Students' Knowledge (student + knowledge)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Students' Knowledge

  • medical student knowledge
  • university student knowledge

  • Selected Abstracts

    Student Knowledge, Engagement, and Voice in Educational Reform1

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 4 2006
    First page of article [source]

    College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Regarding Organ Donation: An Integrated Review of the Literature,

    Thomas Hugh Feeley
    The current paper provides an integrated review of research literature on college students' knowledge, attitudes, and intentions regarding organ and tissue donation (OTD). Findings across 27 studies indicate that (a) students reported a lack of information and knowledge on OTD; (b) 23% reported signing an organ card or state organ donation registry; (c) positive attitudes were reported toward donation; (d) surveyed students indicated a willingness to become organ donors; and (e) 36% reported having conversations with family about OTD. Self-efficacy and normative influence theory are recommended as promising theoretical approaches to studying OTD in college student samples. [source]

    A longitudinal evaluation of medical student knowledge, skills and attitudes to alcohol and drugs

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2006
    Gavin Cape
    ABSTRACT Aim To examine the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students to alcohol and drugs as training progresses. Design A longitudinal, prospective, cohort-based design. Setting The four schools of medicine in New Zealand. Participants All second-year medical students (first year of pre-clinical medical health sciences) in New Zealand were administered a questionnaire which was repeated in the fourth (first year of significant clinical exposure) and then sixth years (final year). A response rate of 98% in the second year, 75% in the fourth year and 34% in the sixth year, with a total of 637 respondents (47.8% male) and an overall response rate of 68%. Questionnaire The questionnaire consisted of 43 questions assessing knowledge and skills,a mixture of true/false and scenario stem-based multiple-choice questions and 25 attitudinal questions scored on a Likert scale. Demographic questions included first language, ethnicity and personal consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Findings The competence (knowledge plus skills) correct scores increased from 23.4% at the second year to 53.6% at the fourth year to 71.8% at the sixth year, being better in those students who drank alcohol and whose first language was English (P < 0.002). As training progressed the student's perceptions of their role adequacy regarding the effectiveness of the management of illicit drug users diminished. For example, at second year 21% and at sixth year 51% of students felt least effective in helping patients to reduce illicit drug use. At the sixth year, 15% of sixthyear students regarded the self-prescription of psychoactive drugs as responsible practice. Conclusion Education on alcohol and drugs for students remains a crucial but underprovided part of the undergraduate medical curriculum. This research demonstrated that while positive teaching outcomes were apparent, further changes to medical student curricula need to be considered to address specific knowledge deficits and to increase the therapeutic commitment and professional safety of medical students to alcohol and drugs. [source]

    Teacher training and HIV/AIDS prevention in West Africa: regression discontinuity design evidence from the Cameroon

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue S1 2010
    Jean-Louis Arcand
    Abstract We assess the impact on teenage childbearing as well as student knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a typical HIV/AIDS teacher training program in the Cameroon. Applying a regression discontinuity design identification strategy based on the key administrative criterion that determined program deployment, we find that 15,17 year old girls in teacher training schools are between 7 and 10 percentage points less likely to have started childbearing, an objective proxy for the incidence of unprotected sex. They are also significantly more likely to have used a condom during their last sexual intercourse. For 12,13 year old girls, the likelihood of self-reported abstinence and condom use is also significantly higher in treated schools, while the likelihood of having multiple partners is significantly lower. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Does structured clinical supervision during psychosocial intervention education enhance outcome for mental health nurses and the service users they work with?

    T. BRADSHAW rmn diphe bsc(hons) mphil
    This study aimed to assess whether clinical supervision provided by workplace-based supervisors can enhance outcomes for mental health nurses attending a psychosocial intervention education programme and the service users whom they work with. A quasi-experimental controlled design was used. The main outcome measure was student knowledge and attitudes towards individuals with psychosis and their caregivers. Secondary outcome measures for service users included the KGV (M) symptom scale and the Social Functioning Scale. Students in the experimental group demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge of psychological interventions compared with the control group. Service users seen by the students in the experimental group showed significantly greater reductions in positive psychotic symptoms and total symptoms compared with those seen by students in the control group. Workplace clinical supervision may offer additional benefit to nurses attending psychosocial intervention courses. Further research adopting more robust designs is required to support these tentative findings. [source]

    A Culturally Appropriate School Wellness Initiative: Results of a 2-Year Pilot Intervention in 2 Jewish Schools

