Strong Linkage Disequilibrium (strong + linkage_disequilibrium)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Neither Antisocial Personality Disorder Nor Antisocial Alcoholism Is Associated With the MAO-A Gene in Han Chinese Males

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2003
Ru-Band Lu
Background: Recent studies on the genetics of alcoholism have suggested an association between antisocial alcoholism and the MAO-A gene. However, previous studies have failed to include subjects with antisocial personality disorder without alcoholism even though there is a high comorbidity between antisocial personality disorder and alcoholism. Consequently, the finding of an association between the MAO-A gene and alcoholism or antisocial personality disorder seems tenuous. In Taiwan, about 70% of the Han Chinese population have the ADH2*2 allele and 50% show ALDH2*1/*2 or ALDH2*2/*2 genotypes, which offer protection against drinking behavior and the risk of developing alcoholism. Thus, it is possible to recruit individuals with antisocial personality disorder but without alcoholism in Taiwan. Therefore, association studies of alcoholism or antisocial personality disorder in Chinese may be more reliable if pure antisocial alcoholics, pure antisocial personality disorders, and normal controls as MAO-A gene are examined. Methods: In this study, the associations among antisocial alcoholism, antisocial personality disorder, and the uVNTR and Eco RV polymorphisms of the MAO-A gene, both individually and as a haplotype, were investigated among male adults recruited from jails in Taipei. A total of 129 Chinese Han males were studied, including 41 with antisocial personality disorder with alcoholism, 50 with antisocial personality disorder but without alcoholism, and 38 without either disorder as a jail control group. The diagnoses of alcohol dependence and antisocial personality disorder were made according to DSM-IV criteria. In addition, 77 normal controls were collected from the community. Results: Strong linkage disequilibrium was found for the uVNTR and Eco RV variants of MAO-A gene in each study group. Conclusions: No significant association was observed between these two polymorphisms and antisocial personality disorder with alcoholism, either individually or for the haplotype, or for antisocial personality disorder without alcoholism. Thus, neither antisocial alcoholism nor antisocial personality disorder was associated with the genetic variants of MAO-A gene. [source]

FMR1 CGG Repeat Patterns and Flanking Haplotypes in Three Asian Populations and Their Relationship With Repeat Instability

Youyou Zhou
Summary Hyper-expansion of a CGG repeat in the 5, untranslated region of the FMR1 gene followed by methylation and silencing is the predominant cause of Fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited mental retardation disorder. Most detailed studies of the FMR1 gene have focused on Caucasian populations and patients. We performed a detailed haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the FMR1 gene in a total of 454 unselected normal X chromosomes from three Asian populations, Chinese, Malay and Indian. Compared to Caucasians and African Americans, the diversity of normal FMR1 CGG repeat lengths, patterns and flanking haplotypes were lower in Asians. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between the CGG repeat and flanking FMR1 markers in all three Asian populations, with strong association between specific CGG repeat alleles and flanking marker alleles observed only in the Chinese and Malays. A test for randomness of distribution between FRAXA CGG repeat patterns and flanking FMR1 marker haplotypes also revealed a highly significant non-random distribution between CGG repeat patterns and flanking haplotypes in all three ethnic groups (P < 0.001). Extending previous findings in Caucasians and African Americans we present a novel statistical approach, using data from unselected population samples alone, to show an association between absence of at least one AGG interruption in any position (5,, 3,, or middle) and increased CGG repeat instability. [source]

Polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 gene influence the stratum corneum interleukin-1, concentration in uninvolved skin of patients with chronic irritant contact dermatitis

Cindy M. DeJongh
Background:, Interleukin (IL)-1, and its receptor antagonist IL-1ra play a role in skin inflammation. Several polymorphisms in the IL1 gene cluster, coding for IL-1,, IL-1ra, and IL-1,, influence their protein expression. Within this cluster, strong linkage disequilibrium has been shown. Objective:, We studied the association between the polymorphisms IL1A -889 (C,T) and IL1B -31 (T,C) and the concentration of IL-1, and IL-1ra in the stratum corneum (SC). Method:, In 124 patients with chronic irritant contact dermatitis, we genotyped the IL1A -889 and IL1B -31 polymorphisms and determined the amount of IL-1, and IL-1ra on tape strips obtained from uninvolved skin of the volar forearm. Results:, The SC IL-1, concentration was 23% and 47% lower in subjects with IL1A -889 C/T genotype and T/T genotype, respectively, compared with wild-type genotype. In subjects with IL1B -31 C/C genotype, the IL-1, concentration was 51% lower compared with C/T and T/T genotypes. The ratio IL-1ra/IL-1, increased twofold in IL1A -889 C/T genotype and threefold in T/T genotype compared with wild type. Conclusions:, We have shown a clear effect of IL1 genotype on protein expression in the SC. This altered expression may be responsible for the interindividual differences in the inflammatory response of the skin. [source]

