Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Suicide

  • attempted suicide
  • completed suicide
  • physician-assisted suicide
  • youth suicide

  • Terms modified by Suicide

  • suicide attempt
  • suicide death
  • suicide gene
  • suicide gene therapy
  • suicide ideation
  • suicide inhibitor
  • suicide prevention
  • suicide rate
  • suicide research
  • suicide risk
  • suicide risk assessment
  • suicide risk factor
  • suicide victim

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT This essay considers new forms of investment, risk, and self-determination, among Botswana's middle and aspirant classes, as well as the loneliness and rage that are at stake when they fail. In it, I use specific instances and more widespread talk of suicides and murder,suicides contemplated, attempted, and accomplished as a vehicle for pondering the social dimensions of investment, and the perils of secrecy and the loneliness that shadow it. Amid a new regime of risk, investment, and self-determination brought by discontinuities of economic boom and widespread AIDS death over the past decade, Batswana are facing new questions about how to invest in relationships, selves, and futures. The essay concludes with a radically different context, a cancer ward, where Batswana seek to exile suicide and nihilism from the beds, minds, and hearts of patients through processes of socialization and paternalism that deny self-determination, while at the same time questing for and demanding investment in high-tech biomedicine. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 3 2007
    ABSTRACT In this paper, I examine the arguments against physician assisted suicide (PAS). Many of these arguments are consequentialist. Consequentialist arguments rely on empirical claims about the future and thus their strength depends on how likely it is that the predictions will be realized. I discuss these predictions against the backdrop of Oregon's Death with Dignity Act and the practice of PAS in the Netherlands. I then turn to a specific consequentialist argument against PAS , Susan M. Wolf's feminist critique of the practice. Finally, I examine the two most prominent deontological arguments against PAS. Ultimately, I conclude that no anti-PAS argument has merit. Although I do not provide positive arguments for PAS, if none of the arguments against it are strong, we have no reason not to legalize it. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Suicide in children and adolescents

    Rita Berghammer
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Suicide, suicidality and suicide prevention in affective disorders

    H. J. Möller
    Objective:, It is well known that functional psychiatric disorders are one of the main causes of suicidal behaviour. This paper discusses the epidemiology and risk factors of suicidal behaviour in affective disorders and goes on to describe the treatment and prevention of such suicidal behaviour. Method:, A narrative overview of relevant epidemiological and drug studies. Results:, About 60,70% of patients with acute depression experience suicidal ideas. There is a high incidence of suicide (10,15%) in depressive patients. Psychopharmacological treatment with antidepressants and/or mood stabilizers is the most successful approach to avoid the risk of suicidal behaviour. In addition, psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions are of importance. Conclusion:, Suicidal behaviour and suicide must be considered when treating patients with affective disorders. The complex causation of suicidality has to be borne in mind when considering methods of suicide prevention. In order to obtain the best results, psychosocial, psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological approaches should be combined, depending on the risk factors of each individual patient. [source]

    Assisted Suicide: Do We Own Our Bodies?

    DIALOG, Issue 2 2004
    Jarmo Tarkki
    Abstract:, The ethics of physician-assisted suicide is explored here in light of classic philosophical discussions of the ownership of one's body plus biblical discussions of the relationship of body and soul. Motives for individual and group suicide are brought to bear on bioethical principles such as that of autonomy. Ethical analysis is here challenged by the case of a 91 year-old woman, Ragnhild, who lived after professional judgments that her life should be ended. [source]

    Health outcomes associated with methamphetamine use among young people: a systematic review

