Students' Perceptions (student + perception)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Students' Perceptions

  • nursing student perception

  • Selected Abstracts

    Learning About Foodborne Pathogens: Evaluation of Student Perceptions of Group Project Work in a Food Microbiology Course

    Mark S. Turner
    ABSTRACT:, This study examined the experiences of students in an active learning group work exercise in an introductory food microbiology course involving the study of foodborne pathogens. Small groups were required to access, analyze, and present information regarding a single food poisoning bacterium. The presentations contained features and epidemiological information of the pathogen and also a review of a research journal article and a real food poisoning outbreak report involving the pathogen. Analysis of responses from a questionnaire that allowed direct comparisons to be made with other published group work studies revealed that this exercise was a positive learning experience. In particular, students noted improvements in communication, interaction, information acquisition, and organizational skills. [source]

    Students' clinical experience on outreach placements

    M. Smith
    Abstract Primary care outreach placements increasingly feature in UK undergraduate dental curricula. The profile of clinical work undertaken on placement may differ from traditional hospital-based programmes and between outreach settings. An appreciation of any differences could inform curriculum development. Objective:, To compare the profiles of clinical work experienced on a traditional hospital-based programme and outreach placements in different settings. Setting:, One dental hospital and eight existing primary care block placements in England. Subjects and methods:, Subjects were four cohorts of senior dental students in one UK dental school. Departmental records provided data on students' clinical experience in different settings and their achievement of placement learning objectives. Descriptive statistics for groups were compared. Main outcome measures:, (1) Counts of patients encountered and of clinical procedures completed in the following categories: simple plastic restorations, endodontics, cast restorations, dentures, extractions and children's dentistry. (2) Student perceptions of placement learning reported via Likert scales. Results:, Outreach students encountered twice as many patients and typically completed about three times as much clinical work as students in the hospital, e.g. 44 cf 16 simple plastic restorations, seven cf two endodontic procedures. There were variations in profiles by setting. For example, amalgam being more likely to be used on outreach especially in the General Dental Service; more children's dentistry in community services and more extractions in Dental Access Centres. Students reported learning outcomes generally being achieved (average 94%) although with some variation by setting. Conclusion:, Dental outreach training greatly increases the quantity of students' clinical experience in everyday dentistry compared to a hospital-based programme. Placements also increase awareness of service delivery and develop clinical skills. There are appreciable variations between outreach settings possibly reflecting their purposes. Multiple contrasting outreach placements for each student might increase the uniformity of learning experiences. [source]

    Student perceptions about the characteristics of an effective discussion during the reporting phase in problem-based learning

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 9 2006
    Astrid J S F Visschers-Pleijers
    Objective, To explore student perceptions of factors contributing to the effectiveness of discussions in the reporting phase of the problem-based learning (PBL) process, where students report and synthesise the results of self-study. Methods, Forty-eight Year 1 and 2 medical students participated in 6 focus group interviews about the characteristics of effective group discussions and possible improvements. The data were analysed qualitatively in several stages. Results, The analysis yielded 4 main characteristics of effective discussions: asking for, giving and receiving explanations; integrating and applying knowledge; discussing differences with regard to learning content, and guiding and monitoring the content and the group process of the discussion. Integrating and applying knowledge included structuring, relating and summarising information and providing examples from practice. Discussing different opinions included discussing a variety of literature resources and disagreements. The main learning effects mentioned by the students were retention, understanding, integration and application of knowledge. Conclusions, Students have clear ideas about what promotes effective discussions during the reporting phase. Their PBL experience has provided them with some insights that are in line with theory and research on collaborative learning. Future research should examine differences between student and tutor perceptions of the quality of discussions. Introductions to PBL for students and tutors should include training in asking open but focused questions, supporting explanations with arguments and dealing with conflicts about learning content. Tutors should be trained in giving effective and personal feedback. Collaborative creation of external knowledge representations (i.e. concept maps) should be advocated, as should variety of literature resources. [source]

