Student Performance (student + performance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Student Performance

  • medical student performance

  • Selected Abstracts


    Many resources have been invested in reforming the public sectors of most countries in the world during the last 20 years. Greater focus on evaluation and performance is one of the most central aspects of these reforms, but despite much academic research virtually no systematic evaluations of the outcome of the reforms themselves are found. This paper presents a study of the effect of performance management reforms of Danish public schools on the achievements of more than 80,000 lower secondary students. The study finds no or very small effects on performance measured as average exam scores, but highly significant effects on inequity in the sense that students with low socioeconomic status perform worse at reforming schools than at similar non-reforming schools. These results, as well as the methodological challenges involved in estimating reform impact, emphasize the need for more empirical scrutiny of what effects the reforms have. [source]


    H52; I2 ABSTRACT In this paper, we analyse whether the characteristics of university teaching staff matter with regard to students' performance and interest in the discipline. We use data on about 1000 students enrolled on the first-level degree course in business and economics at a medium-sized Italian university. Thanks to the random assignment of students to different teaching classes during their first year, we are able to analyse the effect that teachers with different characteristics, in terms of experience and research productivity, produce both on students' performance, measured in terms of the grades obtained at subsequent examinations, and on courses chosen. Our results suggest that teacher quality has statistically significant effects on students' grades in subsequent courses. These effects are also robust after controlling for unobserved individual characteristics. On the other hand, we find less clear evidence when relating teacher quality to student involvement with a subject. It emerges that research productivity does not produce a statistically significant effect on the probability of a student undertaking additional courses in a subject, while more experienced teachers have a negative impact. However, also this effect does not become statistically significant when we run separate regressions for different disciplines. [source]

    Student Performance in the Legal Environment Course: Determinants and Comparisons

    Paul L. Frantz

    The Impact of Length of the School Year on Student Performance and Earnings: Evidence From the German Short School Years,

    THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 523 2007
    Jörn-Steffen Pischke
    This article investigates how changing the length of the school year, leaving the basic curriculum unchanged, affects learning and subsequent earnings. I use variation introduced by the West German short school years in 1966,7, which exposed some students to a total of about two thirds of a year less of schooling while enrolled. I find that the short school years increased grade repetition in primary school and led to fewer students attending higher secondary school tracks. On the other hand, the short school years had no adverse effect on earnings and employment later in life. [source]

    Effects of Response Format on Difficulty of SAT-Mathematics Items: It's Not the Strategy

    Irvin R. Katz
    Problem-solving strategy is frequently cited as mediating the effects of response format (multiple-choice, constructed response) on item difficulty, yet there are few direct investigations of examinee solution procedures. Fifty-five high school students solved parallel constructed response and multiple-choice items that differed only in the presence of response options. Student performance was videotaped to assess solution strategies. Strategies were categorized as "traditional",those associated with constructed response problem solving (e.g., writing and solving algebraic equations),or "nontraditional",those associated with multiple-choice problem solving (e.g., estimating a potential solution). Surprisingly, participants sometimes adopted nontraditional strategies to solve constructed response items. Furthermore, differences in difficulty between response formats did not correspond to differences in strategy choice: some items showed a format effect on strategy but no effect on difficulty; other items showed the reverse. We interpret these results in light of the relative comprehension challenges posed by the two groups of items. [source]

    assessment: Influences of deep learning, need for cognition and preparation time on open- and closed-book test performance

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 9 2010
    Marjolein Heijne-Penninga
    Medical Education 2010: 44: 884,891 Objectives, The ability to master discipline-specific knowledge is one of the competencies medical students must acquire. In this context, ,mastering' means being able to recall and apply knowledge. A way to assess this competency is to use both open- and closed-book tests. Student performance on both tests can be influenced by the way the student processes information. Deep information processing is expected to influence performance positively. The personal preferences of students in relation to how they process information in general (i.e. their level of need for cognition) may also be of importance. In this study, we examined the inter-relatedness of deep learning, need for cognition and preparation time, and scores on open- and closed-book tests. Methods, This study was conducted at the University Medical Centre Groningen. Participants were Year 2 students (n = 423). They were asked to complete a questionnaire on deep information processing, a scale for need for cognition on a questionnaire on intellectualism and, additionally, to write down the time they spent on test preparation. We related these measures to the students' scores on two tests, both consisting of open- and closed-book components and used structural equation modelling to analyse the data. Results, Both questionnaires were completed by 239 students (57%). The results showed that need for cognition positively influenced both open- and closed-book test scores (,-coefficients 0.05 and 0.11, respectively). Furthermore, study outcomes measured by open-book tests predicted closed-book test results better than the other way around (,-coefficients 0.72 and 0.11, respectively). Conclusions, Students with a high need for cognition performed better on open- as well as closed-book tests. Deep learning did not influence their performance. Adding open-book tests to the regularly used closed-book tests seems to improve the recall of knowledge that has to be known by heart. Need for cognition may provide a valuable addition to existing theories on learning. [source]