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Brandon D. L. Marshall
    ABSTRACT Objectives Methamphetamine (MA) use among young people is of significant social, economic and public health concern to affected communities and policy makers. While responses have focused upon various perceived severe harms of MA use, effective public health interventions require a strong scientific evidence base. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify scientific studies investigating health outcomes associated with MA use among young people aged 10,24 years. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) was used to categorize outcomes and determine the level of evidence for each series of harms. Results We identified 47 eligible studies for review. Consistent associations were observed between MA use and several mental health outcomes, including depression, suicidal ideation and psychosis. Suicide and overdose appear to be significant sources of morbidity and mortality among young MA users. Evidence for a strong association between MA use and increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections is equivocal. Finally, we identified only weak evidence of an association between MA use and dental diseases among young people. Conclusions Available evidence indicates a consistent relationship between MA use and mental health outcomes (e.g. depression, psychosis) and an increased risk of mortality due to suicide and overdose. We found insufficient evidence of an association between MA use and other previously cited harms, including infectious diseases and dental outcomes. As such, future research of higher methodological quality is required to further investigate possible associations. Current interventions should focus attention upon MA-related health outcomes for which sound scientific evidence is available. [source]

    Suicide in people with epilepsy: How great is the risk?

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2009
    Gail S Bell
    Summary Purpose:, Suicide is more common in populations with epilepsy, but estimates vary concerning the magnitude of the risk. We aimed to estimate the risk using meta-analysis. Methods:, A literature search identified 74 articles (76 cohorts of people with epilepsy) in whom the number of deaths by suicide in people with epilepsy and the number of person,years at risk could be estimated. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each cohort, for groups of cohorts, and for the total population. Results:, The overall SMR was 3.3 (95% CI 2.8,3.7) based on 190 observed deaths by suicide compared with 58.4 expected. The SMR was significantly increased in people with incident or newly diagnosed epilepsy in the community (SMR 2.1), in populations with mixed prevalence and incidence cases (SMR 3.6), in those with prevalent epilepsy (SMR 4.8), in people in institutions (SMR 4.6), in people seen in tertiary care clinics (SMR 2.28), in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (SMR 6.6), in those following temporal lobe excision (SMR 13.9), and following other forms of epilepsy surgery (SMR 6.4). The SMR was significantly low overall in two community-based studies of people with epilepsy and developmental disability. Discussion:, We confirm that the risk of suicide is increased in most populations of people with epilepsy. Psychiatric comorbidity has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for suicide in the general population and in people with epilepsy, and such comorbidity should thus be identified and treated. [source]

    Does Deinstitutionalization Increase Suicide?

    Jangho Yoon
    Objectives. (1) To test whether public psychiatric bed reduction may increase suicide rates; (2) to investigate whether the supply of private hospital psychiatric beds,separately for not-for-profit and for-profit,can substitute for public bed reduction without increasing suicides; and (3) to examine whether the level of community mental health resources moderates the relationship between public bed reduction and suicide rates. Methods. We examined state-level variation in suicide rates in relation to psychiatric beds and community mental health spending in the United States for the years 1982,1998. We categorize psychiatric beds separately for public, not-for-profit, and for-profit hospitals. Principal Findings. Reduced public psychiatric bed supply was found to increase suicide rates. We found no evidence that not-for-profit or for-profit bed supply compensates for public bed reductions. However, greater community mental health spending buffers the adverse effect of public bed reductions on suicide. We estimate that in 2008, an additional decline in public psychiatric hospital beds would raise suicide rates for almost all states. Conclusions. Downsizing of public inpatient mental health services may increase suicide rates. Nevertheless, an increase in community mental health funding may be promising. [source]

    Suicide after hospitalization in the elderly: a population based study of suicides in Northern Finland between 1988,2003

    Kaisa Karvonen
    Abstract Objective Elderly people commit suicide more often than people under the age of 65. An elevated risk is also attached to depression and other axis I psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the preferred suicide method, effect of primary psychiatric diagnosis, and length of time between discharge from psychiatric hospitalization and suicide. The lack of information is most apparent in the oldest old (individuals over 75 years). Methods On the basis of forensic examinations, data on suicide rates were separately examined for the 50,64, 65,74 and over 75 year-olds (Total n,=,564) with regard to suicide method, history of psychiatric hospitalization and primary diagnoses gathered from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Study population consisted of all suicides committed between 1988 and 2003 in the province of Oulu in Northern Finland. Results Of the oldest old, females had more frequent hospitalizations than males in connection with psychiatric disorders (61% vs 23%), of which depression was the most common (39% vs 14%). In this age group, 42% committed suicide within 3 months after being discharged from hospital and 83% used a violent method. Both elderly males and females were less often under the influence of alcohol, but used more often violent methods than middle-aged persons. Conclusions Suicide rates within the first 3 months following discharge from hospital in the 65,74 and the over 75 year olds were substantial and should influence post-hospitalization treatment strategies. To reduce the risk of suicides in elderly patients discharged from hospital, close post-hospitalization supervision combined with proper psychoactive medication and psychotherapy, are possible interventions. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparison of suicide in people aged 65,74 and 75+ by gender in England and Wales and the major Western countries 1979,1999

