Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Strips

  • bladder strip
  • buffer strip
  • cavernosal strip
  • filter strip
  • forest strip
  • gaza strip
  • longitudinal muscle strip
  • longitudinal strip
  • metal strip
  • metallic strip
  • muscle strip
  • narrow strip
  • reagent strip
  • smooth muscle strip
  • test strip
  • ventricular strip
  • vertical strip

  • Selected Abstracts

    Carbohydrate intake, serum lipids and apolipoprotein E phenotype show association in children

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 10 2009
    Soile Ruottinen
    Abstract Aim:, To study the association between carbohydrate intake and serum lipids in children, and influence of apolipoprotein E phenotype (apoE) on the association. Subjects/methods:, A total of 644 children from a prospective, randomized atherosclerosis prevention trial (STRIP) participated in this longitudinal study at age 5 (n = 644), 7 (n = 585) and 9 (n = 550) years. ApoE phenotype, fasting triglyceride, total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and 4-day food records were analysed. Results:, An increase in the total carbohydrate intake by 1 E% (percentage of total daily energy intake) associated with a decrease in HDL cholesterol by 0.006 mmol/L (p < 0.001) when adjusted for saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid, age, gender, body mass index and STRIP study group. The inverse association between total carbohydrate intake and HDL cholesterol was evident in children with apoE3 (p < 0.001) or apoE4 (p < 0.001), but not in those with apoE2 (p = 0.78). An increase in total carbohydrate intake by 1 E% increased triglycerides by 0.02 mmol/L (p < 0.001) independently of apoE phenotype, while 1 E% increase in sucrose intake increased triglycerides by 0.01 mmol/L (p < 0.001). Conclusion:, Carbohydrate intake has a relatively small effect on serum lipids in children. Children with the apoE3 or E4 but not with E2 phenotype show reduction in HDL cholesterol with increasing carbohydrate intake indicating that genetic and environmental factors interact with children's lipoprotein metabolism. [source]


    K.J. Donly
    ABSTRACT Objective: This article reported the cumulative findings from three controlled, randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of tooth whitening in children and adolescents using disposable polyethylene strip systems. Materials and Methods: The study population included 132 children and adolescents, ages 10 to 18 years. (Please note that 71 of these subjects were identified in the previous review.) Fifty-three percent of the subjects were female and 47% were male, with a mean age of 14.4 years. Subjects were divided into experimental treatment groups by balancing groups with respect to demographic characteristics and baseline tooth colors. Subiects were treated with either 5.3% or 6.5% hydrogen peroxide gel polyethylene strips. All subjects had to have all permanent anterior teeth erupted, a baseline Vita shade (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) score of A2 or darker, and a desire that their teeth be whitened. One study included subjects who had previously received comprehensive orthodontic treatment. Digital images were collected for all subjects at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks. Oral examinations and interviews were conducted at each appointment to evaluate adverse events. Color change was calculated from the digital images in the same manner previously described. Results: The 5.3% and 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strips used for 30 minutes twice a day yielded significant tooth whitening (p < .0001) after 14 days. For the primary whitening parameter, ,b*, continued treatment during the 14- to 28-day period resulted in significant additional reduction in yellowness (p < .0001). Subjects treated with 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strips experienced significantly (p < .03) greater reduction in yellowness (approximately 0.8 ,b* units) compared with those who used the 5.3 hydrogen peroxide strips. The hydrogen peroxide strips were tolerated well in all of these studies, with minor tooth sensitivity and oral irritation being the primary complaints. Eighteen subjects (14%) reported oral irritation, whereas 30 subjects (23%) reported tooth sensitivity. All adverse events were relieved upon discontinuance of product use. Conclusion: The 5.3% and 6.5% hydrogen peroxide gel strips used for 30 minutes twice a day effectively whitened teeth, and both regimens were well tolerated. [source]


    Emmanuel A. Frimpong
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of cost effectiveness (CE) analysis of vegetative filter strips (VFS) and instream half-logs as tools for recovering scores on a fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) in the upper Wabash River watershed (UW) in Indiana. Three assumptions were made about recovery time for IBI scores (5,15, and 30 years) and social discount rates (1, 3, and 5 percent), which were tested for sensitivity of the estimated CE ratios. Effectiveness of VFS was estimated using fish IBIs and riparian forest cover from 49 first-order to fifth-order stream reaches. Half-log structures had been installed for approximately two years in the UW prior to the study and provided a basis for estimates of cost and maintenance. Cost effectiveness ratios for VFS decreased from $387 to $277 per 100 m for a 1 percent increase in IBI scores from first-to fifth-order streams with 3 percent discount and 30-year recovery. This cost weighted by proportion of stream orders was $360. The ratio decreased with decreasing time of recovery and discount rate. Based on installation costs and an assumption of equal recovery rates, half-logs were two-thirds to one-half as cost-effective as VFS. Half-logs would be a cost-effective supplement to VFS in low order streams if they can be proven to recover IBI scores faster than VFS do. This study provides baseline data and a framework for planning and determining the cost of stream restoration. [source]