    A needs-based study and examination skills course improves students' performance

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 5 2003
    Lutz Beckert
    Background, Adult learning theory suggests that learning is most effective when related to need, when driven by the learner and when it is flexible. We describe the effect of an educational intervention that was driven by student need, and largely designed by students. Methods, We undertook a needs assessment of fifth year medical students' study needs. Based on this, we helped them design a course to meet these needs. This was predominantly related to study skills and a practice objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). We evaluated the course by asking for student opinion and by measuring the effect on student performance in a high stakes medical school examination (written examination and OSCE). Findings, Despite the course being run voluntarily and in after-hours sessions, 80,90% of the medical student class attended each session. Student performance on the end of year examinations was significantly enhanced in the year of the intervention, compared with previous years and with students from other schools sitting identical examinations in the same year. Interpretation, Learning activities that are directly based on student needs, that focus on study and examination techniques, and that are largely student-driven, result in effective and valuable outcomes. [source]


    Shawna Grosskopf
    ABSTRACT,:,This analysis compares the technical efficiency of charter school primary and secondary campuses with that of comparable campuses in traditional Texas school districts. Charter schools are hybrids,publicly funded, but not required to meet all the state regulations releant for traditional schools. Student performance is measured using value added on standardized tests in reading and mathematics, and efficiency is measured using the input distance function. The analysis suggests that at least in Texas, charter schools are substantially more efficient than traditional public schools. [source]

    Comparison of student performance in cooperative learning and traditional lecture-based biochemistry classes

    William L. Anderson
    Abstract Student performance in two different introductory biochemistry curricula are compared based on standardized testing of student content knowledge, problem-solving skills, and student opinions about the courses. One curriculum was used in four traditional, lecture-based classes (n = 381 students), whereas the second curriculum was used in two cooperative learning classes (n = 39 students). Students in the cooperative learning classes not only performed at a level above their peers in standardized testing of content knowledge and in critical thinking and problem-solving tasks (p < 0.05), but they also were more positive about their learning experience. The testing data are in contrast to much of the medical school literature on the performance of students in problem-based learning (PBL) curricula, which shows little effect of the curricular format on student exam scores. The reason for the improvement is undoubtedly multifactorial. We argue that the enhancement of student performance in this study is related to: 1) the use of peer educational assistants, 2) an authentic PBL format, and 3) the application of a multicontextual learning environment in the curricular design. Though educationally successful, the cooperative learning classes as described in this study were too resource intensive to continue; however, we are exploring incorporation of some of the "high context" aspects of the small-group interactions into our current lecture-based course with the addition of on-line PBL cases. [source]

    Graduate Business Students Performance with Synchronous and Asynchronous Interaction e-Learning Methods

    Shawn F. Clouse
    ABSTRACT The effects of synchronous and asynchronous lectures and interaction formats were examined with graduate business students in on-campus and off-campus MBA programs. The dependent variables were scores on exams questions and learning styles and cognitive styles were used as covariates. The results indicated significant differences for discussion and lecture format and for on-campus and off-campus students. The results were discussed relative to learning in electronic environments. [source]

    From nationwide standardized testing to school-based alternative embedded assessment in Israel: Students' performance in the matriculation 2000 project