PON1 L55M polymorphism is not a predictor of coronary atherosclerosis either alone or in combination with Q192R polymorphism in an Italian population

M. Arca
Abstract Background, The present study evaluated the role of the PON1 L55M polymorphism independently and in conjunction with the Q192R polymorphism on the risk of coronary atherosclerosis in an Italian population. Materials and methods, Three hundred and ninety-one subjects with significant coronary stenosis (> 50%) (coronary artery disease-positive; CAD+), 196 subjects with normal coronary arteries (< 10% stenosis) (CAD,) and 178 healthy controls were screened using a combination of polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion. Results, In the pooled population, the frequencies of L and M alleles were 063 and 037, respectively; the most common haplotypes were QQ/LM (242%) and QR/LL (218%) and a strong linkage disequilibrium between L/55 and R/192 alleles was observed (D, = ,091; P < 00001). CAD+ subjects did not show any significant differences in the distribution of PON1,55 genotypes as compared to CAD, subjects and population controls (,2 = 15, P = 08). After controlling for other risk factors, the low-concentration M allele was not associated with a significant change of CAD risk (OR 102; 95% CI 080,129; P = 087). Moreover, the L55M polymorphism did not show any interaction with other risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or high ratios of low-density to high-density lipoproteins. The combination of L55M with the Q192R polymorphism did not show any effect on CAD risk. However, a marginal decrease in myocardial infarction risk was detected when QQ/MM carriers (OR 051; 95% CI 026,099; P = 0048), but not LL/RR carriers, were compared with subjects not homozygous for an L or R allele. Conclusions, These findings did not indicate a major effect of the PON1 L55M polymorphism, either alone or in combination with the Q192R polymorphism, on CAD risk. Additional studies are needed for a better evaluation of the role of the 55/192 PON1 genotypes in combination on myocardial infarction risk. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2009
Takeshi Kawakami
Whether chromosomal rearrangements promote speciation by providing barriers to gene exchange between populations is one of the long-standing debates in evolutionary biology. This question can be addressed by studying patterns of gene flow and selection in hybrid zones between chromosomally diverse taxa. Here we present results of the first study of the genetic structure of a hybrid zone between chromosomal races of morabine grasshoppers Vandiemenella viatica, P24(XY) and viatica17, on Kangaroo Island, Australia. Chromosomal and 11 nuclear markers revealed a narrow hybrid zone with strong linkage disequilibrium and heterozygote deficits, most likely maintained by a balance between dispersal and selection. Widths and positions of clines for these markers are concordant and coincident, suggesting that selection is unlikely to be concentrated on a few chromosomes. In contrast, a mitochondrial marker showed a significantly wider cline with centre offset toward the P24(XY) side. We argue that the discordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear/chromosomal clines and overall asymmetry of the clines suggest a secondary origin of the contact zone and potential movement of the zone after contact. Genome-wide scans using many genetic markers and chromosomal mapping of these markers are needed to investigate whether chromosomal differences directly reduce gene flow after secondary contact. [source]