    The Water Crisis in the Gaza Strip: Prospects for Resolution

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2005
    E. Weinthal
    Israel and the Palestinian Authority share the southern Mediterranean coastal aquifer. Long-term overexploitation in the Gaza Strip has resulted in a decreasing water table, accompanied by the degradation of its water quality. Due to high levels of salinity and nitrate and boron pollution, most of the ground water is inadequate for both domestic and agricultural consumption. The rapid rate of population growth in the Gaza Strip and dependence upon ground water as a single water source present a serious challenge for future political stability and economic development. Here, we integrate the results of geochemical studies and numerical modeling to postulate different management scenarios for joint management between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The chemical and isotopic data show that most of the salinity phenomena in the Gaza Strip are derived from the natural flow of saline ground water from Israel toward the Gaza Strip. As a result, the southern coastal aquifer does not resemble a classic "upstream-downstream" dispute because Israel's pumping of the saline ground water reduces the salinization rates of ground water in the Gaza Strip. Simulation of different pumping scenarios using a monolayer, hydrodynamic, two-dimensional model (MARTHE) confirms the hypothesis that increasing pumping along the Gaza Strip border combined with a moderate reduction of pumping within the Gaza Strip would improve ground water quality within the Gaza Strip. We find that pumping the saline ground water for a source of reverse-osmosis desalination and then supplying the desalinated water to the Gaza Strip should be an essential component of a future joint management strategy between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. [source]

    Protecting the Old in a Young Economy: Old Age Insurance in the West Bank and Gaza Strip

    Markus Loewe
    Taking the West Bank and Gaza Strip as a reference point, this paper looks at social protection in developing economies, which are beset by economic stagnation, widespread poverty and unemployment. If the main breadwinner dies, is unable to work or is an older person, these factors are prime causes of absolute poverty. This is hardly surprising, since private and public systems of social security are totally inadequate in this area in particular. Current thinking on social security suggests that what is needed is the rapid introduction of a comprehensive system of retirement provision, comprising a mandatory capital-funded insurance component, with defined contributions, administered on a decentralized basis; and a state-administered pay-as-you-go basic insurance component with lump-sum transfers to safeguard the poorest. A system of this kind works to prevent poverty in old age by redistributing funds from some individuals to others and ensuring an income for life, and it represents a compromise between a fair return on what people have contributed and a fair distribution over society as a whole. It is thus a major force for stability in society. [source]

    Another Nakba: Weapons Availability and the Transformation of the Palestinian National Struggle, 1987,2007

    Francesco Strazzari
    Violent clashes of June 2007 saw Hamas ousting Fatah from the Gaza Strip, thereby making patent the existence of a deep politico-military split within the Palestinian national movement. This article sheds light on the present face of the conflict in the Palestinian territories by adopting a historical-analytical perspective that emphasizes the role played by the availability of small arms and light weapons, as one of the many structural factors that underlie the transformation of the Palestinian struggle. Aware of the essentially contestable and reductionist nature of this endeavor, the authors examine the way in which the weapons acquisition process has changed in the time period from the beginning of the first Intifada in 1987 to the Gaza take-over by Hamas, 20 years later. In doing this, they extend the applicability of existing theories about the correspondence between access to weapons and the changing nature of insurgency, so to better understand a complex case where a national struggle has been spiralling into internecine violence and splintering, in what we may call "another Palestinian Nakba." [source]

    Elephants caught in the middle: impacts of war, fences and people on elephant distribution and abundance in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia

    Michael J. Chase
    Abstract We conducted wet [26 March,4 April 2003 (Apr03)] and dry [1,8 November 2005 (Nov05)] season aerial surveys of African elephants (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach) in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia to provide an updated status report on elephant numbers and distribution and assist with a historical analysis of elephant distribution and abundance in the Caprivi Strip. During the wet season when water was available in seasonal pans, elephants were widely distributed throughout the survey area. In contrast, during the dry season, a majority of elephant herds occurred within 30 km of the perennial Kwando, Linyanti and Okavango rivers and few herds occurred within the West Caprivi Game Reserve where water in the seasonal pans was limited. We estimated 5318 elephants for the 7731-km2 survey area (0.71 elephants km,2) for the Apr03 wet season survey and 6474 elephants for the 8597-km2 survey area (0.75 elephants km,2) for the Nov05 dry season survey. Based on our aerial surveys and reports of elephant numbers and distribution from historical aerial surveys and telemetry studies, civil war, veterinary fences and human activities appear to have effected changes in African elephant abundance, distribution and movements in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia since 1988 when the first comprehensive aerial surveys were conducted. Résumé En saison des pluies (avril 2003) et en saison sèche (novembre 2005), nous avons réalisé des contrôles aériens des éléphants africains (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach) dans la Bande de Caprivi, en Namibie, pour pouvoir fournir un rapport actualisé sur le statut du nombre et de la distribution des éléphants, et aider une analyse de longue durée de la distribution et de l'abondance des éléphants dans la Bande de Caprivi. Pendant la saison des pluies, lorsque l'eau était disponible dans les « pans » saisonniers, les éléphants étaient largement distribués dans toute la zone étudiée. Par contre, en saison sèche, la grande majorité des troupeaux d'éléphants se trouvaient dans les 30 km des rivières permanentes Kwando, Linyanti et Okavango, et peu de troupeaux se trouvaient dans la West Caprivi Game Reserve, où l'eau était limitée dans les pans saisonniers. Nous avons estimé le nombre d'éléphants à 5 318 dans les 7 731 km² de la zone étudiée (0,71 éléphant km,²) pour l'étude faite en saison des pluies d'avril 2003, et à 6 474 éléphants dans les 8 597 km²étudiés (0,75 éléphant km,²) pendant la saison sèche de novembre 2005. En se basant sur nos contrôles aériens et sur des rapports concernant le nombre et la distribution des éléphants provenant de contrôles aériens et d'études télémétriques anciens, il s'avère que la guerre civile, les barrières vétérinaires et les activités humaines ont provoqué des changements de l'abondance, de la distribution et des déplacements des éléphants dans la Bande de Caprivi depuis 1988, date où les premiers contrôles aériens complets ont été effectués. [source]