    Student perceptions of undergraduate teachers

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 11 2005
    James A Morton
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Simulation in undergraduate medical education: bridging the gap between theory and practice

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2004
    Jennifer M Weller
    Objective, To evaluate the use of simulation-based teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum in the context of management of medical emergencies, using a medium fidelity simulator. Design, Small groups of medical students attended a simulation workshop on management of medical emergencies. The workshop was evaluated in a postcourse questionnaire. Subjects, All Year 4 medical students allocated to the resuscitation rotation during the first half of 2002. Main outcome measures, Student perceptions of learning outcomes, the value of the simulation in the undergraduate curriculum and their self-assessed improved mastery of workshop material. Results, A total of 33 students attended the workshop and all completed questionnaires. Students rated the workshop highly and found it a valuable learning experience. In all, 21 (64%) students identified teamwork skills as key learning points; 11 (33%) felt they had learnt how to approach a problem better, particularly in terms of using a systematic approach, and 12 (36%) felt they had learnt how to apply their theoretical knowledge in a clinical setting better. All 33 students were positive about the use of simulation in their training; 14 students wrote that simulation should be used more or should be mandatory in training; 5 students commented positively on the realism of the learning experience and a further 5 said they valued the opportunity to learn new skills in a safe environment. Conclusion, This study demonstrates that medical students value simulation-based learning highly. In particular, they value the opportunity to apply their theoretical knowledge in a safe and realistic setting, to develop teamwork skills and to develop a systematic approach to a problem. A medium fidelity simulator is a valuable educational tool in medical undergraduate education. [source]

    Enterprise Education: Influencing Students' Perceptions of Entrepreneurship

    Nicole E. Peterman
    This research examines the effect of participation in an enterprise education program on perceptions of the desirability and feasibility of starting a business. Changes in the perceptions of a sample of secondary school students enrolled in the Young Achievement Australia (YAA) enterprise program are analysed using a pre-test post-test control group research design. After completing the enterprise program, participants reported significantly higher perceptions of both desirability and feasibility. The degree of change in perceptions is related to the positiveness of prior experience and to the positiveness of the experience in the enterprise education program. Self-efficacy theory is used to explain the impact of the program. Overall, the study provides empirical evidence to support including exposure to entrepreneurship education as an additional exposure variable in entrepreneurial intentions models. [source]

    Students' Perceptions of Prosthodontics in a PBL Hybrid Curriculum

    Cortino Sukotjo DDS
    Abstract Purpose: A survey was distributed to the Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) predoctoral student classes of 2005 and 2006 to assess their perceptions regarding preclinical prosthodontics laboratory exercises. Prosthodontics curriculum clock hours, prosthodontics teaching participation, and plans for specialization were also analyzed. We hypothesized that reduced hours and perceived stress in the prosthodontics curriculum might impact students' choice of specialty at HSDM Materials and Methods: HSDM preclinical prosthodontics clock hours were compared with national means from published data. A survey was distributed to the HSDM classes of 2005 and 2006 (n = 70) at the end of their preclinical prosthodontics laboratory exercises, prior to students seeing their first patient in the clinics. Results: A 100% response rate was achieved. Results from this study show that HSDM preclinical prosthodontics clock hours are on average shorter than other schools. The majority of the students felt stressed during the laboratory exercises, and they felt they did not gain adequate knowledge from the lectures, resulting in low self-esteem (confidence) in treating patients in the clinic. Despite this perception, HSDM students do just as well, if not better, than other students, as judged by external and internal outcome measures. Graduate prosthodontics specialization is still a specialty of choice among the graduates when compared to national data. Conclusions: The shortened preclinical didactic and laboratory exercises in prosthodontics at HSDM affect student anxiety, but not their didactic and clinical performances or their decisions in choosing their graduate program. Problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials help the students to integrate preclinical and clinical knowledge and skills in prosthodontics. [source]