    Colin Pritchard
    Abstract Background The factors most strongly associated with suicide are age and gender,more men than women, and, more people over 65 kill themselves. As a number of Governments have targets to reduce suicide levels we compare elderly suicide rates over a 20-year period in England and Wales. And the major Western countries focusing upon age and gender. Method WHO mortality data were used to calculate three-year average General Population Suicide Rates (GPSR) for 1979,1981 to 1997,1999 and rates of people aged 65,74 and 75+ suicide by gender to provide ratios of change and a statistical comparison of England and Wales and the Major Western countries over the period. Results Male GSPR: ,65,74' suicide ratios fell significantly in six countries and in three for the ,75+'. Female GSPR: ,65,74' suicide ratios fell in every country except Spain. Proportionately, there were more suicides in the over 65s in countries with an ,extended family' tradition, Spain, Italy, Germany, France and Japan, than in the five ,secular' countries. England and Wales male ,65,74' suicide fell significantly more than Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, Netherlands and the USA, and did significantly better than the other countries for all female senior citizen suicides. Conclusion Suicide of the over-65s has improved in seven countries, especially in England and Wales, who had the greatest proportional reduction, which reflects well upon the psycho-geriatric and community services. However, in all countries, male 65,74 rates did not match the female out so extra efforts are needed to improve male rates. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Gender in elderly suicide: analysis of coroners inquests of 200 cases of elderly suicide in Cheshire 1989,2001

    Emad Salib
    Abstract Objectives The aim of this study is to review gender differences in elderly suicide in relation to specific social aspects of the suicidal process and health care contact before death. Such information may have practical value in identifying and targeting vulnerable elderly in whom suicide may be potentially preventable. Methods Data were extracted from the records of coroner's inquests into all reported suicide of persons aged 60 and over, in Cheshire over a period of 13 years 1989,2001. The Coroner's office covers the whole county of Cheshire (population 1,000,000). Results Men were less likely to have been known to psychiatric services (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.4 95% 0.2,0.6) and with less frequently reported history of previous attempted suicide compared to women (OR 0.5 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 0.2,1). All deceased from ethnic minorities were men, none of whom had been known to psychiatric services. There was no significant difference between women and men in relation to, physical or psychiatric morbidity, GP contact prior to suicide, intimation of intent or living alone. Of suicide victims not known to services a surprisingly high proportion of 38% and 16% were found to have psychiatric morbidity in men and women respectively. Conclusion Suicide is an important problem in the elderly with gender playing an important part in their social behaviour but a high proportion of the deceased were not known to local services. Primary Care professionals have an important role to play in reducing elderly suicide as most contact with the health service in elderly suicide seem to be with GPs. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Trends in suicide from drug overdose in the elderly in England and Wales, 1993,1999