    Psychological consequences of forced evacuation on children: Risk and protective factors

    Michelle Slone
    Children's psychological distress and symptoms after forced evacuation from the Gaza Strip in Israel were studied. Fifty families living in temporary residences 2 weeks postevacuation were assessed for general political and evacuation life events exposure as risk factors and family support and hardiness as protective factors. The hypothesis predicting a positive correlation between forced evacuation events and political life events and symptom levels was confirmed. Perceived family support served as a significant predictor of symptomatology, but not family hardiness, substantiating parents' role in aiding children's coping. [source]

    A deep Chandra survey of the Groth Strip , I. The X-ray data

    K. Nandra
    ABSTRACT We present the results of a 200-ks Chandra observation of part of the Groth Strip region, using the ACIS-I instrument. We present a relatively simple method for the detection of point sources and calculation of limiting sensitivities, which we argue is at least as sensitive and more self-consistent than previous methods presented in the literature. A total of 158 distinct X-ray sources are included in our point-source catalogue in the ACIS-I area. The number counts show a relative dearth of X-ray sources in this region. For example, at a flux limit of 10,15 erg cm,2 s,1, around 20 per cent more soft-band sources are detected in the HDF-N and almost 50 per cent more in the ELAIS-N1 field, which we have analysed by the same method for comparison. We find, however, that these differences are consistent with Poisson variations at <2, significance, and therefore there is no evidence for cosmic variance based on these number counts alone. We determine the average spectra of the objects and find a marked difference between the soft-band-selected sources, which have ,= 1.9 typical of unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGN), and the hard-band-selected sources, which have ,= 1.0. Reassuringly, the sample as a whole has a mean spectrum of ,= 1.4 ± 0.1, the same as the X-ray background. None the less, our results imply that the fraction of sources with significant obscuration is only ,25 per cent, much less than predicted by standard AGN population synthesis models. This is confirmed by direct spectral fitting, with only a handful of objects showing evidence for absorption. After accounting for absorption, all objects are consistent with a mean intrinsic spectrum of ,= 1.76 ± 0.08, very similar to local Seyfert galaxies. The survey area is distinguished by having outstanding multiwaveband coverage. Comparison with these observations and detailed discussion of the X-ray source properties will be presented in future papers. [source]

    The Internal Israeli Conflict: The Past, Present, and Future of the Jewish West Bank and Gaza Settlements

    Robert Mnookin
    On October 14 and 15, 2004, just days before the Israeli government submitted to the Knesset a draft legislation to authorize the evacuation of Jewish settlers from Gaza Strip and some settlements on the West Bank, a two-day conference titled "Past, Present, and Future of the Jewish West Bank and Gaza Settlements: The Internal Israeli Conflict" was held at Harvard Law School. The conference was sponsored by the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, the Saltman Center for Conflict Resolution of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and the United States Institute of Peace. This interdisciplinary conference's six panels, whose proceedings are summarized in the series of articles that follow, explored the religious, ideological, psychological, political, legal, and international dimensions of the conflict. Presenters included former and current Israeli and American government officials, experts on resettlement policies and compensation mechanisms, and scholars from a variety of disciplines. While presentation topics covered a range of issues relating to the settlements, three broad themes arose from the conference. First, participants agreed that it is important, if not fundamental, to understand the perspectives of the national religious settlers who are the driving force behind the settlement movement. Exploring the settlers' diverse interests, fears, and identities is necessary in order to see why relocation is so threatening to them. The Israeli government can lessen opposition to withdrawal by showing the settlers empathy and reassurance, but only if government officials first achieve a true understanding of the settlers' concerns. Participants also argued that a reframing of the relocation in ideological terms could be another critical component of a solution to this problem. It may be necessary for the leaders of the settlement movement to develop a new narrative or modify the existing one in order to legitimize their relocation. Part of this narrative will involve the concept of "a greater good", the government must reassure the settlers that their sacrifice is for a higher cause. Several participants noted that Israel needs to show the settlers "tough love." When the relocations begin, many expect that there will be violence and that disturbing images will be broadcast throughout Israel and around the world. Internal disruption could put the government led by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and his Likud party coalition in jeopardy. The government must not waver in the face of this crisis, conference participants argued. In fact, the threat of violent and disruptive resistance by settlers and their allies can be part of the solution, not just the problem. The government and relocation supporters can use this extremism to justify decisive measures and to redefine the problem for the broader population to convince them that the stability of the country is at stake. Another major conclusion of conference participants was that, while the Israeli settlement issue has unique features, there is much to be learned from comparative analysis. Other countries have dealt with settlement situations, and their experiences offer invaluable lessons. In particular, participants contrasted Israel's settlements in Gaza and the West Bank with French settlements in Algeria and English settlements in Ireland. Some pointed to the French withdrawal from Algeria, which was politically painful but ultimately successful, as an example of "tough love" that Israel should follow. Finally, the involvement of third parties to help solve this conflict is indispensable. Participants noted that while much of Israel feels alienated from the European Union and the United Nations, the Israeli government is highly sensitive to the concerns of the United States, as evidenced by Sharon's decision to show the Gaza withdrawal plan to the U.S. government before he had even raised it with his cabinet and the Israeli parliament, the Knesset. International participation could help legitimize withdrawal and reduce Israeli responsibility for Gaza's future. Third parties can apply political pressure to encourage an accountable and responsible Palestinian leadership. They may also be called upon to provide some sort of financial aid. The participants acknowledged the complexity of the settlement problem and recognized that easy solutions do not exist. Yet, if the Israeli government works toward understanding the settlers' perspectives, learns from comparative analysis, and involves third parties appropriately, the likelihood of a successful outcome increases greatly. [source]