    Students' Perceptions of the Impact of Nutrition Policies on Dietary Behaviors

    December 2006 issue of Journal of School Health
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Associate and Baccalaureate Degree Final Semester Students' Perceptions of Self-Efficacy Concerning Community Health Nursing Competencies

    Linda Moore Rosen D.N.Sc.
    A quantitative study was undertaken to examine whether final semester associate degree nursing (ADN) and baccalaureate degree nursing (BSN) students who experienced community health nursing content perceived themselves as self-efficacious to work as community health nurses (CHNs) with individuals, families, and communities. Additionally, the study examined the variance of perceived self-efficacy (PSE) accounted for by antecedent variables, performance accomplishments (PA), vicarious experience (VE), verbal persuasion (VP), and emotional arousal (EA). Questionnaires were mailed to faculty liaisons from 34 randomly selected National League for Nursing (NLN)-accredited schools in the United States. Statistical analysis revealed that the ADN and BSN final semester students perceived themselves to be equally self-efficacious to work with individuals and families. Significant differences were found, however, between the ADN and BSN students on PSE to work with communities. PA and VE explained 15% of the PSE variance suggesting that actual and VE contributes positively to a students' PSE to work as a CHN. [source]

    Students' perceptions of seminar and lecture-based teaching in restorative dentistry

    Paul A. Brunton
    In an era of self-directed learning, it is important to seek the views of dental students regarding their learning experience. Using an anonymous questionnaire, clinical dental students' perceptions of seminar and lecture-based teaching in restorative dentistry were sought. 116 of 136 questionnaires circulated were returned for analysis giving a response rate of 85%. Clinical seminars as opposed to lectures were, in the opinion of the students, a more effective way of learning, more relevant to self-development and more interactive. Seminar-based learning was considered to be more amenable to self-direction than formal didactic lectures. It is concluded that the students included in this study were found to prefer seminar-based learning opportunities as opposed to more traditional styles of learning, specifically, didactic lectures. [source]

    Reading motivation, perceptions of reading instruction and reading amount: a comparison of junior and senior secondary students in Hong Kong

    Kit-Ling Lau
    This study examined the relations between students' reading motivation, perceptions of reading instruction and reading amount, together with grade differences, in a Chinese educational context. A total of 1,146 students from 19 secondary schools in Hong Kong voluntarily responded to a questionnaire that measured these three sets of variables. The study's findings indicated that students' intrinsic motivation was most strongly related to their reading amount. Students' perceptions of the reading instruction they received in their Chinese language class were significantly related to their reading motivation, but were only indirectly related to their reading amount, being mediated through reading motivation. Consistent with previous studies, significant grade differences were found in all types of reading motivation, students' perceptions of reading instruction and students' reading amount. The findings indicated that junior secondary students had better self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and social motivation than senior secondary students. The largest grade difference was in students' self-efficacy. Junior secondary students also perceived the reading instruction in their Chinese language class as more mastery-oriented and read more frequently than senior secondary students. The implications of these findings for understanding Chinese students' reading motivation and for planning effective reading instruction to enhance their motivation are discussed. [source]

    Students' perceptions of race, ethnicity and culture at two UK medical schools: a qualitative study

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2008
    Jane H Roberts
    Context, Globalisation has profoundly affected health care by increasing the diversity of clinicians and their patients. Worldwide, medical schools highlight the need for students to understand and show respect for patients and peers of different ethnicities. Yet a sound theoretical approach and robust methods for learning about cultural awareness are lacking. The reasons for this are unclear. Objective, To explore Year 2 medical students' understanding of the concepts of race, ethnicity and culture. Methods, This study was set in 2 universities in the north of England. The student population of each was of a similar ethnic mix but the universities differed in terms of local demography (a wide patient ethnic mix versus a predominantly White patient population with experience of social deprivation) and curricula (a curriculum involving problem-based learning and paper-based cases versus a curriculum involving early contact with patients). Participants comprised 49 Year 2 medical students (mean age 208 years), 40% of whom came from ethnic minority groups. Seven focus groups were held across the 2 universities to explore students' understanding of cultural awareness. Students were asked to discuss the terms ,race', ,ethnicity', ,culture' and ,cultural diversity'. Interviews were transcribed and analysed qualitatively using grounded theory. Themes were identified and validated by an independent researcher. Results, Four overarching themes emerged: ,White fears' at discussing race-related issues; ethnic minority discomfort at being viewed as ,different'; difficulties in relating to professional boundaries, and barriers against talking about race beyond legitimate disease-related discourse. Conclusions, For students, discussion of race beyond the confines of medical discourse was problematic. If students are to develop professional holistic values towards patient care, they need more support in understanding their own personal values and uncertainties. [source]

