas
    Abstract The dynamics of vegetation-driven spatial heterogeneity (VDSH) and its function in structuring runoff and sediment fluxes have received increased attention from both geomorphological and ecological perspectives, particularly in arid regions with sparse vegetation cover. This paper reviews the recent findings in this area obtained from field evidence and numerical simulation experiments, and outlines their implications for soil erosion assessment. VDSH is often observed at two scales, individual plant clumps and stands of clumps. At the patch scale, the local outcomes of vegetated patches on soil erodibility and hydraulic soil properties are well established. They involve greater water storage capacity as well as increased organic carbon and nutrient inputs. These effects operate together with an enhanced capacity for the interception of water and windborne resources, and an increased biological activity that accelerates breakdown of plant litter and nutrient turnover rates. This suite of relationships, which often involve positive feedback mechanisms, creates vegetated patches that are increasingly different from nearby bare ground areas. By this way a mosaic builds up with bare ground and vegetated patches coupled together, respectively, as sources and sinks of water, sediments and nutrients. At the stand scale within-storm temporal variability of rainfall intensity controls reinfiltration of overland flow and its decay with slope length. At moderate rainfall intensity, this factor interacts with the spatial structure of VDSH and the mechanism of overland flow generation. Reinfiltration is greater in small-grained VDSH and topsoil saturation excess overland flow. Available information shows that VDSH structures of sources and sinks of water and sediments evolve dynamically with hillslope fluxes and tune their spatial configurations to them. Rainfall simulation experiments in large plots show that coarsening VDSH leads to significantly greater erosion rates even under heavy rainfall intensity because of the flow concentration and its velocity increase. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Laboratory simulation of clast abrasion

    J. Lewin
    Abstract Experimental abrasion of river-bed materials has been widely undertaken, producing ,downstream' fining rates that generally are believed to be much less than those observed in the field. A conclusion commonly adopted has been that sorting processes are more effective than abrasion processes. A comparative evaluation of results from an abrasion tank and a tumbling barrel are presented, which show that abrasion patterns and rates differ according to the equipment used, clast size and shape, the clast charge (barrel) and water velocity and bed material (tank). Abrasion is a composite process, and the effects achieved appear to be dominated by percussion in the tank and grinding in the barrel. Breakage, crushing and sandblasting are not modelled effectively, nor are effects achieved on clasts when they form part of the bed. Comparisons are made with other equipment used, the very limited amount of direct field abrasion monitoring, and with the probable suite of processes that may occur under field conditions. Also reviewed are the problems that arise when laboratory weight-loss abrasion coefficients are used or converted into ones of size diminution, as usually derived from field observations of down-channel trends. It is concluded that field abrasion rates generally have been underestimated, as the processes involved are at best only selectively represented by the experimental equipment so far used, and because the results obtained experimentally are capable of misinterpretation when related to field trends. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A generalized conditional intensity measure approach and holistic ground-motion selection

    Brendon A. Bradley
    Abstract A generalized conditional intensity measure (GCIM) approach is proposed for use in the holistic selection of ground motions for any form of seismic response analysis. The essence of the method is the construction of the multivariate distribution of any set of ground-motion intensity measures conditioned on the occurrence of a specific ground-motion intensity measure (commonly obtained from probabilistic seismic hazard analysis). The approach therefore allows any number of ground-motion intensity measures identified as important in a particular seismic response problem to be considered. A holistic method of ground-motion selection is also proposed based on the statistical comparison, for each intensity measure, of the empirical distribution of the ground-motion suite with the ,target' GCIM distribution. A simple procedure to estimate the magnitude of potential bias in the results of seismic response analyses when the ground-motion suite does not conform to the GCIM distribution is also demonstrated. The combination of these three features of the approach make it entirely holistic in that: any level of complexity in ground-motion selection for any seismic response analysis can be exercised; users explicitly understand the simplifications made in the selected suite of ground motions; and an approximate estimate of any bias associated with such simplifications is obtained. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]