    Consanguinity and reproductive wastage in the Palestinian Territories

    Shireen Assaf
    Summary Many studies have found that consanguinity poses a threat to child mortality and health and can also pose a threat to offspring survival before birth. However, there are conflicting findings with some studies having found no increased risk on offspring survival associated with consanguinity. Data from a population-based survey conducted in 2004 in the Palestinian Territories was used to assess the risk of consanguinity on offspring survival. The analysis was conducted on 4418 women aged 15,49 who were asked whether or not they had experienced a stillbirth or a spontaneous abortion. These two outcomes were combined together for the analysis of reproductive wastage. Multivariable negative binomial regression was conducted to calculate the incidence risk ratios (IRR) for each region in the Palestinian Territories separately. The strongest risk factors for reproductive wastage, after controlling for other variables, were found to be consanguinity, age and parity with age presenting the highest IRRs. Standard of living, locality type, education level, women's employment and past intrauterine device use were not found to be significant risk factors for reproductive wastage. In the West Bank only first cousin level of consanguinity was found to be significant and ,hamola' level (or from same family clan) lost its significance after adjusting for other variables. In the Gaza Strip both the first cousin and ,hamola' levels of consanguinity were significant and presented almost equal IRRs of 1.3. In conclusion, consanguinity was found to be a significant risk factor for reproductive wastage. [source]

    Prospective community-based cluster census and case-control study of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in the West Bank and Gaza Strip

    Henry D. Kalter
    Summary Obstetric complications and newborn illnesses amenable to basic medical interventions underlie most perinatal deaths. Yet, despite good access to maternal and newborn care in many transitional countries, perinatal mortality is often not monitored in these settings. The present study identified risk factors for perinatal death and the level and causes of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Baseline and follow-up censuses with prospective monitoring of pregnant women and newborns from September 2001 to August 2002 were conducted in 83 randomly selected clusters of 300 households each. A total of 113 of 116 married women 15,49 years old with a stillbirth or neonatal death and 813 randomly selected women with a surviving neonate were interviewed, and obstetric and newborn care records of women with a stillbirth or neonatal death were abstracted. The perinatal and neonatal mortality rates, respectively, were 21.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 16.5, 25.9] and 14.7 [95% CI 10.2, 19.2] per 1000 livebirths. The most common cause (27%) of 96 perinatal deaths was asphyxia alone (21) or with neonatal sepsis (5), while 18/49 (37%) early and 9/19 (47%) late neonatal deaths were from respiratory distress syndrome (12) or sepsis (9) alone or together (6). Constraint in care seeking, mainly by an Israeli checkpoint, occurred in 8% and 10%, respectively, of 112 pregnancies and labours and 31% of 16 neonates prior to perinatal or late neonatal death. Poor quality care for a complication associated with the death was identified among 40% and 20%, respectively, of 112 pregnancies and labour/deliveries and 43% of 68 neonates. (Correction added after online publication 5 June 2008: The denominators 112 pregnancies, labours, and labour/deliveries, and 16 and 68 neonates were included; and 9% of labours was corrected to 10%.) Risk factors for perinatal death as assessed by multivariable logistic regression included preterm delivery (odds ratio [OR] = 11.9, [95% CI 6.7, 21.2]), antepartum haemorrhage (OR = 5.6, [95% CI 1.5, 20.9]), any severe pregnancy complication (OR = 3.4, [95% CI 1.8, 6.6]), term delivery in a government hospital and having a labour and delivery complication (OR = 3.8, [95% CI 1.2, 12.0]), more than one delivery complication (OR = 4.4, [95% CI 1.8, 10.5]), mother's age >35 years (OR = 2.9, [95% CI 1.3, 6.8]) and primiparity in a full-term pregnancy (OR = 2.6, [1.1, 6.3]). Stillbirths are not officially reportable in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and this is the first time that perinatal mortality has been examined. Interventions to lower stillbirths and neonatal deaths should focus on improving the quality of medical care for important obstetric complications and newborn illnesses. Other transitional countries can draw lessons for their health care systems from these findings. [source]

    Utility of a Peritoneal Dialysis Leukocyte Test Strip in the Diagnosis of Peritonitis

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 6 2002
    Ramin Sam
    Abstract: Expeditious diagnosis of peritonitis remains a significant goal in the management of patients maintained on peritoneal dialysis. Several attempts to use leukocyte esterase reagent strips to diagnose peritonitis have been described. In this study we examined the usefulness of a new reagent strip, the PeriScreen Test Strip, in the diagnosis of peritonitis. A series of 72 peritoneal effluent samples obtained from 22 maintenance peritoneal dialysis patients is reported. In this study, the test strips had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.3% as compared to an abnormal leukocyte count. Thus, in the diagnosis of peritonitis we believe that the PeriScreen Test Strip can be used as a simple bedside screening test to exclude peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients. [source]

    Lack of Effect of Conduction Direction on Action Potential Durations in Anisotropic Ventricular Strips of Pig Heart