    Rajen Shah
    Abstract Background Drug overdose is a common method of suicide in the elderly. Hence, an understanding of current trends in epidemiology of these deaths is important when considering measures to decrease suicide rates. Methods Analysis of the Office for National Statistics (ONS) database of deaths from overdose and poisoning. Suicide and undetermined deaths from drug overdose between 1993,1999 in the over 65 year olds were studied. Socio-demographic data from the four drug groups most commonly used in overdose were extracted, and age and sex specific mortality rates calculated. Enumeration districts were ranked into five quintiles based on their Carstairs scores, and death rates in each quintile for men and women calculated. Results There were 1864 deaths from drug overdose during the study period. Suicide and undetermined death rates from drug overdose remained stable between 1993,1999. Drugs most commonly used in overdose were (in order) paracetamol (and related compounds), benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and opiates. Women comprised 62% of deaths. Death rates increased with age, with highest rates in men over 75 (37.7 deaths per million). Benzodiazepines showed the most marked increase with age. Co-proxamol comprised 32% of deaths from paracetamol compounds, and 95% of antidepressant deaths were due to tricyclic antidepressants. There was no association in women between Carstairs area deprivation and suicide rates; in men rates were highest in the most deprived areas. Conclusion Suicides in the over 65 year olds may be decreased by changes in prescription practice. Paracetamol, co-proxamol, tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines should be prescribed with caution to the elderly with depression or at high risk of depression. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The systematic assessment of depressed elderly primary care patients

    Patrick J. Raue
    Abstract Studies of the primary care treatment of depressed elderly patients are constrained by limited time and space and by subject burden. Research assessments must balance these constraints with the need for obtaining clinically meaningful information. Due to the wide-ranging impact of depression, assessments should also focus on suicidality, hopelessness, substance abuse, anxiety, cognitive functioning, medical comorbidity, functional disability, social support, personality, service use and satisfaction with services. This paper describes considerations concerning the assessment selection process for primary care studies, using the PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial) study as an example. Strategies are discussed for ensuring that data are complete, valid and reliable. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Grub Street and Suicide: A View from the Literary Press in Late Eighteenth-Century France

    Abstract This article investigates the manner in which the French press of the late eighteenth century treated the suicides of Grub Street writers. The main argument is that the secularisation of suicide allowed for new attitudes toward self-inflicted death. One finds that the underground press callously mocked the suicides of hack writers. Secondarily, the article challenges the notion that suicide became ,medicalised' in the eighteenth century, and that contemporaries viewed it solely as an act of insanity. [source]

    How people live with or get over being suicidal: a review of qualitative studies

    Richard Lakeman
    Abstract Title.,How people live with or get over being suicidal: a review of qualitative studies Aim., To systematically review qualitative research which addresses how people live with suicidality or recover a desire to live. Background., Suicide is a pressing social and public health problem. Much emphasis in suicide research has been on the epidemiology of suicide and the identification of risk and protective factors. Relatively little emphasis has been given to the subjective experiences of suicidal people, but this is necessary to inform the care and help provided to individuals. Data sources., Electronic searches of CINAHL Plus with full text, Medline and PsychArticles (included PsycINFO, Social Services Abstracts and Sociological abstracts) were undertaken for the period from 1997 to April 2007. In addition, the following journals were hand searched (1997,2007): ,Mortality', ,Death Studies', ,Archives of Suicide Research' and ,Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention'. Method., A systematic review of the literature and thematic content analysis of findings. The findings were extracted from selected papers and synthesized by way of content analysis in narrative and tabular form. Findings., Twelve studies were identified. Analysis revealed a number of interconnected themes: the experience of suffering, struggle, connection, turning points and coping. Conclusions., Living with or overcoming suicidality involves various struggles, often existential in nature. Suicide may be seen as both a failure and a means of coping. People may turn away from suicide quite abruptly through experiencing, gaining or regaining the right kind of connection with others. Nurses working with suicidal individuals should aspire to be identified as people who can turn people's lives around. [source]

    Equality, Justice, and Paternalism: Recentreing Debate about Physician-Assisted Suicide

    abstract Debate about physician-assisted suicide has typically focused on the values of autonomy and patient wellbeing. This is understandable, even reasonable, given the import-ance of these values in bioethics. However, these are not the only moral values there are. The purpose of this paper is to examine physician-assisted suicide on the basis of the values of equality and justice. In particular, I will evaluate two arguments that invoke equality, one in favour of physician-assisted suicide, one against it, and I will eventually argue that a convincing equality-based argument in support of physician-assisted suicide is available. I will conclude by showing how an equality-based perspective transforms some secondary features of debate about this issue. [source]