    Yehudit J. Dori
    Matriculation 2000 was a 5-year project aimed at moving from the nationwide traditional examination system in Israel to a school-based alternative embedded assessment. Encompassing 22 high schools from various communities in the country, the Project aimed at fostering deep understanding, higher-order thinking skills, and students' engagement in learning through alternative teaching and embedded assessment methods. This article describes research conducted during the fifth year of the Project at 2 experimental and 2 control schools. The research objective was to investigate students' learning outcomes in chemistry and biology in the Matriculation 2000 Project. The assumption was that alternative embedded assessment has some effect on students' performance. The experimental students scored significantly higher than their control group peers on low-level assignments and more so on assignments that required higher-order thinking skills. The findings indicate that given adequate support and teachers' consent and collaboration, schools can transfer from nationwide or statewide standardized testing to school-based alter-native embedded assessment. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 40: 34,52, 2003 [source]

    The bounds of cognitive heuristic performance on the geographic profiling task

    Paul J. Taylor
    Human performance on the geographic profiling task,where the goal is to predict an offender's home location from their crime locations,has been shown to equal that of complex actuarial methods when it is based on appropriate heuristics. However, this evidence is derived from comparisons of ,X-marks-the-spot' predictions, which ignore the fact that some algorithms provide a prioritization of the offender's area of spatial activity. Using search area as a measure of performance, we examine the predictions of students (N,=,200) and an actuarial method under three levels of information load and two levels of heuristic-environment fit. Results show that the actuarial method produces a smaller search area than a concentric search outward from students' ,X-marks-the-spot' predictions, but that students are able to produce search areas that are smaller than those provided by the actuarial method. Students' performance did not decrease under greater information load and was not improved by adding a descriptive qualifier to the taught heuristic. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A comparative study of student performance in traditional mode and online mode of learning

    Qiping Shen
    Abstract There has been interest for many decades in comparing the effectiveness of technology-delivered instruction with traditional face-to-face teaching and measurable student outcomes have been an important indicator. Having pointed to salient aspects of the current academic environment and to some of the key literature in this area, this article analyses the performance of two groups of students studying in the traditional mode and the online mode in a masters program delivered by a Department of Computing at a university in Hong Kong. Over 2,000 students have participated in the study between 2000 and 2004. This article includes a comparison of the results between different delivery modes of study each year as well as between different classes over the 4-year period. Although traditional mode students have achieved a slightly better performance in examinations in comparison with online mode students, the article concludes that there are no significant differences in overall performance between the students. With the impact of technologies on higher education and the demands of a complex and rapidly changing society in the 21st century, this Hong Kong study contributes to the literature that finds mode of study is not a key determinant of success. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 15: 30,40, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20092 [source]

    Animated instructional software for mechanics of materials: Implementation and assessment

    Timothy A. Philpot
    Abstract During the past 3 years, the Basic Engineering Department at the University of Missouri, Rolla has been developing a second-generation suite of instructional software called MecMovies for the Mechanics of Materials course. The MecMovies suite consists of over 110 animated example problems, drill-and-practice games, and interactive exercises. Students generally respond favorably to software of this type; however, much of the data that has been gathered to assess the effectiveness of similar software has been anecdotal. The method by which instructional software is incorporated into the engineering class is partly responsible for this lack of systematic evaluation. Often, software packages have been implemented in the classroom as supplemental material,recommended but not required. In the Fall 2003 semester, MecMovies was integrated thoroughly into the course assignments for one of the six UMR Mechanics of Materials sections. Four professors were involved in the study, and student performance in the experimental MecMovies section was compared to performance in the five control sections through a common final exam. At the end of the semester, students who used the MecMovies software also completed a survey questionnaire consisting of a number of subjective rating items. This paper presents a comparison of student performance in the experimental and control sections along with discussion of student qualitative ratings and comments. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 14: 31,43, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20065 [source]

    Investigating Academic Success Factors for Undergraduate Business Students

    Mehdi Kaighobadi
    ABSTRACT Student academic performance is of major interest to all stakeholders of higher education institutions. This study questions whether or not statistical analysis of information that is readily available in most universities' official records system can be used to predict overall academic success. In particular, this study is an attempt to understand factors that affect academic success for business students by examining gender, age, ethnicity, and performance in two required core knowledge courses as predictors of academic success for a large sample of undergraduate students at a Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business,accredited business school. The results suggest that student performance is significantly related to some basic demographic variables, but the strongest predictors of overall academic success are the grades the students receive in core knowledge courses that are typically taken in the earlier semesters of business students' plans of study. [source]