    Anisotropy and Repolarization.Introduction: The influence of activation sequence on the rate of rise of the depolarization phase of action potentials in atrial or ventricular muscles has been well established. However, whether myocardial fiber orientation is important in modulating the repolarization process is unclear. Methods and Results: We examined the influence of activation sequence on the repolarization phase of action potentials in epicardial tissues from the right and left ventricles of domestic pigs. Whereas cells from the right ventricle exhibited direction-dependent differences in action potential duration at 30%, 50%, and 90% of full repolarization (190.6 ± 31.1 msec vs 181.8 ± 32.8 msec, 240.3 ± 23.5 msec vs 236.7 ± 25.4 msec, and 291.3 ± 23.7 msec vs 287.4 ± 25.1 msec for longitudinal and transverse propagation, respectively; P < 0.001), a similar duration of repolarization during both directions of propagation was observed in cells from the left ventricle at 50% and 90% of full repolarization (241.4 ± 39.4 msec and 285.5 ± 39.5 msec vs 240.4 ± 38.9 msec and 284.9 ± 39.6 msec for longitudinal and transverse propagation respectively; P = NS). A slight but significant difference was found at 30% of full repolarization in cells from the left ventricle (190.4 ± 39.0 msec vs 187.0 ± 38.0 msec for longitudinal and transverse propagation, respectively; P < 0.05). In the left ventricle, the duration of repolarization did not change as the distance between the recording site and stimulation site increased. Conclusion: The direction of wavefront propagation with respect to fiber orientation may not play an important role in modulating the duration of repolarization in epicardial cells from the left ventricle. [source]

    Whey Protein Solution Coating for Fat-Uptake Reduction in Deep-Fried Chicken Breast Strips

    Ann M. Dragich
    ABSTRACT:, This study investigated the use of whey protein, as an additional coating, in combination with basic, well-described predust, batter, and breading ingredients, for fat-uptake reduction in fried chicken. Chicken breasts were cut into strips (1 × 5 × 10 cm) and coated with wheat flour (WF) as a predust, dipped in batter, coated with WF as a breading, then dipped in 10% denatured whey protein isolate (DWPI) aqueous solution (wet basis). A WF-batter-WF treatment with no DWPI solution dip was included as a control. Coated chicken strips were deep-fried at 160 °C for 5 min. A Soxhlet-type extraction was performed to determine the fat content of the meat fraction of fried samples, the coating fraction of fried samples, raw chicken, and raw coating ingredients. The WF-batter-WF-10% DWPI solution had significantly lower fat uptake than the WF-batter-WF control, by 30.67% (dry basis). Practical Application: This article describes applied research involving fat reduction in coated deep-fried chicken. The methods used in this article were intended to achieve maximized fat reduction while maintaining a simple procedure applicable to actual food processing lines. [source]

    Review of Pesticide Retention Processes Occurring in Buffer Strips Receiving Agricultural Runoff,

    Kapil Arora
    Arora, Kapil, Steven K. Mickelson, Matthew J. Helmers, and James L. Baker, 2010. Review of Pesticide Retention Processes Occurring in Buffer Strips Receiving Agricultural Runoff. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 46(3):618-647. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00438.x Abstract:, Review of the published results shows that the retention of the two pesticide carrier phases (runoff volume and sediment mass) influences pesticide mass transport through buffer strips. Data averaged across different studies showed that the buffer strips retained 45% of runoff volume (ranging between 0 and 100%) and 76% of sediment mass (ranging between 2 and 100%). Sorption (soil sorption coefficient, Koc) is one key pesticide property affecting its transport with the two carrier phases through buffer strips. Data from different studies for pesticide mass retention for weakly (Koc < 100), moderately (100 < Koc < 1,000), and strongly sorbed pesticides (Koc > 1,000) averaged (with ranges) 61 (0-100), 63 (0-100), and 76 (53-100) %, respectively. Because there are more data for runoff volume and sediment mass retention, the average retentions of both carrier phases were used to calculate that the buffer strips would retain 45% of weakly to moderately sorbed and 70% of strongly sorbed pesticides on an average basis. As pesticide mass retention presented is only an average across several studies with different experimental setups, the application of these results to actual field conditions should be carefully examined. [source]

    Muscle fiber properties and thermal stability of intramuscular connective tissue in porcine M. semimembranosus

    Liisa Voutila
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Strips can be easily peeled from raw destructured pork (M. semimembranosus, SM muscle) by hand but in normal meat these strips break. In general, destructured meat is pale in color. Porcine SM muscles have thick muscle fibers which could predispose them to destructuration. This study investigated whether the onset and peak temperatures of thermal shrinkage (To and Tp) of intramuscular connective tissue from SM muscles were associated with muscle fiber thickness, capillary density or extracellular space. We also investigated whether these muscle fiber properties of destructured muscles differed from those of normal muscles. RESULTS: The destructured and normal muscles were similar in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, capillary density, extracellular space and sarcomere length. To correlated negatively with sarcomere length. The water content of differential scanning calorimetry samples consisting of intramuscular connective tissue was higher in destructured muscles than in normal muscles. CONCLUSION: Muscle fiber properties (muscle fiber cross-sectional area and sarcomere length) and capillary density are similar in destructured and normal SM muscles. To and Tp of intramuscular connective tissue are similar in destructured and normal muscles. Muscle fiber properties show no association with the thermal shrinkage properties of intramuscular connective tissue. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Ionic polymer-metal composites as multifunctional materials