    Maureen R. Benjamins PhD
    BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of school-based interventions designed to reduce childhood obesity or otherwise promote health, no models or materials were found for Jewish schools. The current study describes an effort within a Jewish school system in Chicago to create, implement, and evaluate a school-based intervention tailored to the unique characteristics of Jewish religion, culture, and school structures. METHODS: Two schools (with approximately 600 students) were selected for the 2-year pilot study. The schools were required to form a wellness council, write a wellness policy, and implement policy changes or activities in 5 target areas (health education, physical education, school environment, family involvement, and staff wellness). Objectives were measured using pre- and postintervention surveys for students, as well as the School Health Index and other tools. RESULTS: Findings showed several significant increases in student knowledge, as well as an increase in the percentage of older students regularly meeting physical activity guidelines. Few changes in attitudes, other behaviors, or environmental factors were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Due to a strong partnership between researchers, schools, and community organizations, meaningful changes were made within the pilot schools. These changes were reflected in a limited number of improvements in student knowledge and activity levels. Future work is needed to determine how to bring about behavioral changes, how to increase the sustainability of all of the changes, and how to disseminate the model and products of this intervention to other day schools. [source]

    Gesture Gives a Hand to Language and Learning: Perspectives from Cognitive Neuroscience, Developmental Psychology and Education

    Spencer D. Kelly
    People of all ages, cultures and backgrounds gesture when they speak. These hand movements are so natural and pervasive that researchers across many fields , from linguistics to psychology to neuroscience , have claimed that the two modalities form an integrated system of meaning during language production and comprehension. This special relationship has implications for a variety of research and applied domains. Gestures may provide unique insights into language and cognitive development, and also help clinicians identify, understand and even treat developmental disorders in childhood. In addition, research in education suggests that teachers can use gesture to become even more effective in several fundamental aspects of their profession, including communication, assessment of student knowledge, and the ability to instill a profound understanding of abstract concepts in traditionally difficult domains such as language and mathematics. This work converging from multiple perspectives will push researchers and practitioners alike to view hand gestures in a new and constructive way. [source]

    Development of a laboratory project to determine human ABO genotypes,Limitations lead to further student explorations

    Theresa A. Salerno
    Abstract A multiplex allele-specific PCR analysis was developed to identify six "common" genotypes: AA, AO, BB, BO, OO, and AB. This project included a pre-laboratory exercise that provided active learning experiences and developed critical thinking skills. This laboratory resulted in many successful analyses, which were verified by student knowledge of their phenotypes. However, the design was found to be deficient for the analysis of variants. The limitations in the original allied-health multiplex design were verified through a student designed problem-based laboratory project in an advanced level biochemistry class. Variants were further analyzed in an undergraduate research project using SSCP analyses. The topic of ABO genotyping provides several opportunities for student-centered explorations. [source]

    Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use: final results of the Climate Schools course

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    Nicola C. Newton
    ABSTRACT Aims To establish the long-term efficacy of a universal internet-based alcohol and cannabis prevention programme in schools. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, is facilitated by the internet and consists of 12 novel and curriculum consistent lessons delivered over 6 months. Participants A total of 764 year 8 students (13 years) from 10 Australian secondary schools were allocated randomly to the internet-based prevention programme (n = 397, five schools), or to their usual health classes (n = 367, five schools). Measures Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and 6 and 12 months following completion of the intervention, on measures of alcohol and cannabis knowledge, attitudes, use and related harms. Results This paper reports the final results of the intervention trial, 12 months following the completion of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The effectiveness of the course 6 months following the intervention has been reported previously. At the 12-month follow-up, compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge, a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and a reduction in frequency of drinking to excess. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes or alcohol- and cannabis-related harms. The course was found to be acceptable by teachers and students as a means of delivering drug education in schools. Conclusions Internet-based prevention programs for school-age children can improve student's knowledge about alcohol and cannabis, and may also reduce alcohol use twelve months after completion. [source]

    A Poetics of Teaching

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 2 2004
    David T. Hansen
    In this article, I elucidate the idea of a poetics of teaching and outline its value to scholars and teachers who seek a deeper understanding of the practice. A poetics of teaching draws together aesthetic, intellectual, and moral dimensions of the work that are often treated separately, if treated at all, in both research and in the classroom. In so doing, a poetics clarifies our picture of what the work offers to the men and women who take up the role. A poetics of teaching calls attention to how teaching can enrich the life of the teacher, even as he or she seeks to deepen and to broaden students' knowledge, understandings, and outlooks. I draw upon aspects of art, of inquiry, and of metaphor to help illuminate these educational values. [source]

    Can e-learning improve medical students' knowledge and competence in paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation?

