Study III (study + iii)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Developing an attitude towards bullying scale for prisoners: structural analyses across adult men, young adults and women prisoners

Jane L. Ireland
Background,Few studies have attempted to explore attitudes towards bullying among prisoners, despite acknowledgement that attitudes may play an important role. Aim,To evaluate the structure of a new attitudinal scale, the Prison Bullying Scale (PBS), with adult men and women in prison and with young male prisoners. Hypotheses,That attitudes would be represented as a multidimensional construct and that the PBS structure would be replicated across confirmatory samples. Method,The PBS was developed and confirmed across four independent studies using item parceling and confirmatory factor analysis: Study I comprised 412 adult male prisoners; Study II, 306 adult male prisoners; Study III, 171 male young offenders; and Study IV, 148 adult women prisoners. Results,Attitudes were represented as a multidimensional construct comprising seven core factors. The exploratory analysis was confirmed in adult male samples, with some confirmation among young offenders and adult women. The fit for young offenders was adequate and improved by factor covariance. The fit for women was the poorest overall. Conclusion,The study notes the importance of developing ecologically valid measures and statistically testing these measures prior to their clinical or research use. Implications,The development of the PBS holds value both as an assessment and as a research measure and remains the only ecologically validated measure in existence to assess prisoner attitudes towards bullying. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Coloured overlays and their benefit for reading

Arnold Wilkins
Children in mainstream schools compared text on white paper with identical text covered in turn by each of ten differently-coloured plastic overlays. More than 50% reported improved perception with one or more colours, and were given the best colour to use. About half used the overlays for more than three months and their reading speed increased when the overlays were used. In Study I children were examined twice using different methods and examiners. 47% chose the same colour on both occasions, and showed the greatest improvement in reading fluency, reliable at retest. In Study II children were issued with a random colour, and the greatest improvements in reading speed occurred when the random colour was the same as that previously chosen. Phonological reading strategies were not related to visual symptoms, or the benefit from overlays. Across individuals, reading speed varied by a factor of more than three, for good and poor readers. Study III provided estimates of the prevalence of improvements based on a sample of 426 children from 12 schools: 5% of children read more than 25% faster with a coloured overlay. [source]

Pharmacokinetics of budesonide and formoterol administered via a series of single-drug and combination inhalers: four open-label, randomized, crossover studies in healthy adults

Annika Eklund
Abstract Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of budesonide and formoterol administered concomitantly in healthy adults. Methods: Three single-dose, open-label crossover studies (n=28 each) were conducted (Study I: budesonide pMDI, formoterol DPI, budesonide pMDI+formoterol DPI; Study II: budesonide/formoterol pMDI, budesonide pMDI+formoterol DPI; Study III: budesonide/formoterol pMDI [three budesonide formulation strengths; constant formoterol]). Study IV (n=28) assessed steady state pharmacokinetics (budesonide/formoterol pMDI [two/four inhalations twice daily, 5-day treatment; four inhalations, single-dose]). Results: Study I: no pharmacokinetic interactions were observed between budesonide and formoterol. Study II: AUC ratios were 97.9% (budesonide) and 82.2% (formoterol) (budesonide/formoterol pMDI versus budesonide pMDI+formoterol DPI). Study III: formoterol AUC was comparable across budesonide/formoterol pMDI formulation strengths; budesonide AUC increased with formulation strength in proportion to fine particle dose. Study IV: dose proportionality was demonstrated for budesonide (AUC ratio, 104.3%) and suggested for formoterol (AUC ratio, 117.6%) with budesonide/formoterol pMDI (steady state); budesonide and formoterol AUC was higher with repeated versus single-dose budesonide/formoterol pMDI (four inhalations). Conclusions: No pharmacokinetic interactions were observed between budesonide and formoterol. Budesonide dose variation in budesonide/formoterol pMDI did not affect formoterol exposure. Steady state budesonide/formoterol pMDI dose-doubling yielded proportional increases in budesonide and formoterol exposure. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Quality of life in old age: An investigation of well older persons in Hong Kong