    Financial Debt and Suicide in Hong Kong SAR,

    Paul S. F. Yip
    The presence of indebtedness is known to be a risk factor that can trigger stressed persons to contemplate suicide. This study compares the profiles of suicides with and without debt problems based on 2002 Coroner's Court death files. The category of men aged 25,39 has seen a 70% increase in suicide rate since 1997, and the number using carbon monoxide poisoning has increased from 1% of the total deaths in 1997 to about 26% of the total deaths in 2002. Suicides associated with debt problems seem to involve fewer mental and physical problems with formal job attachment than do suicides without debt problems. Gambling is a significant contributing factor to unmanageable indebtedness. [source]

    An Epidemiologic Study of Aboriginal Adolescent Risk in Canada: The Meaning of Suicide

    Melanie S. MacNeil RN
    BACKGROUND:,Current rates of Aboriginal youth suicide suggest that an epidemiologic review is needed to understand the impact of culture, community, and environment specific to suicide within this population. PURPOSE:,This paper aims to (a) examine the literature on the incidence of suicide with special attention to that of adolescents in Aboriginal communities in Canada, (b) review factors hypothesized to place Aboriginals at risk, and (c) explore research directions that would contribute to our understanding of an Aboriginal perspective of suicide. CONCLUSION:,A clear description of the meaning of adolescent Aboriginal suicide and an understanding of the factors that create risk is needed. [source]

    A Support Group Intervention for Children Bereaved by Parental Suicide

    Ann M. Mitchell PhD
    TOPIC:,Bereavement is considered by many to be among the most stressful of life events, and it becomes particularly distressing when it concerns the suicide death of a parent. Such an event is especially traumatic for children. PURPOSE AND SOURCES:,The purpose of this paper is to present a case for support group interventions designed specifically for child survivors of parental suicide. The authors provide a theoretical framework for supportive group interventions with these children and describe the structure of an 8-week bereavement support group for this special population of suicide survivors. CONCLUSIONS:,A case is made for designing and implementing group interventions to meet the mental health needs of this important group of individuals. [source]

    Preliminary Effects of Brief School-Based Prevention Approaches for Reducing Youth Suicide,Risk Behaviors, Depression, and Drug Involvement

    Leona L. Eggert PhD

    An Unusual Zip Gun Suicide,Medicolegal and Ballistic Examination

    Petr Hejna M.D., Ph.D.
    Abstract:, Home-made guns are imitations of typical firearms and usually have handgun characteristics. This article presents an unusual case of a suicide carried out by means of a fatal gunshot wound to the head using a home-made zip gun. A 49-year-old male, with a history of paranoid psychosis was found dead in the dwelling place of a family house. The investigation at the crime scene did not lead to suspicion of a gunshot wound because of the unusual nature of the firearm used. A medical examiner diagnosed an opened head injury as the primary cause of the victim's death. The autopsy findings provided immediate grounds for further inspection of the crime scene. Subsequently, a simple zip gun, which had been overlooked during the scene investigation, was discovered. An undeformed projectile recovered from the victim's head was consistent with the use of the home-made firearm. Following the completion of the investigations and autopsy, the death was classified as a suicide. [source]

    Forensic Characteristics of Suicide by Electrocution in Bulgaria

    William Dokov M.D.
    Abstract:, Suicides by electrocution (SE) are relatively rare and insufficiently studied. The purpose of this study is to present a more detailed picture of SE in Bulgaria. Forensic medical files of 59 SE cases were examined. spss 11.0 software was applied to produce the descriptive statistical analyses. Values of p < 0.05 were assumed to be statistically significant. We studied 59 SE cases, which account for 6.24% of all deaths by electrocution and 0.09% of all forensic autopsies. The average age of victims was 45.19 years old. Males prevailed: 91.53%. Children below 18 years old accounted for 3.39%. 42.37% of the victims applied low voltage (<220 V), and 33.99% applied high voltage (>220 V). The preferred method of SE was by direct contact victim/electrical cable: 47.45%. The summer months June through September account for 49.15% of all cases. [source]