    A prospective before, after study
    Abstract Objective: To determine whether the use of an e-learning package was able to improve the knowledge and competence of medical students, in a simulated paediatric resuscitation. Methods: A prospective before and after study was performed with medical students at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Australia. Participants undertook a simulated paediatric resuscitation before and after completing the e-learning. Primary outcome measures were the ability to perform successful basic life support and advanced life support according to published guidelines. Secondary outcome measures were the individual steps in performing the overall resuscitation, the change in pre- and post-e-learning multiple choice question scores and subjective feedback from participants. Results: A total of 28 students were enrolled in the study, with 26 being retested. There was an improvement of 57.7% from 30.8% to 88.5% (P < 0.001, 95% CI 34.9,80.5%) in basic life support competence and an improvement from 0% to 80.0% (P < 0.001, 95% CI 61.8,99.8%) in advanced life support competence. Significant improvements were seen in all secondary outcomes particularly time to rhythm recognition and time to first defibrillation (P < 0.001). Multiple choice question test scores showed a significant improvement of 27.8% or 6.4 marks (95% CI 5.3,7.5, P < 0.001). Conclusion: E-learning does improve both the knowledge and competence of medical students in paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation at least in the simulation environment. [source]

    Strategic Teaching: Student Learning through Working the Process

    Nancy Spanbroek
    The designers of our future built environment must possess intellectual tools which will allow them to be disciplined, flexible and analytical thinkers, able to address and resolve new and complex problems. In response, an experimental and collaborative design studio was designed to inspire and build on students' knowledge and their creative thinking abilities through a series of explorative exercises and modelling. The learning experience of students undertaking this studio was enabled and guided by a collaboration of teachers experienced in both teaching and creative practice. A series of guest creative practitioners joined the studio's intensive 10-week hands-on workshop sessions within which students undertook set exercises. These creative research workshops then served to inform subsequent design development of the students' work through planning and documentation over a period of 4 weeks. Strategic teaching is central to the creative development process. The driving educational belief, as idea and practice, is that by bringing ideas to life in design, by working with full-scale three-dimensionality, students are able to cement their commitment to ,working the process', towards becoming excellent designers. This ambitious strategy enables students to work on the many different aspects of the design problem towards meeting their design outcome at the highest level of resolution and intent. Through a combination of pragmatic tasks , writing and developing design briefs , and visual tasks , evidence gathering and analysis of design through photographic, modelling and diagramming exercises , students were encouraged to think outside and beyond the ,normal' realm of design practice. [source]

    Effectiveness of simulation on health profession students' knowledge, skills, confidence and satisfaction

    Susan Laschinger
    Abstract Background, Despite the recent wave of interest being shown in high-fidelity simulators, they do not represent a new concept in healthcare education. Simulators have been a part of clinical education since the 1950s. The growth of patient simulation as a core educational tool has been driven by a number of factors. Declining inpatient populations, concerns for patient safety and advances in learning theory are forcing healthcare educators to look for alternatives to the traditional clinical encounter for skill acquisition for students. Objective, The aim of this review was to identify the best available evidence on the effectiveness of using simulated learning experiences in pre-licensure health profession education. Inclusion criteria,Types of studies: This review considered any experimental or quasi-experimental studies that addressed the effectiveness of using simulated learning experiences in pre-licensure health profession practice. In the absence of randomised controlled trials, other research designs were considered for inclusion, such as, but not limited to: non-randomised controlled trials and before-and-after studies. Types of participants: This review included participants who were pre-licensure practitioners in nursing, medicine, and rehabilitation therapy. Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest: Studies that evaluated the use of human physical anatomical models with or without computer support, including whole-body or part-body simulators were included. Types of outcome measures, Student outcomes included knowledge acquisition, skill performance, learner satisfaction, critical thinking, self-confidence and role identity. Search strategy, Using a defined search and retrieval method, the following databases were accessed for the period 1995,2006: Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, HealthSTAR, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and ERIC. Methodological quality, Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using the standardised critical appraisal instruments for evidence of effectiveness, developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Disagreements were dealt with by consultations with a third reviewer. Data collection, Information was extracted from each paper independently by two reviewers using the standardised data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Disagreements were dealt with by consultation with a third reviewer. Data synthesis, Due to the type of designs and quality of available studies, it was not possible to pool quantitative research study results in statistical meta-analysis. As statistical pooling was not possible, the findings are presented in descriptive narrative form. Results, Twenty-three studies were selected for inclusion in this review including partial task trainers and high-fidelity human patient simulators. The results indicate that there is high learner satisfaction with using simulators to learn clinical skills. The studies demonstrated that human patient simulators which are used for teaching higher level skills, such as airway management, and physiological concepts are useful. While there are short-term gains in knowledge and skill performance, it is evident that performance of skills over time after initial training decline. Conclusion, At best, simulation can be used as an adjunct for clinical practice, not a replacement for everyday practice. Students enjoyed the sessions and using the models purportedly makes learning easier. However, it remains unclear whether the skills learned through a simulation experience transfer into real-world settings. More research is needed to evaluate whether the skills acquired with this teaching methodology transfer to the practice setting such as the impact of simulation training on team function. [source]