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 1 2003
    Mohsen Shahinpoor
    This paper presents a description and a set of experimental results on Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMC's) as dynamic sensors, transducers, and actuators. Strips of IPMC can exhibit large dynamic deformation if placed in a time-varying electric field of the order of 10's of volts/mm. Conversely, dynamic deformation and flexing of such ionic polymers produces dynamic electric fields that closely follow the form of the electric signal. The underlying principle of such a mechanoelectric effect in IPMC's can be explained by the linear irreversible thermodynamics in which ion and solvent transport are the fluxes and electric field and solvent pressure gradient are the forces. Important parameters include the material conductance and the solvent permeability. The dynamic sensing, transduction, and actuation responses of a strip of IPMC under an impact-type loading is also discussed. When a cantilever strip of IPMC is flipped, a damped oscillatory electric response is produced across a pair of electrodes placed at the cantilever of the strip, which is highly repeatable with a broad frequency range above 104 Hz. Such direct mechanoelectric responses of IMPC's are related to the endo-ionic mobility due to stresses imposed. Imposition of a finite solvent flux without allowing a current flux causes the material to create a certain conjugate electric field that can be dynamically monitored and measured. IPMC's are shown to be highly capacitive at low frequencies while they are highly resistive under high frequency excitations. IN a sending mode, IPMC strips can also sense chemical environments and humidity. These types of sensors/transducers/actuators conceivably can replace piezoresistive and piezoelectric sensors with just one sensor for broad ranges of frequencies. [source]

    The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on the Relaxation Response in Isolated Rabbit Vaginal Tissue and Its Mechanism

    Sun-Ouck Kim MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Ginseng is an herbal medicine with a variety of biological activities. Aim., The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract on the relaxation response in isolated rabbit vaginal tissue and its mechanism as a potential therapeutic agent for female sexual dysfunction. Method., Strips of rabbit vagina were mounted in organ chambers to measure isometric tension. After the strips were precontracted with phenylephrine, the contractile responses to KRG extract (1,20 mg/mL), nitric oxide inhibitor (N[omega]-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME]), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (methylene blue), an inhibitor of Ca2+ -activated K+ channels (tetraethylammonium [TEA]), and an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel blocker (glybenclamide) were examined. Main Outcome Measures., The relaxation of the vaginal tissue strip was assessed after treating KRG extract or other chemicals. Results., KRG (1,20 mg/mL) extract relaxed the vaginal tissue strip in a dose-dependent manner up to 85%. The relaxation effect was significantly inhibited by L-NAME (30 µM) and methylene blue (30 µM) (P < 0.05). In addition, KRG inhibited the contraction induced by depolarization with 10, 20, and 40 mM KCl. The KRG-induced relaxation effect was significantly inhibited by TEA (300 µM) (P < 0.05), and not by glybenclamide (30 µM). Conclusions., These data show that KRG extract has a relaxing effect on rabbit vaginal smooth muscle tissue. These effects might be mediated partly through the NO pathway and hyperpolarization via Ca2+ -activated K+ channels. Kim S-O, Kim MK, Lee H-S, Park JK, and Park K. The effect of Korean red ginseng extract on the relaxation response in isolated rabbit vaginal tissue and its mechanism. J Sex Med 2008;5:2079,2084. [source]

    Investigating the Effects of High-Dose Phenylephrine in the Management of Prolonged Ischaemic Priapism

    Asif Muneer BSc(Hons), FRCS(Urol)
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Acute priapism can be managed by corporal blood aspirations and the instillation of , adrenergic agonists such as phenylephrine if patients present early. Following prolonged ischaemic priapism, this regimen is often unsuccessful, and the use of phenylephrine is limited due to systemic cardiovascular side effects. Aim., To investigate the effects of high-dose phenylephrine on human corpus cavernosal smooth muscle obtained from patients presenting with refractory ischaemic priapism. Methods., Strips of corpus cavernosum were obtained from six patients presenting with prolonged ischaemic priapism (duration 60,240 hours), where detumescence was refractory to conventional doses of phenylephrine. The smooth muscle contractile response to high doses of phenylephrine were then compared with that of normal control corpus cavernosum obtained from four patients undergoing a penectomy for penile cancer. The tissue was then analyzed using TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) to assess its viability. Main Outcome Measures., The in vitro response to high-dose phenylephrine of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle obtained from patients with refractory priapism compared with normal human corpus cavernosum. Results., Corporal blood gas analysis confirmed hypoxia (pO2 1.5,2.3 kPa), acidosis (pH 6.9,7.1), and glucopenia (0,0.3 mmol/L) in all six patients confirming the ischaemic nature of the priapism. Application of high doses of phenylephrine produced a marked muscle contraction in the control tissue, but there was no contractile response at all in any of the priapism patients. Analysis with TUNEL indicated widespread smooth muscle cell apoptosis in all the priapism tissue. Conclusions., This study has shown that patients with ischaemic priapism that fails to respond to conventional doses of an ,-agonist are unlikely to benefit from continual or high-dose phenylephrine administration, as there is usually widespread apoptosis of the cavernosal smooth muscle preventing further contraction. Muneer A, Minhas S, Freeman A, Kumar P, and Ralph DJ. Investigating the effects of high-dose phenylephrine in the management of prolonged ischaemic priapism. J Sex Med 2008;5:2152,2159. [source]

    Automatic Extraction of ECG Strips from Continuous 12-lead Holter Recordings for QT Analysis at Prescheduled versus Optimized Time Points