    An Agency Theory Perspective on Student Performance Evaluation

    Michael E. Smith
    ABSTRACT The emphasis in recent research on the responsibility of college and university business instructors to prepare students for future employment underscores a need to refine the evaluation of student performance. In this article, an agency theory framework is used to understand the trade-offs that may be involved in the selection of various approaches to student evaluation. Understanding these trade-offs may be particularly important as faculty members seek to balance competing obligations, such as research and service requirements, while ensuring instructional effectiveness. This article presents propositions for examining how various institutional, instructor, and student characteristics influence the selection and use of student performance evaluation techniques (i.e., exams, papers, and group assignments). In conclusion, we suggest that agency theory may serve as a foundation for understanding current evaluation practices and guiding instructors in their selection of appropriate evaluation mechanisms. [source]

    Student Hits in an Internet-Supported Course: How Can Instructors Use Them and What Do They Mean?

    Andrew, Ellen Baugher Varanelli Weisbord
    ABSTRACT The world of education is changing as Web-based technology and courseware are increasingly used for delivery of course material. In this environment, instructors may need new measures for determining student involvement, and ultimately student performance. This study examines whether hits to a Web site have any value for predicting student performance in a traditional course supported by Web activities. Total Hits at the end of the semester was used as one measure. Hit Consistency, determined by assigning a 0 when no hits occurred between class meetings and by assigning a 1 when one or more hits occurred between class meetings, was another. Hit Consistency was significantly correlated with course average (r= .37, p < .001) for 108 students in two course sections. Hit Consistency started to show a significant relationship with course average by the third week (or class). Total Hits was not found to significantly correlate with course average (r= .08, p > .05) at the end of the semester or during any week. These results suggest that students who consistently access a Web site will perform better than those who do not. When Hit Consistency and Total Hits were entered as independent variables into a stepwise regression with course average as the dependent variable, the model was enhanced by the addition of Total Hits after Hit Consistency was entered (R= .43, p < .001). Hierarchical regression analysis in which cumulative grade point average was entered as the first controlling variable suggested that online access may go beyond the predictive value of achievement alone for predicting course performance with Hit Consistency appearing to be the dominant causal variable. [source]

    Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 2 2005
    Steven G. Rivkin
    This paper disentangles the impact of schools and teachers in influencing achievement with special attention given to the potential problems of omitted or mismeasured variables and of student and school selection. Unique matched panel data from the UTD Texas Schools Project permit the identification of teacher quality based on student performance along with the impact of specific, measured components of teachers and schools. Semiparametric lower bound estimates of the variance in teacher quality based entirely on within-school heterogeneity indicate that teachers have powerful effects on reading and mathematics achievement, though little of the variation in teacher quality is explained by observable characteristics such as education or experience. The results suggest that the effects of a costly ten student reduction in class size are smaller than the benefit of moving one standard deviation up the teacher quality distribution, highlighting the importance of teacher effectiveness in the determination of school quality. [source]

    Standard-Setting Methods as Measurement Processes

    Paul Nichols
    Some writers in the measurement literature have been skeptical of the meaningfulness of achievement standards and described the standard-setting process as blatantly arbitrary. We argue that standard setting is more appropriately conceived of as a measurement process similar to student assessment. The construct being measured is the panelists' representation of student performance at the threshold of an achievement level. In the first section of this paper, we argue that standard setting is an example of stimulus-centered measurement. In the second section, we elaborate on this idea by comparing some popular standard-setting methods to the stimulus-centered scaling methods known as psychophysical scaling. In the third section, we use the lens of standard setting as a measurement process to take a fresh look at the two criticisms of standard setting: the role of judgment and the variability of results. In the fourth section, we offer a vision of standard-setting research and practice as grounded in the theory and practice of educational measurement. [source]

    History and Background of Nebraska's School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System (STARS)

    Pat Roschewski
    Nebraska's approach to standards, assessment, and accountability, the School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System (STARS) is based upon local control and the belief that classrooms and teachers must be at the heart of student learning and accountability. STARS relies on locally-developed assessment systems to accurately measure and report student performance on state content standards. Each local system in Nebraska's 500+ school districts is reviewed for technical quality, and districts are publicly rated for assessment quality and student performance. The purpose of this article is to establish the historical background. [source]