    College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Regarding Organ Donation: An Integrated Review of the Literature,

    Thomas Hugh Feeley
    The current paper provides an integrated review of research literature on college students' knowledge, attitudes, and intentions regarding organ and tissue donation (OTD). Findings across 27 studies indicate that (a) students reported a lack of information and knowledge on OTD; (b) 23% reported signing an organ card or state organ donation registry; (c) positive attitudes were reported toward donation; (d) surveyed students indicated a willingness to become organ donors; and (e) 36% reported having conversations with family about OTD. Self-efficacy and normative influence theory are recommended as promising theoretical approaches to studying OTD in college student samples. [source]

    A systematic review of peer teaching and learning in clinical education

    Jacinta Secomb
    Aims and objectives., The purpose of this review is to provide a framework for peer teaching and learning in the clinical education of undergraduate health science students in clinical practice settings and make clear the positive and negative aspects of this teaching and learning strategy. Background., The practice of using peers incidentally or purposefully in the clinical education of apprentice or undergraduate health science students is a well-established tradition and commonly practiced, but lacks definition in its implementation. Method., The author conducted a search of health science and educational electronic databases using the terms peer, clinical education and undergraduate. The set limitations were publications after 1980 (2005 inclusive), English language and research papers. Selection of studies occurred: based on participant, intervention, research method and learning outcomes, following a rigorous critical and quality appraisal with a purposefully developed tool. The results have been both tabled and collated in a narrative summary. Results., Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria, representing five countries and four health science disciplines. This review reported mostly positive outcomes on the effectiveness of peer teaching and learning; it can increase student's confidence in clinical practice and improve learning in the psychomotor and cognitive domains. Negative aspects were also identified; these include poor student learning if personalities or learning styles are not compatible and students spending less individualized time with the clinical instructor. Conclusions., Peer teaching and learning is an effective educational intervention for health science students on clinical placements. Preclinical education of students congruent with the academic timetable increases student educational outcomes from peer teaching and learning. Strategies are required prior to clinical placement to accommodate incompatible students or poor student learning. Relevance to clinical practice., The findings from this systematic review, although not statistically significant, do have pragmatic implications for clinical practice. It can increase clinical placement opportunities for undergraduate health students, assist clinical staff with workload pressures and increase clinician time with clients, while further developing students' knowledge, skills and attitudes. [source]

    Developing Web-based Interdisciplinary Modules to Teach Solid Waste/Residue Management in the Food Chain

    C.W. Shanklin
    ABSTRACT: A Web-based interdisciplinary instructional resource was developed to provide information that will increase food science educators' knowledge of waste management in the food chain. The 4 modules are: legal implications for management of wastes/residues; identification, quantification, and characterization of wastes/residues; management of wastes/residues; and economic ramifications of wastes/residues. Instructional materials are available for faculty and GTAs for use in teaching the 4 modules. Food science educators can use this Web-based instructional tool as an educational resource in their undergraduate classes to enhance students' knowledge and ability to solve critical environmental problems in the food chain. See [source]

    The relative effects and equity of inquiry-based and commonplace science teaching on students' knowledge, reasoning, and argumentation