    Stress, debt and undergraduate medical student performance

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 6 2006
    Sarah Ross
    Introduction, Against the background of current debate over university funding and widening access, we aimed to examine the relationships between student debt, mental health and academic performance. Methods, We carried out an electronic survey of all medical undergraduate students at the University of Aberdeen during May,June 2004. The questionnaire contained items about demographics, debt, income and stress. Students were also asked for consent to access their examination results, which were correlated with their answers. Statistical analyses of the relationships between debt, performance and stress were performed. Results, The median total outstanding debt was 7300 (interquartile range 2000,14 762.50). Students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and postgraduate students had higher debts. There was no direct correlation between debt, class ranking or General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) score; however, a subgroup of 125 students (37.7%), who said that worrying about money affected their studies, did have higher debt and were ranked lower in their classes. Some of these students were also cases on the GHQ-12. Overall, however, cases on the GHQ had lower levels of debt and lower class ranking, suggesting that financial worries are only 1 cause of mental health difficulties. Discussion, Students' perceptions of their own levels of debt rather than level of debt per se relates to performance. Students who worry about money have higher debts and perform less well than their peers in degree examinations. Some students in this subgroup were also identified by the GHQ and may have mental health problems. The relationships between debt, mental health and performance in undergraduate medical students are complex but need to be appreciated by medical education policy makers. [source]

    Students' perceptions of relationships between some educational variables in the out-patient setting

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 8 2002
    D H J M Dolmans
    Background Medical education uses the cognitive apprenticeship model of student learning extensively. Students rotate among different hospitals and out- patient clinics where they are exposed to a range of professionally relevant contexts. Here they learn to think and act in different domains under the supervision of experts. Previous research has shown that these learning situations involve little teaching. Students see a narrow range of patient problems and feedback is limited. The aim of this study is to investigate relationships among some educational variables in the out-patient clinic. Method This paper provides a theoretical model that specifies the factors influencing the effectiveness of student rotations at out-patient clinics. The model makes distinctions between input variables, such as organizational quality, number of students contemporaneously involved and available space, and process variables, such as patient mix and supervision, and the output variable of the effectiveness of rotations in out-patient clinics. Results The model was tested against empirical data from evaluative surveys and showed a reasonable fit. The model offers suggestions for improving the learning environment of clinical rotations. Discussion The strength of this study lies in its process evaluation perspective which investigates interactions between intervening variables rather than the influence of particular variables in isolation from other variables. [source]

    Relations of middle school students' perceptions of family and school contexts with academic achievement

    Gregory J. Marchant
    The purposes of this study were to examine the relations of both family and school contexts on students' academic achievement and to explore the mediating effects of students' perceptions of their motivations and academic self-competence between the family and school contexts and achievement. Participants were 230 fifth- and sixth-grade students. Students' perceptions of parenting style (demandingness and responsiveness), parental involvement (parental values and involvement in school functions), teaching style (teacher control and responsiveness), and school atmosphere (school responsiveness and supportive social environment) significantly predicted their school achievement; however, students' motivations and self-competence mediated the relations between students' contexts and their academic achievement. Furthermore, parental values, teacher responsiveness, school responsiveness, and supportive social environment predicted students' motivations and academic competence above and beyond parenting style, parental involvement, and teacher control. The importance of students' supportive relationships and the internalization of the messages conveyed to them underscore the need for a contextual view by school psychologists when consulting with parents and education staff regarding achievement concerns. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    A pilot study of the use and perceived utility of a scale to assess clinical dental teaching within a UK dental school restorative department