Sheung-Tak Cheng
What might add quality to life during the last period of the life cycle? In study I, five focus groups of elderly participants representing different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds provided descriptions of quality of life (QOL) from their own perspectives. These descriptions formed the basis of a questionnaire that was administered to a representative, random sample of older persons in Hong Kong (N = 1,616) in study II. The study II sample was further randomly split into two. Exploratory factor analysis on sample A identified four factors: generativity, interpersonal (including intergenerational) relations, physical functioning, and material life. Results of confirmatory factor analysis on sample B showed that the 4-factor QOL model provided a good fit to the data, and that the constructs measured were identical (invariant) between older men and women and between the young-old and the old-old. In study III, the findings were disseminated back to an independent sample of older persons meeting in focus groups, who provided verbal confirmations to the model. The findings shed light on possible community psychology interventions to promote wellness in the elderly. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 32: 309,326, 2004. [source]

GA2LEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

ALLERGY, Issue 11 2009
P.-J. Bousquet
Background:, The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective:, To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient as sensitized using results of the new Pan-European GA2LEN skin prick test study. Method:, In a large Pan-European multicenter (17 centers in 14 countries) patient based study, a standardized panel of 18 allergens has been prick tested using a standardized procedure. Conditional approach allowed to determine the allergens selection. Result:, Among the 3034 patients involved, 1996 (68.2%) were sensitized to at least one allergen. Overall, eight allergens (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, birch pollen, cat dander, Artemisia, olive pollen, Blatella and Alternaria) allowed to identified more than 95% of sensitized subjects. However, differences were observed between countries, two allergens being sufficient for Switzerland (grass pollen and cat dander) as opposed to nine for France (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, olive pollen, cat dander, Blatella, cypress, dog dander, alder and [Artemisia or Alternaria]). According to country, up to 13 allergens were needed to identify all sensitized subjects. Conclusion:, Eight to ten allergens allowed the identification of the majority of sensitized subjects. For clinical care of individual patients, the whole battery of 18 allergens is needed to appropriately assess sensitization across Europe. [source]

Physical training and testing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Ragnheišur Harpa Arnardóttir
Abstract Introduction:, The effects of different training modes need to be investigated further in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both advanced laboratory tests and field tests are used in patients with COPD to evaluate effects of interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. Aims:, The overall aims of the studies were to investigate the effects of different training modalities on exercise capacity and on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with moderate or severe COPD and, further, to explore two of the physical field tests used in pulmonary rehabilitation, the 12-min walk test and the incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT). Materials and Methods:, Patients with moderate or severe COPD were included. In study I (n = 57), the 12-min walk test was performed three times within 1 week. Exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) was assessed by pulse oximeter and was defined as SpO2 < 90%. In study II (n = 93), performance on ISWT was compared to performance on two different cycle tests. In study III (n = 42), the effects of two different combination training programmes were compared when training twice a week for 8 weeks. One programme was mainly based on endurance training (group A), and the other was based on resistance training and on callisthenics (group B). In study IV (n = 60), endurance training with interval resistance was compared to endurance training with continuous resistance. Results:, In study I, the 12-min walking distance (12MWD) did not increase on retesting in patients with EIH, but increased significantly on retesting in the non-EIH patients. In study II, the ISWT was as good a predictor of peak exercise capacity (W peak) as peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was. In study III, W peak and 12MWD increased in group A but not in group B. HRQoL, anxiety and depression were unchanged in both groups. Ratings of perceived exertion at rest were significantly lower in group A than in group B after training and during 12 months of follow-up. Twelve months post training, 12MWD was back to baseline in group A, but was significantly shorter than at baseline in group B. Patients with moderate and severe COPD responded to training in the same way. In study IV, both interval and continuous endurance training increased W peak, VO2 peak, peak exhaled carbon dioxide (VCO2 peak) and 12MWD. Likewise, HRQoL, dyspnoea during activities of daily life, anxiety and depression improved similarly in both groups. At a fixed, sub-maximal workload (isotime), the interval training reduced oxygen cost and ventilatory demand significantly more than the continuous training did. Conclusions:, EIH affects the retest effects on 12MWD. W peak can be predicted from an ISWT similarly well as from VO2 peak. A short training programme can improve W peak and 12MWD when based mainly on endurance training. Both patients with moderate and severe COPD respond to training in the same way. A short endurance training intervention can possibly delay decline in 12MWD for 1 year. Both interval and continuous endurance training improves physical performance and HRQoL. Interval training lowers the energy cost of sub-maximal work more than continuous training does. [source]