    District Accountability Without a State Assessment: A Proposed Model

    Chad W. Buckendahl
    Most states have adopted assessment and accountability systems that involve common measures of student performance. A state assessment system that allows school districts to choose the specific strategies they use to measure student performance on state-adopted content standards presents a unique state accountability challenge. The authors propose an accountability model that addresses this challenge using a combination of student performance, technical quality, and noncognitive indicators of performance. They also describe a study that evaluated the proposed model using data from all school districts in a southern state. [source]

    Evaluation of Professional Development for Language Teachers in California

    Albert S. Lozano
    As one of the nine content areas of the California Subject Matter Project, CFLP is a voluntary project that served 609 elementary, secondary, and postsecondary foreign language teachers from 43 counties in 1998/1999. This article describes the origin and rationale of the California Foreign Language Project and discusses the importance of professional development programs, a topic of growing interest given the nationwide focus on student performance and school reform. Finally, the components of professional development program evaluation, and specifically of CFLP's Evaluation Design, will be presented, along with the findings from the 1998/1999 program year. [source]

    Creating Early Success in Financial Accounting: Improving Performance on Adjusting Journal Entries,

    cognition; écritures comptables; formation; intervention Abstract Adjusting journal entries constitute a necessary component of accrual basis accounting and are critical to the accuracy of financial statements. However, accounting students often struggle to comprehend these accounting entries, which is a concern given that failure to understand early topics in accounting courses has been found to impact course performance and selection of undergraduate major. Perceiving accounting as a language, we utilize psycholinguistic theory to understand how an instructor may improve coherence of students' mental structures of accounting problems. We conduct an experiment to investigate the extent to which a simple instructor intervention, requiring that the initial deferral transaction be recorded, is able to improve student performance on the subsequent deferral adjustments, and whether this improvement is consistent across problem sets that differ in task difficulty. Consistent with our theoretical prediction, we find that this intervention results in improved performance. The beneficial effect of the intervention is found to differ across problem-set task difficulty. Implications for accounting education are discussed. Favoriser dès le départ la réussite en comptabilité générale en améliorant la qualité des écritures de régularisation Résumé Les écritures de régularisation font partie intégrante de la comptabilité d'exercice et sont indispensables à l'exactitude des états financiers. Or, les étudiants en comptabilitééprouvent souvent de la difficultéà comprendre ces écritures comptables, observation préoccupante puisque la méconnaissance de notions élémentaires des cours de comptabilité influe, a-t-on constaté, sur la réussite des cours et le choix d'une majeure au premier cycle. Envisageant la comptabilité comme un langage, les auteurs ont recours à la théorie de la psycholinguistique pour déterminer comment un enseignant peut améliorer la cohérence des structures mentales avec lesquelles les étudiants abordent des problèmes comptables. Ils se livrent à une expérience dans laquelle ils analysent dans quelle mesure la simple intervention de l'enseignant, exigeant la comptabilisation initiale d'une opération de report, peut améliorer la performance de l'étudiant en ce qui a trait aux ajustements de report subséquents, et si cette amélioration demeure constante dans des problématiques où la difficulté de la tâche diffère. Conformément à leur prévision théorique, les auteurs constatent que cette intervention entraîne une amélioration de la performance. Ils observent que l'effet bénéfique de cette intervention diffère selon la difficulté de la tâche associée à la problématique. Enfin, ils analysent les conséquences de ces observations pour la formation comptable. [source]

    Food Safety and Regulation: Evaluation of an Online Multimedia Course

    Stephen J. Pintauro
    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of, and student attitudes toward, an online Food Safety and Regulation course (WEB) were compared with lecture (LECTURE) and combined lecture/online (COMBINED) courses. All students took identical pre-tests, post-tests, and attitude assessments. No significant differences were detected in pre-test scores. Post-test results for WEB, LECTURE, and COMBINED groups were 65.9±3.02, 67.1±2.62, and 73.5±2.59 (mean±SEM), respectively. After controlling for the pretest, the COMBINED score was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the LECTURE and WEB scores. Some student attitude scores in the LECTURE and COMBINED groups were better than the WEB group. The results indicate that students perform as well in the Web-based course as the lecture-based course and that student performance is maximized by combining online and lecture methods. [source]

    Implementing a Total Quality Management Approach in the Design, Delivery, and Redesign of a Statistical Process Control Course