    Christopher D. Wilson
    Abstract We conducted a laboratory-based randomized control study to examine the effectiveness of inquiry-based instruction. We also disaggregated the data by student demographic variables to examine if inquiry can provide equitable opportunities to learn. Fifty-eight students aged 14,16 years old were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Both groups of students were taught toward the same learning goals by the same teacher, with one group being taught from inquiry-based materials organized around the BSCS 5E Instructional Model, and the other from materials organized around commonplace teaching strategies as defined by national teacher survey data. Students in the inquiry-based group reached significantly higher levels of achievement than students experiencing commonplace instruction. This effect was consistent across a range of learning goals (knowledge, reasoning, and argumentation) and time frames (immediately following the instruction and 4 weeks later). The commonplace science instruction resulted in a detectable achievement gap by race, whereas the inquiry-based materials instruction did not. We discuss the implications of these findings for the body of evidence on the effectiveness of teaching science as inquiry; the role of instructional models and curriculum materials in science teaching; addressing achievement gaps; and the competing demands of reform and accountability. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 47:276,301, 2010 [source]

    Learning at the nanoscale: The impact of students' use of remote microscopy on concepts of viruses, scale, and microscopy

    M. Gail Jones
    The rapid pace of development is bringing advanced technologies to the World Wide Web (WWW), and, as a result, schools have access to new tools for science investigations. In this exploratory study, we investigated how an educational experience organized around students' use of a WWW-controllable atomic force microscope (AFM) influenced students' understandings of viruses. The context for the study was a weeklong unit on viruses for two high school biology classes which incorporated student use of the WWW controllable AFM. We also investigated how the haptic (involving kinesthetics and touch) experiences afforded by this tool might influence students' knowledge of viruses, microscopy, and nanometer scale. Fifty students from two high school biology classes participated in a series of instructional activities and pre- and postassessments (knowledge test, opinion questionnaire, and interviews). Results showed that students' understandings of microscale, virus morphology, and dimensionality changed as a result of the experiences. Students' conceptions moved from a two-dimensional textbook-like image of a virus to a three-dimensional image of an adenovirus. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the use of the technology as a tool for learning about morphology of materials too small to see may be beneficial. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 40: 303,322, 2003 [source]

    Fostering students' knowledge and argumentation skills through dilemmas in human genetics

    Anat Zohar
    This study examined the outcomes of a unit that integrates explicit teaching of general reasoning patterns into the teaching of a specific science content. Specifically, this article examined the teaching of argumentation skills in the context of dilemmas in human genetics. Before instruction only a minority (16.2%) of the students referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments in the context of dilemmas in genetics. Approximately 90% of the students were successful in formulating simple arguments. An assessment that took place following instruction supported the conclusion that integrating explicit teaching of argumentation into the teaching of dilemmas in human genetics enhances performance in both biological knowledge and argumentation. An increase was found in the frequency of students who referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments. Students in the experimental group scored significantly higher than students in the comparison group in a test of genetics knowledge. An increase was also found in the quality of students' argumentation. Students were able to transfer the reasoning abilities taught in the context of genetics to the context of dilemmas taken from everyday life. The effects of metacognitive thinking and of changing students' thinking dispositions by modifying what is considered valuable in the class culture are discussed. 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 39: 35,62, 2002 [source]

    Factors influencing treatment for depression among medical students: a nationwide sample in South Korea

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2009
    Myoung-Sun Roh
    Objectives, Depression is more frequently experienced and induces more severe consequences in medical students than in the general population. However, treatment rates for depression in medical students are still low. In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect treatment for depression and dispositions towards treating depression among South Korean medical students. Methods, A nationwide, cross-sectional survey was administered to medical students attending all 41 medical schools in South Korea (14 095 students). The questionnaire included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and asked for data on socio-demographic variables, history of diagnosis or treatment for depression, knowledge of mental health problems and disposition to use mental health care. Results, A total of 7357 students (52.2%) from 36 schools responded to the survey. Of these, 689 (9.4%) were identified as being depressed via a BDI score higher than 16. Of the depressed respondents, only 61 (8.9%) had been diagnosed with depression and 67 (9.7%) had been treated for depression. Age was significantly associated with treatment behaviour for depression. Correct knowledge about the aetiology of depression and psychiatric medicine was significantly related to students' disposition to use psychiatric services and to receive psychopharmacotherapy as an option to resolve depression. Conclusions, Accurate knowledge of depression and appropriate medication seems to be relevant to students seeking appropriate treatment for depression. The development of education programmes designed to improve medical students' knowledge of mental health problems and treatments would facilitate treatment seeking in medical students. [source]

    A comparative study of knowledge about and attitudes toward the combined oral contraceptives among Korean and Japanese university students,