    S. Woolley
    Abstract Introduction:, Feedback on individual teaching performance gives an important contribution and support to the reflective practices of educators. Unfortunately, feedback is an infrequent exercise provided to dental teachers about their teaching practices. The Effective Clinical Dental Teaching (ECDT) scale has been used previously to assess clinical teachers, but has not been used within the UK. Methods:, This study looks at the use of the ECDT scale in the setting of a UK dental school, as a method of feedback collection and delivery in seven domains of clinical teaching. The ECDT was used to evaluate the teaching of 16 clinical teachers by dental undergraduates, and to investigate the opinions of these clinical teachers and clinical dental students about the utility of this scale. Results:, The study identified that there was a disparity between self and student perception of teaching. The total ECDT scores ranged from a minimum of 55% 66.6/125 to a maximum of 90% 113.8/125, with a mean group score of 73% 91.6/125. Most clinicians evaluated by students scored above 3/5 for all teaching domains, although there appeared to be significant differences between the four teacher groups. The majority of staff and students were in favour of the use of such a scale to support the progression and development of teaching styles. Conclusion:, The ECDT scale is a useful tool for highlighting the areas of strength and deficiency within clinical dental teaching. Its use may complement peer review for individual teachers and identify future topics for staff development sessions. Further research is recommended to identify the individual strengths and weaknesses that different types of teacher may bring to curriculum teaching. [source]

    Students' experience of component versus integrated virtual learning environments

    M. Weller
    Abstract The use of virtual learning environments (VLEs) has become increasingly common in most higher education (HE) institutions. Recent developments have proposed the interoperability of software systems and content, to create component VLEs in contrast with the integrated, monolithic ones that are currently prevalent. This paper examines the student experience of two VLEs, one integrated approach and the other component. In general, students preferred the component system, although this may have been influenced by other factors such as performance. Although the study is limited to one cohort of student it makes a number of suggestions relevant to anyone deploying a VLE. These are that the component approach is a viable one from a student perspective, the broader context in which the VLE operates is important in student perception and that poor system performance may have unpredictable consequences for the learning experience. [source]

    Implementing a Total Quality Management Approach in the Design, Delivery, and Redesign of a Statistical Process Control Course

    L.J. Mauer
    ABSTRACT: The benefit of implementing total quality management(TQM)into university classrooms has been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to develop a TQM project to use as a teaching tool for TQM and statistical process control (SPC) concepts, an assessment tool for the course, and as a means for involving students in improving the course in progress. A plan-do-study-act (PDSA) assignment was developed to use SPC tools and the 4 concepts of TQM. The implementation of recommendations developed as part of the PDSA project significantly (p < 0.05) improved student performance on quizzes, student satisfaction with the course, student perception of instructor performance, as well as instructor satisfaction with the course. [source]

    Teacher expectations and student self-perceptions: Exploring relationships

    Christine M. Rubie-Davies
    For 40 years, researchers have been exploring the teacher-expectation phenomenon. Few have examined the possibility that teacher expectations may be class centered rather than individually centered. The current study aimed to track the self-perception outcomes of students (N = 256) whose teachers had high or low class-level expectations. Students completed the Reading, Mathematics, Physical Abilities, and Peer Relations subscales of the Self Description Questionnaire-1 (SDQ-1; Marsh, 1990) at the beginning and end of 1 year. A subscale related to student perception of how the teacher viewed their abilities was added. At the beginning of the year, there were no statistically significant differences between the expectation groups in any of the academic or teacher opinion scales. By the end of the year, statistically significant differences were found in academic and teacher opinion areas due mainly to a decline in the self-perceptions of students with low-expectation teachers. Implications for teacher practice are discussed. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 43: 537,552, 2006. [source]