    Fabio Badilini Ph.D.
    Background: Continuous 12-lead ECG monitoring (Holter) in early-phase pharmaceutical studies is today widely used as an ideal platform to extract discrete ECGs for analysis. The extraction process is typically performed manually by trained readers using commercial Holter processing systems. Methods: Antares, a novel method for automatic 12-lead extraction from continuous Holter recordings applying minimal noise criteria and heart-rate stability conditions is presented. A set of 12-lead Holter recordings from healthy subjects administered with sotalol is used to compare ECG extractions at fixed time points with ECG extractions generated by Antares optimizing noise and heart rate inside 5 minute windows centered around each expected time point of interest. Results: Global, low- and high-frequency noise content of extracted ECGs was significantly reduced via optimized approach by Antares. Heart rate was also slightly reduced (from 69 ± 13 to 64 ± 13 bpm, P < 0.05). Similarly, the corrected QT interval from optimized extractions was significantly reduced (QTcB from 414 ± 32 to 402 ± 30 ms, P < 0.05). Using only baseline data, and after adjusting for intersubject variability, the standard deviation (SD) of QT intervals was highly reduced with optimized extraction (SD of QTcF from 11 ± 8 to 7 ± 2 ms, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Extraction of discrete 12-lead ECG strips from continuous Holter generates less noisy and more stable ECGs leading to more robust QTc data, thereby potentially facilitating the assessment of ECG effects on clinical trials. [source]

    Fertilizers, Pills, and Magnetic Strips: The Fate of Public Education in America , By Gene V. Glass

    Alex Posecznick
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Peroxide Penetration Into The Pulp From Whitening Strips

    Article first published online: 11 FEB 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Effects of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission on motor patterns of human sigmoid colon in vitro

    M Aulí
    Background and purpose: To characterize the in vitro motor patterns and the neurotransmitters released by enteric motor neurons (EMNs) in the human sigmoid colon. Experimental approach: Sigmoid circular strips were studied in organ baths. EMNs were stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and through nicotinic ACh receptors. Key results: Strips developed weak spontaneous rhythmic contractions (3.67±0.49 g, 2.54±0.15 min) unaffected by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 ,M). EFS induced strong contractions during (on, 56%) or after electrical stimulus (off, 44%), both abolished by TTX. Nicotine (1,100 ,M) inhibited spontaneous contractions. Latency of off-contractions and nicotine responses were reduced by NG -nitro- L -arginine (1 mM) and blocked after further addition of apamin (1 ,M) or the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 ,M) and were unaffected by the P2X antagonist NF279 (10 ,M) or ,-chymotrypsin (10 U mL,1). Amplitude of on- and off-contractions was reduced by atropine (1 ,M) and the selective NK2 receptor antagonist Bz-Ala-Ala-D-Trp-Phe-D-Pro-Pro-Nle-NH2 (1 ,M). MRS 2179 reduced the amplitude of EFS on- and off-contractions without altering direct muscular contractions induced by ACh (1 nM,1 mM) or substance P (1 nM,10 ,M). Conclusions and implications: Latency of EFS-induced off-contractions and inhibition of spontaneous motility by nicotine are caused by stimulation of inhibitory EMNs coreleasing NO and a purine acting at muscular P2Y1 receptors through apamin-sensitive K+ channels. EFS-induced on- and off-contractions are caused by stimulation of excitatory EMNs coreleasing ACh and tachykinins acting on muscular muscarinic and NK2 receptors. Prejunctional P2Y1 receptors might modulate the activity of excitatory EMNs. P2Y1 and NK2 receptors might be therapeutic targets for colonic motor disorders. British Journal of Pharmacology (2008) 155, 1043,1055; doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.332; published online 1 September 2008 [source]

    Lateral Wedge Resection: A Simple Technique for Repairing Involutional Lower Eyelid Entropion

    BACKGROUND Lower lid involutional entropion is a common eyelid pathology affecting the elderly population. Most of the reported surgical techniques are mainly based on a lateral tarsal strip anchored to the orbital rim. OBJECTIVES To report the surgical outcome using a simple single-stitch lateral wedge technique to repair involutional lower entropion. METHODS This single-surgeon, retrospective, noncomparative cases series included all patients with involutional lower eyelid entropion who were operated on using the lateral wedge technique. RESULTS Fifty-eight eyelids of 52 patients (46 unilateral, 6 bilateral; 27 men, 25 women; age, mean 67±10; range 50,85) underwent surgical repair. Immediate resolution of entropion and associated ocular symptoms was achieved in 55 eyelids (94.9%). One case had postoperative ectropion that completely resolved spontaneously after 4 weeks, and one had wound dehiscence that healed completely without any intervention. Another patient had residual entropion that resolved after an additional surgical repair. No other cases of recurrence were noted during a mean follow-up period of 16 months (range 6,24 months). CONCLUSION This minimally invasive single-stitch lateral wedge technique is a simple and effective procedure for repairing involutional lower eyelid entropion and is associated with low recurrence and complication rates. Igal Leibovitch, MD, has indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

    The Art of Mixing Follicular Units and Follicular Groupings in Hair Restoration Surgery