    Toxicology and Circumstances of Completed Suicide by Means Other than Overdose,

    Shane Darke Ph.D.
    Abstract:, To determine the prevalence and circumstances of psychoactive substances amongst nonoverdose completed suicide, 1436 consecutive cases autopsied at the NSW Department of Forensic Medicine over the period 1/1/1997,12/31/2006 were analyzed. Substances were detected in 67.2% of cases, and illicit drugs in 20.1%. Alcohol was present in 40.6% of cases. Males were more likely to be positive for alcohol, cannabis, and psychostimulants, and females for pharmaceuticals. Illicits were associated with younger age. Alcohol was most prominent amongst toxicity cases, as were opioids, psychostimulants amongst gunshot cases, and pharmaceuticals amongst drownings. Cases in which drug and alcohol histories were noted were more likely to have a substance detected. Alcohol was more common where a suicide note was left and where relationship problems were involved. Pharmaceuticals were more common where a previous attempt was noted. Licit and illicit substances are strongly associated with suicide, even when the method does not involve drug overdose. [source]

    Suicide and violence to others: Loss prevention strategies (fall 1988)

    Marva West Tan Manager
    First page of article [source]

    Suicide without explicit precursors: a state of secret despair?

    David Canter
    Abstract Although it is usually assumed that all those who commit suicide give some prior indication of their intention to take their own life, there is growing evidence that a small but significant proportion of suicides occur without any clear, explicit indicators. It is proposed that these suicides share similar pathways to other suicides but that the despair involved is not expressed so clearly, often being kept secret. In order to identify such suicides and potential suicides it is helpful to have an indicator of the dominant sub-sets of constituents that are precursors to suicide. A 14-item Suicide Precursors Scale (SPS) was therefore developed. This was applied to 128 cases of suicide that occurred between January 1997 and December 2000 in Stockport (South Manchester, UK). A very high alpha coefficient of 0.98 supported the reliability and homogeneity of the SPS. A Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis of the SPS revealed three prototypical sub-sets of expressions of suicidal actions,illness, life circumstances, and depressive history. These are offered as coherent themes in the life of potential suicides, which may be of assistance both in determining whether an equivocal death is suicide or not, and in alerting caring agencies to the potential for suicide even when the despair is kept secret. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Suicide and Alcohol: Do Outlets Play a Role?

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2009
    Fred W. Johnson
    Background:, The purpose of this study was to determine whether the number of alcohol outlets in local and adjacent areas, in particular bars, was related over time to completed suicide and suicide attempts. There is evidence both from studies of individuals and time series aggregate studies, mostly at the national level, of substantial alcohol involvement in suicide, but no small-area, longitudinal studies have been carried out. The present study is the first that is both longitudinal and based on a large number of small spatial units, California zip codes, a level of resolution permitting analysis of the relationship between local alcohol access and suicide rates over time. Method:, Longitudinal data were obtained from 581 consistently defined zip code areas over 6 years (1995,2000) using data from the California Index Locations Database, a geographic information system that contains both population and place information with spatial attributes for the entire state. Measures obtained from each zip code included population characteristics (e.g., median age) and place characteristics (e.g., numbers of retail and alcohol outlets) which were related in separate analyses to (i) suicide mortality and (ii) the number of hospitalizations for injuries caused by suicide attempts. The effect of place characteristics in zip code areas adjacent to each of the 581 local zip codes (spatial lags) was also assessed. Analysis methods were random effects models corrected for spatial autocorrelation. Results:, Completed suicide rates were higher in zip code areas with greater local and lagged bar densities; and higher in areas with greater local but not lagged off-premise outlet densities. Whereas completed suicide rates were lower among blacks and Hispanics, completed suicide rates were higher among low income, older whites living in less densely populated areas, that is, rural areas. Rates of suicide attempts were higher in zip code areas with greater local but not lagged bar densities, and higher among low income younger whites living in smaller households and in rural areas. Rates of attempted suicide were also higher among blacks. Completed suicide and suicide attempt rates were lower in zip code areas with greater local restaurant densities; there were no lagged effects for restaurants. Conclusions:, Bar densities in particular appear related to suicide, meaning, because this is an aggregate-level spatial analysis, that suicides, both attempted and completed, occur at greater rates in rural community areas with greater bar densities. Because the suicide rate is highest in rural areas, this study suggests that although the number of completed and attempted suicides is no doubt greater in absolute numbers in urban areas, the suicide rate, both completed and attempted, is greater in rural areas, which draws attention, perhaps much needed, to the problems of rural America. [source]