    Mediator mentors: Improving school climate, nurturing student disposition

    Pamela S. Lane-Garon
    Mediator Mentors, a collaborative research and service project, was begun by California State University-Fresno faculty and the staff of an elementary school (K,8) in the Central San Joaquin Valley. The purpose of the research was to assess conflict resolution program effects on students (N = 300) and school climate. Cross-age mentoring is an important component of this collaborative project. University students preparing for roles in helping professions served as mentors to elementary students. Impacts on student cognitive and affective perspective taking were assessed and student perceptions of school safety were explored. [source]

    Does the MBA Experience Support Diversity?

    Demographic Effects on Program Satisfaction
    ABSTRACT Using data provided by graduates from 128 MBA programs, we examined the extent to which age, gender, and ethnicity predicted student perceptions of the MBA experience. We found that women and minorities were more likely to see program costs and the availability of financial support as significant factors in their program enrollment decisions than were Caucasian males. The most consistent predictor of students' perceptions of their educational experience was whether the MBA program was full time or part time, with full-time programs generally perceived more favorably. Our findings suggest that because diversity measures of age, gender, and ethnicity were not consistent predictors across the different perception areas, at minimum, MBA programs presently do not consistently inhibit diversity. However, given the increasing percentage of women and minorities that comprise the undergraduate population, maintaining the present path in program accessibility may create enrollment problems for MBA programs perhaps in the very near future. Therefore, we conclude with a discussion of the changing demographics in higher education and their potential implications for MBA programs and suggestions for how MBA programs might respond. [source]


    The declining popularity of Economics courses, evident in the last decade, has fuelled a debate on the nature of Economics units and the way in which they are taught in tertiary institutions. The effectiveness of traditional teaching methods has been questioned as ,lecturers search for alternative ways of presenting material and engaging students. In recent times, workshop-based/cooperative tutorials have become more popular in promoting deeper learning. This paper assesses the application of such an approach at a large tertiary institution. It evaluates student perceptions of this tutorial method in an Introductory Macroeconomics first-year unit. An anonymous questionnaire was used. Whilst the sample size is small (n = 56), the results are important in that this is the first such study in Macroeconomics. Students found workshop-based tutorials useful, preferred them over lecture style tutorials, and found that they fostered inclusivity. The importance of tutorials per se, is reiterated. Students state that tutorials are an important adjunct to lectures. This study also looks at students' study habits: finding that on average they spend less than one hour per week studying Economics and most prepare only occasionally for tutorials. The sample studied indicates that there are notable differences in the perceptions of tutorials and teaching methods between the genders and between local and international students. This may impact on the way in which tutorials are conducted effectively. [source]

    Association amongst factors thought to be important by instructors in dental education and perceived effectiveness of these instructors by students

    D. W. Chambers
    It is hypothesised that dental educators have perceptions of their roles as effective teachers. It is expected that subject matter expertise would be amongst the components of such personal philosophies of education, but it is unclear whether faculty member self-perceptions carry over into student ratings of instructors' effectiveness. A 20-item survey of ,Teaching Characteristics' was completed by 86% of full-time and 64% of the part-time faculty members at the University of the Pacific. Respondents distributed 100 points amongst the descriptions of what makes an effective instructor. The responses were factor-analysed, resulting in four general faculty ,types' that explained about 50% of the variance in ratings: expert, enthusiast, judicial and good soldier. Student ratings for the 2 years running up to the date of the survey administration were used to gauge student perceptions of instructor effectiveness. Faculty members who placed emphasis on expertise as key to being a good instructor received significantly lower ratings for teacher effectiveness from students than did other faculty members. Faculty members who conceived their roles as motivating students, explaining difficult concepts, displaying interest in the subject, showing compassion and caring, and being proactive tended to receive high ratings for teaching effectiveness from students. [source]