    L.J. Mauer
    ABSTRACT: The benefit of implementing total quality management(TQM)into university classrooms has been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to develop a TQM project to use as a teaching tool for TQM and statistical process control (SPC) concepts, an assessment tool for the course, and as a means for involving students in improving the course in progress. A plan-do-study-act (PDSA) assignment was developed to use SPC tools and the 4 concepts of TQM. The implementation of recommendations developed as part of the PDSA project significantly (p < 0.05) improved student performance on quizzes, student satisfaction with the course, student perception of instructor performance, as well as instructor satisfaction with the course. [source]

    Creating Mature Thinkers in Interior Design: Pathways of Intellectual Development

    Candy Carmel-Gilfilen M. Arch.
    Critical thinking skills are essential to meeting the economic, sustainable, and social challenges of the future. The purpose of this study was to explore critical thinking in interior design students using the W. G. Perry (1968) scheme, a model of epistemic cognitive development describing how thinking in college students progresses from black-and-white absolutes to a contextual understanding of knowledge. The authors present findings from a study involving 32 beginning and intermediate interior design students who were empirically assessed on global and design-specific thought development using the Measure of Intellectual Development (Widick & Knefelkamp, 1974) and the Measure of Designing (Portillo, 1987), respectively. The study objectives were to examine thought development in interior design students, investigate the relationship between global and design thinking, and explore relationships between thought development, student performance, and class standing. The results supported three levels of thought development: dualistic, transitional, and multiplistic with overall thinking appeared to be more advanced than thinking in design. The study also revealed both types of thinking significantly related to studio performance and class standing. The Perry model appears to have strong potential for understanding thought development in interior design students. [source]

    One Approach to Formulating and Evaluating Student Work Groups in Legal Environment of Business Courses

    Joan E. Camara
    The principal focus of this study is an investigation of whether students' grade point average (GPA) is a viable criterion for forming student work groups in the undergraduate Legal Environment of Business course. More specifically, the research focuses on the impact of: (1) GPA-homogeneous (HO) and GPA-heterogeneous (HE) groups upon student satisfaction with group processes and (2) the impact on individual student performance in both group and nongroup assignments. Data obtained from fourteen HE and fourteen HO student groups, in four separate Legal Environment of Business classes consisting of a mix of Management, Marketing, Computer Information Systems, International Business, Financial Services, and Accounting majors, generated a number of significant results. The most surprising observations dealt with the behavior of low achievers whose individual grades showed substantial improvement after working in HO groups. Researchers who are assessing pedagogical methods which serve to engage a student's active learning and motivation should find these results to be of interest. In addition, the beneficial impact on task and relationship behaviors observed in this study should provide solace or a sense of reward to the larger set of academicians, across disciplines, who attempt to impart realistic organizational skills to their classes. [source]

    Assessing Competencies in Couples and Family Therapy/Counseling: A Call to the Profession

    Linda M. Perosa
    Psychometrically sound measures of family therapy competencies are necessary to assess the effectiveness of training on student performance. This article critiques the self-report and observer rating measures developed to date to assess the clinical skills of trainees in the individual and in the family therapy fields. Suggestions are made to foster future instrument development specifically designed for the field of couples and family therapy/counseling. [source]

    Tacit Knowledge and Public Accounts

    Stella González Arnal
    The current quality assurance culture demands the explicit articulation, by means of publication, of what have been hitherto tacit norms and conventions underlying disciplinary genres. The justification is that publication aids student performance and guarantees transparency and accountability. This requirement makes a number of questionable assumptions predicated upon what we will argue is an erroneous epistemology. It is not always possible to articulate in a publishable form a detailed description of disciplinary practices such as assessment. As a result publication cannot achieve its stated goals. There are always elements of our knowledge that cannot be linguistically articulated. [source]

    Does whole-school reform boost student performance?

    The case of New York City
    Thousands of schools around the country have implemented whole-school reform programs to boost student performance. This paper uses quasi-experimental methods to estimate the impact of whole-school reform on students' reading performance in New York City, where various reform programs were adopted in dozens of troubled elementary schools in the mid-1990s. This paper complements studies based on random assignment by examining a broad-based reform effort and explicitly accounting for implementation quality. Two popular reform programs,the School Development Program and Success for All,were not found to significantly increase reading scores but might have been if they had been fully implemented. The More Effective Schools program was found to boost reading scores, but this effect seems to disappear when the program "trainers" leave the school. © 2005 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]