Allelic imbalance (AI) identifies novel tissue-specific cis- regulatory variation for human UGT2B15,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2010
Chang Sun
Abstract Allelic imbalance (AI) is a powerful tool to identify cis -regulatory variation for gene expression. UGT2B15 is an important enzyme involved in the metabolism of multiple endobiotics and xenobiotics. In this study, we measured the relative expression of two alleles at this gene by using SNP rs1902023:G>T. An excess of the G over the T allele was consistently observed in liver (P<0.001), but not in breast (P=0.06) samples, suggesting that SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium with G253T regulate UGT2B15 expression in liver. Seven such SNPs were identified by resequencing the promoter and exon 1, which define two distinct haplotypes. Reporter gene assays confirmed that one haplotype displayed ,20% higher promoter activity compared to the other major haplotype in liver HepG2 (P<0.001), but not in breast MCF-7 (P=0.540) cells. Reporter gene assays with additional constructs pointed to rs34010522:G>T and rs35513228:C>T as the cis -regulatory variants; both SNPs were also evaluated in LNCaP and Caco-2 cells. By ChIP, we showed that the transcription factor Nrf2 binds to the region spanning rs34010522:G>T in all four cell lines. Our results provide a good example for how AI can be used to identify cis -regulatory variation and gain insights into the tissue specific regulation of gene expression. Hum Mutat 30:1,9, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Association of IL4R gene polymorphisms with asthma in Chinese populations,,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 10 2007
Haibing Zhang
Abstract Cytokines, having central functions in immunological and inflammatory processes, are expected to play important roles in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as asthma. Genetic polymorphisms of those cytokine and cytokine receptor genes are the focus of genetic association studies. In an effort to identify gene(s) whose variant(s) are associated with asthma, we screened all exons and their flanking regions, as well as the promoter region (1.5kb) of eight genes, including IL4, IL13, IL12B, IL5, IL3, IL9, CD14 and IL4R. We identified 42 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 15 of which were novel. Then, we examined the genetic effects of 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms in eight cytokine and cytokine receptor genes on asthma in a Chinese asthma cohort (n,=,537). Genetic association analysis of polymorphisms revealed that six polymorphisms (c.899-2C>A, c.1199A>C, c.1242G>T, c.1291T>C, c.1299T>C, c.1507T>C) in the IL4R gene, three of which resulted in an amino-acid change, showed significant association with the risk of asthma (P,=,0.00023). Further analysis indicates that these six polymorphisms segregated in strong linkage disequilibrium. The genetic association of IL4R with asthma might provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of asthma. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

MICA-STR, HLA-B haplotypic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in the Hunan Han population of southern China

W. Tian
Summary Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is located 46 kb centromeric to HLA-B and encodes a stress-inducible protein. MICA allelic variation is thought to be associated with disease susceptibility and immune response to transplants. This study was aimed to investigate the haplotypic diversity and linkage disequilibrium between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B and (GCT)n short tandem repeat in exon 5 of MICA gene (MICA-STR) in a southern Chinese Han population. Fifty-eight randomly selected nuclear families with 183 members including 85 unrelated parental samples were collected in Hunan province, southern China. HLA-B generic typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction,sequence-specific priming (PCR,SSP), and samples showing novel HLA-B-MICA-STR linkage were further typed for HLA-B allelic variation by high-resolution PCR,SSP. MICA-STR allelic variation and MICA gene deletion (MICA*Del) were detected by fluorescent PCR,size sequencing and PCR,SSP. Haplotype was determined through family segregation analysis. Statistical analysis was applied to the data of the 85 unrelated parental samples. Nineteen HLA-B specificities and seven MICA-STR allelic variants were observed in 85 unrelated parental samples, the most predominant of which were HLA-B*46, -B60, -B*13, and -B*15, and MICA*A5, MICA*A5.1 and MICA*A4, respectively. Genotype distributions of HLA-B, MICA-STR loci were consistent with Hardy,Weinberg proportions. The HLA-B-MICA-STR haplotypic phases of all 85 unrelated parental samples were unambiguously assigned, which contained 30 kinds of HLA-B, MICA-STR haplotypic combinations, nine of them have not been reported in the literature. Significant positive linkage disequilibria between certain HLA-B and MICA-STR alleles, including HLA-B*13 and MICA*A4, HLA-B*38 and MICA*A9, HLA-B*58 and MICA*A9, HLA-B*46 and MICA*A5, HLA-B*51 and MICA*A6, HLA-B*52 and MICA*A6, and HLA-B60 and MICA*A5.1, were observed. HLA-B*48 was linked to MICA*A5, MICA*A5.1 and MICA*Del. HLA-B*5801-MICA*A10 linkage was found in a family. Our data indicated a high degree of haplotypic diversity and strong linkage disequilibrium between MICA-STR and HLA-B in a southern Chinese Han population, the data will inform future studies on anthropology, donor,recipient HLA matching in clinical transplantation and HLA-linked disease association. [source]