    Protective factors related to antisocial behavior trajectories

    Gale M. Morrison
    A group of 115 fifth- and sixth-grade Latino students were surveyed at the beginning and the end of the school year before their transition to middle or junior-high school about their engagement in antisocial behaviors and about individual, social, and behavioral protective factors. The best predictors of decreases in antisocial behavior for these students, above and beyond variance for initial ratings and gender, were student perceptions of social support, parent supervision, and classroom participation. The importance of keeping students engaged in school academic work as a protection against antisocial behavior is emphasized as well as the need to help students gain skills necessary to access support for this academic work. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 277,290, 2002. [source]

    Simulated Computer-Mediated/Video-Interactive Distance Learning: A Test of Motivation, Interaction Satisfaction, Delivery, Learning & Perceived Effectiveness

    Ruth Guzley
    This paper reports on an innovative, computer-mediated, educational technology application in a simulated distance learning environment. As an initial evaluation, real student groups completed an entire university course using this state-of-the-art, two-way synchronous audio/visual communication technology, Distributed Tutored Video Instruction (DTVI). The study reported here explored student perceptions of a simulated distance learning environment using the system. The learning environment was characterized by videotaped lectures by the course instructor, delivered in computer-mediated small group settings. Six separate groups made up of six to eight students and a facilitator were studied. Group members were in separate locations, interacting via synchronous audio and visual computer channels. Our findings indicate an overall high level of perceived effectiveness and satisfaction with the instructional mode. In addition, significant relationships were established between facilitator effectiveness and student satisfaction, student motivation and class participation, student exam grades and perceived amount of group discussion. Findings indicate innovations in computer-mediated instructional designs can achieve desired levels of participant interaction considered critical to effective distance education technology. [source]

    A secondary reanalysis of student perceptions of non-traditional writing tasks over a ten year period

    Mark A. McDermott
    This study aims to add to the growing research related to the implementation of non-traditional writing tasks in classrooms to encourage science literacy. A secondary reanalysis methodology was employed to review student interviews collected as a part of several individual studies during a ten year research program. This method established an interpretive framework different than the particular frameworks guiding the individual studies. In doing so, a greater ability to generalize findings was sought. Main assertions emerging from the student responses analyzed include recognition of benefits of non-traditional writing, recognition of the need for particular task characteristics to encourage these benefits, and recognition of greater cognitive activity than is present in typical science classroom writing. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 47: 518,539, 2010 [source]

    Student and Teacher Perceptions of School Climate: A Multilevel Exploration of Patterns of Discrepancy

    Mary M. Mitchell PhD
    BACKGROUND: School climate has been linked with improved academic achievement and reduced discipline problems, and thus is often a target of school improvement initiatives. However, few studies have examined the extent to which student and teacher perceptions vary as a function of individual, classroom, and school characteristics, or the level of congruence between teachers' and their students' perceptions of school climate. METHODS: Using data from 1881 fifth-grade students and their 90 homeroom teachers, we examined parallel models of students' and teachers' perceptions of overall school climate and academic emphasis. Two additional models were fit that assessed the congruence between teacher and student perceptions of school climate and academic emphasis. RESULTS: Multilevel analyses indicated that classroom-level factors were more closely associated with teachers' perceptions of climate, whereas school-level factors were more closely associated with the students' perceptions. Further analyses indicated an inverse association between student and teacher ratings of academic emphasis, and no association between student and teacher ratings of overall climate. CONCLUSIONS: Teacher ratings were more sensitive to classroom-level factors, such as poor classroom management and proportion of students with disruptive behaviors, whereas student ratings were more influenced by school-level factors such as student mobility, student-teacher relationship, and principal turnover. The discrepancy in ratings of academic emphasis suggests that while all of the respondents may have shared objectively similar experiences, their perceptions of those experiences varied significantly. These results emphasize the importance of assessing both student and teacher perceptions in future research on school climate. [source]

    Improving the School Environment to Reduce School Violence: A Review of the Literature,