    Hyun-Ja Lim RN
    Abstract Purpose To compare university students' knowledge about and attitudes toward the combined oral contraceptives (COC) in two countries with different pharmaceutical systems (Japan and Korea), and to explore the reasons limiting the use of the COC in these populations. Methods University students in Korea and Japan completed a questionnaire containing a total of 55 questions about the students' demographics (8 questions), knowledge about the COC (15 questions), attitudes toward the COC (24 questions) and the reasons for limited use of the COC among the population (8 questions). Results Male students' attitudes toward the COC were significantly more positive than those of female students in Korea, but not in Japan. Knowledge about and attitudes toward the COC did not differ significantly between the two countries. The age at which students desired to use the COC was significantly correlated with age in both countries. There were significant correlations between knowledge about and attitude towards the COC in both countries and between age and attitude towards the COC in Japan. In both countries, the most commonly cited reasons for limited use of the COC were concern about adverse side effects. Conclusions These results confirm the need to develop appropriate sex education programs in Korea and Japan. Cultural differences and differences in the pharmaceutical and medical systems between the two countries should be considered when designing sex education programs for young people in Korea and Japan. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Is problem-based learning causing a decline in medical students' knowledge?

    THE CLINICAL TEACHER, Issue 4 2006
    Abigail Dias
    First page of article [source]

    Emergency contraception , knowledge and attitudes in a group of Australian university students

    Helen Calabretto
    Abstract Objective: To explore first year Australian university students' knowledge and attitudes about emergency contraception and their understanding of the risk for pregnancy. Method: A self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of 627 first year on-campus students from both health and non-health disciplines. Results: Knowledge about emergency contraception (EC) was generally poor including misunderstanding that it can only be used the ,morning after', as well as where it may be accessed. Its potential use was, however, more highly accepted as a preventative measure after unprotected sexual intercourse than abortion in the event of unplanned pregnancy. Women had better knowledge than men, and on a number of measures there were significant differences between these groups. Conclusions: Poor knowledge about the timing, accessibility, action and side effects of EC may act as a barrier to its use in the event of unprotected sexual intercourse. Although EC has been available in Australia as a Schedule 3 medication since 2004, its availability from pharmacies is not well known, nor is access from other primary health care providers. Implications: The lack of knowledge about EC may lead to its underutilisation and underlines the need for future educational strategies about EC as well as the need for health professionals who provide contraceptive services to discuss EC with clients. Health promotion campaigns which are both general as well as gender-specific may improve overall community knowledge about this method of contraception. [source]

    Dental students' knowledge and perceptions of non-invasive dental caries management

    A Pakdaman
    Abstract Background:, An evidence-based, risk-specific, and non-invasive modality for caries management was implemented in the University of Sydney dentistry curriculum. This study reviews its impact on student learning outcomes and their perceptions of the efficacy of a risk-based caries management. Methods:, One hundred and nine Year 3 and Year 4 students were invited to complete a questionnaire to assess their understanding of the protocols and their perceptions of both the education process and value of the non-invasive treatment modality. Results:, A response rate of 93% Year 3 and 46% Year 4 students was obtained. They correctly identified high and low risk cases but Year 3 students were inclined to misclassify medium risk cases. Most understood correctly that enamel lesions should be arrested and remineralized but were often more radical in dealing with dentine lesions. Students who believed the protocols were useful and who spent more time on preventive care were less likely to restore enamel and dentine lesions. Conclusions:, A modest level of knowledge concerning application of the non-invasive caries management system to paper-based clinical case studies was demonstrated. Protocol misinterpretation may reflect inconsistent instruction by some clinical tutors. It is hoped that the promulgation of evidence-based dentistry will overcome these barriers in future. [source]

    High school and university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology

    A Turkish experience
    Abstract Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and Biotechnology Attitude Questionnaire (BAQ) with 37 items were used as data collection instruments. The statistically significant correlation was observed between the level of biotechnology knowledge and the subdimensions of attitudes toward biotechnology. We found no statistically significant difference between high school and university students' knowledge of biotechnology. In contrast, university students showed more positive attitudes toward biotechnology than did high school students. However, the effect of gender was equivocal; therefore, it did not support a "gender paradox" hypothesis. Our results suggest that although students' appreciation of (agricultural) biotechnology is relatively positive, the understanding of biotechnology processes is superficial and attitudes toward shopping genetically modified products are therefore negative. The possible impact of current science and biology curriculum, and also biotechnology news given in media on Turkish students' views of biotechnology is discussed. [source]