Delayed decline of , -globin expression in infant age associated with the presence of G,,158 (C,T) polymorphism

Summary Persistent production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adult has ameliorative effects on hemoglobinopathies and great efforts are currently made to achieve an exhaustive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the switching in globin gene expression. One of the factors reported to be associated with the expression of fetal globin genes is the Xmn I G,,158 polymorphism, although it is still unclear if it is involved in this mechanism either by itself or in strong linkage disequilibrium with other loci. Here, we report a novel effect of the Xmn I G,,158 site that was found associated with a significant delayed decline of HbF production in infant age. The prolonged decay trend was enhanced when the G,,158 C,T substitution was co-inherited with a , -thalassemic trait. Our observations reinforce the hypothesis that this region plays an important role in the expression of the , -globin genes and give new insights on the intriguing and still poorly understood mechanisms of globin gene expression switching. [source]

Effects of Variation at the ALDH2 Locus on Alcohol Metabolism, Sensitivity, Consumption, and Dependence in Europeans

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2006
Peter A. Dickson
Background: The low-activity variant of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene found in East Asian populations leads to the alcohol flush reaction and reduces alcohol consumption and risk of alcohol dependence (AD). We have tested whether other polymorphisms in the ALDH2 gene have similar effects in people of European ancestry. Methods: Serial measurements of blood and breath alcohol, subjective intoxication, body sway, skin temperature, blood pressure, and pulse were obtained in 412 twins who took part in an alcohol challenge study. Participants provided data on alcohol reactions, alcohol consumption, and symptoms related to AD at the time of the study and subsequently. Haplotypes based on 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used in tests of the effects of variation in the ALDH2 gene on alcohol metabolism and alcohol's effects. Results: The typed SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium and 2 complementary haplotypes comprised 83% of those observed. Significant effects of ALDH2 haplotype were observed for breath alcohol concentration, with similar but smaller and nonsignificant effects on blood alcohol. Haplotype-related variation in responses to alcohol, and reported alcohol consumption, was small and not consistently in the direction predicted by the effects on alcohol concentrations. Conclusions: Genetic variation in ALDH2 affects alcohol metabolism in Europeans. However, the data do not support the hypothesis that this leads to effects on alcohol sensitivity, consumption, or risk of dependence. [source]

Evidence for the existence of some dissociation in an otherwise strong linkage disequilibrium between mitochondrial and chloroplastic genomes in Cyclobalanopsis glauca

T.-P. Lin
Abstract Variations in mitochondrial DNA in Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb. ex Murray) Oerst. were studied in 140 trees from 32 populations collected from within the tree's natural range. By sequencing two mitochondrial DNA intron fragments (nad4/3 -nad4/4r and nad7/2 -nad7/3r), we revealed a total of 1788 bp and five polymorphic sites which allowed us to distinguish six mitotypes. The mitochondrial DNA markers provided replicated data to support population phylogeographical scenarios suggested previously using chloroplastic DNA markers. The gene genealogical tree of mitochondrial DNA was partially congruent with the chloroplastic DNA tree owing to the slower mutation rate and different mutational direction. Significant linkage disequilibrium existed between the two organellar genomes. Further paring analyses between fragments synthesized using different primers, accompanied by exclusion of polymorphic sites, showed that the random association could be attributed specifically to one of the polymorphic sites of the petG- trnP fragment of the chloroplastic genome, and the three polymorphic sites of the nad4/3- nad4/4r fragment of the mitochondrial genome. The former was inferred to derive from paternal leakage, and the latter from recurrent mutation. These polymorphic sites were also responsible for uncoupling of the combined gene tree of mitotype and chlorotype. In conclusion, specific fragments found in this study contribute to the incomplete congruence of the two organellar lineages that otherwise associate well phylogeographically. [source]

The linkage disequilibrium between chloroplast DNA and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima (L.): the usefulness of both genomes for population genetic studies