    Dominic A. Brandy MD
    Background. Follicular grafting yields good results, but takes an excessively long time to perform the procedure. Iatrogenic damage can also occur to the follicular units during the dissection phase when two follicular units are very close together. Objective. The objective was to minimize the length of time to perform the procedure and to limit iatrogenic damage to the follicular units during the dissection phase. Methods. A donor strip is divided under a stereoscopic microscope into one-, two-, three-, and four-haired follicular units and three- and four-haired follicular groupings. Three- and four-haired follicular groupings are formed when 2 two-haired follicular units or a three-haired follicular unit and one-haired follicular unit are very close together. These hair grafts are then inserted into incisions that are 1.0 to 2.5 mm in length and are arranged in accordance to the particular hairstyle desired by the patient. Results. The technique used in this article accomplishes consistently excellent results while creating an environment that prevents damage to follicular units that are extremely close together. This technique requires less time and damages fewer follicular units. Conclusions. When performing hair restoration surgery, it is many times counterproductive to use follicular units exclusively. [source]

    Differential diagnostic features of small cell carcinoma in the uterine cervix

    Min Jung Kim M.D.
    Abstract Small cell carcinoma (SMCC) of the uterine cervix is rare and known to be an aggressive tumor, but there are only few reports on the cytologic features of cervical SMCC. This rare small cell lesion should be distinguished from malignant lymphoma (ML), squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCIS), and chronic lymphocytic cervicitis (CLC). By clarifying cytologic features and reevaluating the significance of cervical cytologic smears to reveal these cervical lesions, we can improve the diagnostic specificity and patient's outcome. The clinical record and available cervical smears from 13 cases of SMCC, four cases of malignant lymphoma, 20 cases of SCIS, and five cases of CLC were analyzed. The cytologic differential diagnostic points of SMCC were nuclear molding and smearing (100%), salt and pepper chromatin (100%), exudative and necrotic background (91.7%), various architectures including individual cells (83.3%), tight clusters (75%) and feathering and strip (50%), and inconspicuous nucleoli (75%). Early diagnosis of the cervical SMCC by cytology and treatment is important for better outcome of patients. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2008;36:618,623. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Numerical evaluation of the damping-solvent extraction method in the frequency domain

    Ushnish Basu
    Abstract The damping-solvent extraction method for the analysis of unbounded visco-elastic media is evaluated numerically in the frequency domain in order to investigate the influence of the computational parameters,domain size, amount of artificial damping, and mesh density,on the accuracy of results. An analytical estimate of this influence is presented, and specific questions regarding the influence of the parameters on the results are answered using the analytical estimate and numerical results for two classical problems: the rigid strip and rigid disc footings on a visco-elastic half-space with constant hysteretic material damping. As the domain size is increased, the results become more accurate only at lower frequencies, but are essentially unaffected at higher frequencies. Choosing the domain size to ensure that the static stiffness is computed accurately leads to an unnecessarily large domain for analysis at higher frequencies. The results improve by increasing artificial damping but at a slower rate as the total (material plus artificial) damping ratio ,t gets closer to 0.866. However, the results do not deteriorate significantly for the larger amounts of artificial damping, suggesting that ,t,0.6 is appropriate; a larger value is not likely to influence the accuracy of results. Presented results do not support the earlier suggestion that similar accuracy can be achieved by a large bounded domain with small damping or by a small domain with larger damping. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effects of experimental small-scale grassland fragmentation on spatial distribution, density, and persistence of ant nests

    Brigitte Braschler
    Abstract., 1.,Grassland fragmentation is expected to influence the abundance of different invertebrate species to a different extent. Fragmentation-related effects are of particular importance in species that interact with many other species. 2.,The density and spatial distribution of nests of 15 ant species in experimentally fragmented calcareous grasslands at three sites in the Northern Swiss Jura mountains were examined. Fragments of different size (0.25 m2, 2.25 m2, and 20.25 m2) were isolated by a 5-m wide strip of frequently mown vegetation. Control plots of corresponding size were situated in adjacent undisturbed grassland. 3.,Three years after initiation of the experiment, ant nest density did not differ between fragments and control plots. Six years after initiation of the experiment, however, ant nest density and forager abundance were higher in large fragments than in large control plots. Ant nests tended to occur more frequently along the edge of fragments than in the core area. Persistence time of nests of the most abundant species, Lasius paralienus, tended to be shorter in fragments than in control plots. Furthermore, persistence time was longer in nests situated close to the fragment edge than in nests in the core area. 4.,Effects on nest density, edge effects on the spatial distribution of nests, and the relationships between nest density and environmental factors were more pronounced when only nests of L. paralienus were considered. The implications of these findings for plant and other invertebrate species are discussed. [source]

    Development of a Rapid Single-Drop Analysis Biosensor for Screening of Phenanthrene in Water Samples

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 20 2004

    Abstract Detection techniques for biosensors often require bulky instruments or cells that are not feasible for in-field analysis. Our single-drop cell design, optimized in this work, comprised a screen-printed three-electrode (SPE), strip in horizontal position onto which a volume of 100,,L of sample or substrate solution was placed to ensure electrical contact (complete circuit). Together with optimized linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), parameters for the detection of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP), the system was applied to a biosensor for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in environmental samples. A limit of detection (LOD), of 0.15,ppb was achieved for a model system with an IC50 value of 0.885 ppb and a linear range (LR), of 0.2,10,ppb. Application of the single drop analysis (SDA), format to a PAH biosensor gave a LOD of 1.4,ppb for detection of phenanthrene with an IC50 value of 29.3,ppb and linear range of 2,100,ppb. Proof of concept is shown with spiked sample analysis of phenanthrene in matrices such as sea, river and tap water. [source]