    Sarah Lindstrom Johnson PhD
    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: School violence can impact the social, psychological, and physical well-being of both students and teachers and disrupt the learning process. This review focuses on a new area of research, the mechanisms by which the school environment determines the likelihood of school violence. METHODS: A search for peer-reviewed articles was made in six databases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's report on school-violence interventions. Twenty-five articles that attempted to understand the influence of either the school social or physical environment in determining teacher and student perceptions of safety and experiences of violence were included. RESULTS: Most of the included articles were cross-sectional surveys of junior high or high school students and staff. As articles used different measures of the school physical and social environment, a classification system was created. Using this system, studies show that schools with less violence tend to have students who are aware of school rules and believe they are fair, have positive relationships with their teachers, feel that they have ownership in their school, feel that they are in a classroom and school environment that is positive and focused on learning, and in an environment that is orderly. CONCLUSION: The school social and physical environment appears to offer intervention opportunities to reduce school violence. However, the lack of consistency in school environment variables as well as the lack of longitudinal and experimental research designs limits the applicability of these findings. [source]

    Student perceptions about the characteristics of an effective discussion during the reporting phase in problem-based learning

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 9 2006
    Astrid J S F Visschers-Pleijers
    Objective, To explore student perceptions of factors contributing to the effectiveness of discussions in the reporting phase of the problem-based learning (PBL) process, where students report and synthesise the results of self-study. Methods, Forty-eight Year 1 and 2 medical students participated in 6 focus group interviews about the characteristics of effective group discussions and possible improvements. The data were analysed qualitatively in several stages. Results, The analysis yielded 4 main characteristics of effective discussions: asking for, giving and receiving explanations; integrating and applying knowledge; discussing differences with regard to learning content, and guiding and monitoring the content and the group process of the discussion. Integrating and applying knowledge included structuring, relating and summarising information and providing examples from practice. Discussing different opinions included discussing a variety of literature resources and disagreements. The main learning effects mentioned by the students were retention, understanding, integration and application of knowledge. Conclusions, Students have clear ideas about what promotes effective discussions during the reporting phase. Their PBL experience has provided them with some insights that are in line with theory and research on collaborative learning. Future research should examine differences between student and tutor perceptions of the quality of discussions. Introductions to PBL for students and tutors should include training in asking open but focused questions, supporting explanations with arguments and dealing with conflicts about learning content. Tutors should be trained in giving effective and personal feedback. Collaborative creation of external knowledge representations (i.e. concept maps) should be advocated, as should variety of literature resources. [source]

    Medical student attitudes to risk taking and self-perceived influence on medical practice

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 8 2006
    Michael Weissberg
    Context, Little has been published on medical student risk-taking attitudes and behaviours and whether students think these attributes will affect how they treat patients. Objectives, Our aims were to assess for an association between risk-taking attitudes and behaviours, such as problematic substance use, self-reported risky behaviours, and self-reported accidents, and to test for an association between risk-taking attitudes and student perceptions of the influence of these attitudes on future clinical practice. Methods, Three consecutive classes of Year 2 medical students (n = 315) completed a self-administered, 29-item questionnaire. Risk-taking attitudes were evaluated using a 6-question, risk-taking scale adapted from the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI). Results, A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between risk-taking attitudes (JPI) and problematic substance use (r = 0.34; P < 0.01), self-reported risky behaviours (r = 0.47; P < 0.01), and self-reported accidents (r = 0.33; P < 0.01). Students who did not think their attitudes toward risk would affect their clinical decision making scored significantly higher on our measure of risk-taking attitudes (t306 = , 4.60; P < 0.01). Students who did not think that their drinking, drug taking or sexual behaviour would affect how they counselled patients on these matters scored significantly higher on our measure of problematic substance use (t307 = , 2.51; P = 0.01). Conclusions, Although risk-taking attitudes have been associated with significant differences in clinical decision making among doctors, in our sample students with high risk-taking attitudes and behaviours were significantly less likely than their colleagues to think their attitudes would affect their clinical practice. Implications for medical education are discussed. [source]