B. Desplanque
Abstract The structure and evolution of the plant mitochondrial genome may allow recurrent appearance of the same mitochondrial variants in different populations. Whether the same mitochondrial variant is distributed by migration or appears recurrently by mutation (creating homoplasy) in different populations is an important question with regard to the use of these markers for population genetic analyses. The genetic association observed between chloroplasts and mitochondria (i.e. two maternally inherited cytoplasmic genomes) may indicate whether or not homoplasy occurs in the mitochondrial genome. Four-hundred and fourteen individuals sampled in wild populations of beets from France and Spain were screened for their mitochondrial and chloroplast polymorphisms. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism was investigated with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) polymorphism was investigated with polymerase chain reaction PCR,RFLP, using universal primers for the amplification. Twenty and 13 variants for mtDNA and cpDNA were observed, respectively. Most exhibited a widespread geographical distribution. As a very strong linkage disequilibrium was estimated between mtDNA and cpDNA haplotypes, a high rate of recurrent mutation was excluded for the mitochondrial genome of beets. Identical mitochondrial variants found in populations of different regions probably occurred as a result of migration. We concluded from this study that mtDNA is a tool as valuable as cpDNA when a maternal marker is needed for population genetics analyses in beet on a large regional scale. [source]

Linkage disequilibrium in the North American Holstein population

E.-S. Kim
Summary Linkage disequilibrium was estimated using 7119 single nucleotide polymorphism markers across the genome and 200 animals from the North American Holstein cattle population. The analysis of maternally inherited haplotypes revealed strong linkage disequilibrium (r2 > 0.8) in genomic regions of ,50 kb or less. While linkage disequilibrium decays as a function of genomic distance, genomic regions within genes showed greater linkage disequilibrium and greater variation in linkage disequilibrium compared with intergenic regions. Identification of haplotype blocks could characterize the most common haplotypes. Although maximum haplotype block size was over 1 Mb, mean block size was 26,113 kb by various definitions, which was larger than that observed in humans (,10 kb). Effective population size of the dairy cattle population was estimated from linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphism marker pairs in various haplotype ranges. Rapid reduction of effective population size of dairy cattle was inferred from linkage disequilibrium in recent generations. This result implies a loss of genetic diversity because of the high rate of inbreeding and high selection intensity in dairy cattle. The pattern observed in this study indicated linkage disequilibrium in the current dairy cattle population could be exploited to refine mapping resolution. Changes in effective population size during past generations imply a necessity of plans to maintain polymorphism in the Holstein population. [source]

Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the myostatin (GDF8) gene have significant association with muscle depth of commercial Charollais sheep

G. Hadjipavlou
Summary To assess whether the same mutation(s) were responsible for similar phenotypes attributed to ovine chromosome 2 (OAR2) quantitative trait loci (QTL) in different sheep breeds, Suffolk, Texel and Charollais rams from British commercial flocks were genotyped for two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the myostatin (GDF8) region of OAR2, previously detected in progeny of Belgian Texel rams exhibiting muscular hypertrophy. The first SNP (g.,2449G>C) was located upstream from the transcription start site and the second SNP (g.+6723G>A) in the 3, UTR of GDF8. The g.,2449C and g.+6723A alleles were absent in the Suffolk sires sampled, almost fixed in the Texel and segregating in the Charollais sires. Mixed model association analyses using SNP data on 338 Charollais lambs from 17 paternal half-sib families and phenotype and pedigree data on 56 500 lambs revealed that both SNPs had a significant association with muscle depth (P < 0.001). The SNPs were segregating at intermediate frequencies (p = 0.3) and exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.90). Animals with the g.+6723AA genotype had significantly greater muscle depth than those with either the g.+6723GG or the g.+6723AG genotypes (P < 0.002), with the g.+6723A allele, the likely causative mutation, having an additive effect of 1.20 (0.30) mm and a dominance effect of ,0.73 (0.36) mm. Based on estimated allelic effects and sample allele frequencies, the g.+6723G>A SNP explained 14% of the additive genetic variance of muscle depth. The maximum genetic variance for the trait (38%) attributed to the SNP would be attained at a g.+6723A allele frequency of 0.7. Our findings indicate that marker-assisted selection using these two GDF8 SNPs would be beneficial for the Charollais breed. [source]

Deletion of the late cornified envelope genes, LCE3C and LCE3B, is associated with rheumatoid arthritis