    The development of nurse-led suicide prevention training for multidisciplinary staff in a North Wales NHS Trust

    R. JONES rmn bsc msc
    Accessible summary ,,Suicide and suicidal behaviour evoke strong feelings. That is so not only for those directly affected , the individual, family and friends, but for professional staff and the community at large. ,,Assessing the risk of suicide demands staff having the ability to connect and maintain rapport with people in varying degrees of distress. ,,Multidisciplinary training groups allow staff the opportunity to share their experiences and learn from one another. ,,Suicide awareness training for non mental health staff in the UK is variable and should be more of a priority. Abstract There are 300 deaths in Wales each year as a result of suicide. Though the rate in England and Wales has fallen in recent years, it is still the second most common cause of death in men aged 15,44 behind accidental death. The majority of those who die by suicide make contact with health professionals within a relatively short time before their death. For those with mental ill health, relationships with professionals appear particularly important; indeed negative relationships have been cited as a key factor precipitating death by suicide. This paper outlines a suicide awareness programme which aims to restate the values of empathy and relationship building in everyday interaction. It acknowledges risk factors and risk assessment tools, but more than anything strives to demonstrate the value of encouraging personal expression in patients. [source]

    Using the chronic care model to tackle depression among older adults who have long-term physical conditions

    P. MCEVOY phd bsc
    Effective psychological and pharmacological treatments are available, but for depressed older adults with long-term physical conditions, the outcome of routine care is generally poor. This paper introduces the chronic care model, a systemic approach to quality improvement and service redesign, which was developed by Ed Wagner and colleagues. The model highlights six key areas that need to be addressed, if depression is to be tackled more effectively in this neglected patient group: delivery system design, patient,provider relationships, decision support, clinical information systems, community resources and healthcare organization. Three influential programmes, the Improving Mood Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment programme, the Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly Collaborative Trial, and the Program to Encourage Active, and Rewarding Lives for Seniors, have shown that when the model is adopted, significant improvements in outcomes can be achieved. The paper concludes with a case study, which illustrates the difference that adopting the chronic care model can make. Radical changes in working practices may be required, to implement the model in practice. However, Greg Simon, a leading researcher in the field of depression care, has suggested that there is already sufficient evidence to justify a shift in emphasis from research towards dissemination and implementation. [source]

    Children at Risk: The Association Between Perceived Weight Status and Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts in Middle School Youth,

    Lauren M. Whetstone PhD
    ABSTRACT Background:, Suicide is one of the most common causes of death among young people. A report from the US Surgeon General called for strategies to prevent suicide, including increasing public awareness of suicide and risks factors, and enhancing research to understand risk and protective factors. Weight perception has been linked to depression and poor self-esteem in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived weight status and suicidal thoughts and actions by gender in middle school youth. Methods:, All public middle school students in 4 eastern North Carolina counties presented, and with parental permission (n = 5174), completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Middle School Questionnaire. The 3 dependent variables were self-reported thinking, planning, and attempting suicide. Bivariate analyses describe suicidal thoughts and actions; multiple logistic regression models examined the relationship between weight description and suicidal thoughts and actions controlling for age, race, household composition, grades on report cards, and parents' education. Results:, Significantly more females than males reported thinking (26% vs 19%), planning (12% vs 9%), and attempting (11% vs 8%) suicide. For females, those who perceived themselves as overweight were significantly more likely to report suicidal thoughts and actions; while for males, perceptions of overweight and underweight were significantly associated with suicidal thoughts and actions. Conclusions:, Controlling for personal and family characteristics, perceived weight status was significantly associated with suicidal thoughts and actions in middle school boys and girls. [source]