Elisa Docampo
Objective The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is increased in the offspring of individuals affected with various autoimmune disorders, including psoriasis. Recently, the deletion of 2 genes from the late cornified envelope (LCE) gene cluster, LCE3C and LCE3B, has been associated with psoriasis in several populations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether this polymorphic gene deletion could also be involved in susceptibility to RA. Methods We tested for association between the LCE3C_LCE3B copy number variant and a single-nucleotide polymorphism in strong linkage disequilibrium with this variant (rs4112788) and RA in 2 independent case,control data sets (197 and 400 samples from patients with RA, respectively, and 411 and 567 samples from control subjects, respectively), collected at 4 Spanish hospitals. All samples were directly typed for presence of the LCE3C_LCE3B deletion (LCE3C_LCE3B- del) by polymerase chain reaction, and association analysis was performed using the SNPassoc R package. Results An association of homozygosity for the LCE3C_LCE3B -del and rs4112788 C allele with the risk of RA was observed in the first data set and was replicated in an independent case,control set. A combined analysis showed an overall P value of 0.0012 (odds ratio [OR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.16,1.81) for association of the LCE3C_LCE3B- del. When the analysis was stratified for serologic data, we observed association in anti,cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP),positive patients (P = 0.012, OR 1.51 [95% CI 1.09,2.13]) but not in anti-CCP,negative patients. Conclusion We have identified an association between the LCE3C_LCE3B -del and RA, and we have verified a pleiotropic effect of a common genetic risk factor (LCE3C_LCE3B- del) for autoimmune diseases that is involved in both psoriasis and RA. [source]

A poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase haplotype spanning the promoter region confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis

M. Pascual
Objective To investigate the association of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) gene promoter polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) predisposition. Methods An association study with 213 Spanish RA patients and 242 healthy subjects was carried out to investigate the association of all known PARP-1 gene promoter polymorphisms, i.e., a CA microsatellite repeat, a poly(A)n, and 3 single point mutations (C410T, C1362T, and G1672A), with disease susceptibility. Additionally, we analyzed the distribution of PARP-1 polymorphisms in 58 Spanish families with 1 or more affected members. Results Upon complete genotyping of the panel of 455 samples, strong linkage disequilibrium was observed among the 5 PARP-1 polymorphisms. Only 2 PARP-1 haplotypes were detected: haplotype A (410T,[A]10,[CA]10,12,1362C, which includes short PARP-1 CA alleles) and haplotype B (410C,[A]11,[CA]13,20,1362T, always paired with long PARP-1 CA variants). Regarding the G1672A variation, although linkage disequilibrium was detected, it did not seem to be part of the conserved haplotypes described. Haplotype B was statistically overrepresented in the RA patient group compared with the healthy subjects (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.06,1.91, P = 0.019). In addition, a significant dose effect of PARP-1 haplotype carriage on disease predisposition was observed. Of note, within haplotype B, the PARP-1 CA 97-bp allele was found to be the RA-predisposing marker (odds ratio 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.27,3.72, P = 0.003, corrected P < 0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrate the existence of 2 unique PARP-1 haplotypes in the Spanish population and provide the first evidence that PARP-1 haplotypes play a role in susceptibility to RA. [source]

Testicular carcinoma and HLA Class II genes

CANCER, Issue 9 2002
Dirk J. A. Sonneveld M.D., Ph.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND The association with histocompatibility antigens (HLA), in particular Class II genes (DQB1, DRB1), has recently been suggested to be one of the genetic factors involved in testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) development. The current study, which uses genotyping of microsatellite markers, was designed to replicate previous associations. METHODS In 151 patients, along with controls comprising parents or spouses, the HLA region (particularly Class II) on chromosome 6p21 was genotyped for a set of 15 closely linked microsatellite markers. RESULTS In both patients and controls, strong linkage disequilibrium was observed in the genotyped region, indicating that similar haplotypes are likely to be identical by descent. However, association analysis and the transmission disequilibrium test did not show significant results. Haplotype sharing statistics, a haplotype method that derives extra information from phase and single marker tests, did not show differences in haplotype sharing between patients and controls. CONCLUSION The current genotyping study did not confirm the previously reported association between HLA Class II genes and TGCT. As the HLA alleles for which associations were reported are also prevalent in the Dutch populations, these associations are likely to be nonexistent or much weaker than previously reported. Cancer 2002;95:1857,63. 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10903 [source]