Stress Disorder (stress + disorder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Stress Disorder

  • chronic posttraumatic stress disorder
  • post traumatic stress disorder
  • post-traumatic stress disorder
  • posttraumatic stress disorder
  • traumatic stress disorder

  • Terms modified by Stress Disorder

  • stress disorder scale
  • stress disorder symptom

  • Selected Abstracts

    Prevalence and relationship to delusions and hallucinations of anxiety disorders in schizophrenia

    F.R.C.P.C., Philip Tibbo M.D.
    Abstract We investigated the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a sample of individuals with chronic schizophrenia, controlling for anxiety symptoms that may be related to delusions and hallucinations, and the possible differences in clinical variables between the groups. Individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and able to give informed consent were recruited from the community. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered to both confirm the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and screen for comorbid anxiety disorders. If a comorbid anxiety disorder was found, its relation to the individual's delusions and hallucinations was examined. Clinical rating scales for schizophrenia were administered as well as rating scales for specific anxiety disorders where appropriate. Overall, anxiety disorders ranged from 0% [ for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)] to 26.7% [ for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and agoraphobia without panic] with lower rates when controlled for anxiety symptoms related to delusions and hallucinations. In investigating clinical variables, the cohort was initially divided into schizophrenics with no anxiety disorders and those with an anxiety disorder; with further analyses including schizophrenics with anxiety disorders related to delusions and hallucinations and those with anxiety disorders not related to delusions and hallucinations. The most consistent difference between all the groups was on the PANSS-G subscale. No significant differences were found on the remaining clinical variables. Comorbid anxiety disorders in schizophrenia can be related to the individual's delusions and hallucinations, though anxiety disorders can occur exclusive of these positive symptoms. Clinicians must be aware that this comorbidity exists in order to optimize an individual's treatment. Depression and Anxiety 17:65,72, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Surviving a Distant Past: A Case Study of the Cultural Construction of Trauma Descendant Identity

    ETHOS, Issue 4 2003
    Carol A. Kidron
    Despite the abundance of psychological studies on trauma related ills of descendants of historical trauma, and the extensive scholarly work describing the memory politics of silenced traumatic pasts, there has yet to emerge a critical analysis of the constitutive practices of descendants of historical trauma. This article presents an ethnographic account of a support group for descendants of Holocaust survivors, proposing that the discursive frame of intergenerational transmission of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and support group based narrative practices allow descendants to fashion their sense of self as survivors of the distant traumatic past. The discursive frame of transmitted PTSD acts as both a mnemonic bridge to the past and a mechanism of identity making, as participants narratively reemplot their life stories as having been personally constituted by the distant past A close ethnographic reading of on-site discursive practices points to how culture ferments to produce narratives, practices and ultimately carriers of memory to both sustain and revitalize historical grand narratives and the cultural scenarios they embed. [source]

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Migraine: Further Comments

    HEADACHE, Issue 5 2009
    B. Lee Peterlin DO
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Pharmacotherapy to Blunt Memories of Sexual Violence: What's a Feminist to Think?

    HYPATIA, Issue 3 2010
    It has recently been discovered that propranolol,a beta-blocker traditionally used to treat cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension,might disrupt the formation of the emotionally disturbing memories that typically occur in the wake of traumatic events and consequently prevent the onset of trauma-induced psychological injuries such as Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. One context in which the use of propranolol is generating interest in both the popular and scientific press is sexual violence. Nevertheless, feminists have so far not weighed in on propranolol. I suggest that the time is ripe for a careful feminist analysis of the moral and political implications of propranolol use in the context of sexual violence. In this paper, I map the feminist issues potentially raised by providing propranolol to victims of sexual assault, focusing in particular on the compatibility of propranolol use and availability with an understanding of the social and systematic dimensions of rape's harms. I do not deliver a final verdict on propranolol; in fact, I show that we do not yet have enough information about propranolol's effects to do so. Rather, I provide a feminist framework for evaluating the possibilities and perils opened up by therapeutic memory manipulation in the context of sexual violence against women. [source]

    Presentations and management of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and the elderly: a need for investigation

    Walter Busuttil
    Abstract Background With an aging population increasing presentations of cases of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can be expected to old age services. While progress has been made in recent years in relation to the understanding and development of aetiological theories, classification, assessment and management strategies and protocols in the adult population, similar advances have lagged behind for the elderly. Aims To review the adult literature regarding PTSD and discuss how this might apply to an elderly population. An attempt is made to highlight a better awareness of the field of psychological trauma in the elderly in the hope of stimulating debate and research. Method A review of the adult literature is conducted relating to classification, aetiology, demographic features, vulnerability, assessment, clinical management including psychotherapy and medications and how these may apply to the elderly. Results Little has been published in this field that directly relates to the elderly. The adult literature allows insight into understanding how PTSD may present in the elderly, and how they may be managed. Conclusions Further specific research is needed in the elderly in order to facilitate a better understanding of PTSD that present in this unique population. This will lead to better clinical assessment, management and treatment provision. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents With Motor Vehicle,Related Injuries

    Kathleen A. Zink MSN
    ISSUES AND PURPOSE Motor vehicle crashes account for the greatest number of childhood injuries, but there has been little study of the psychological responses. DESIGN AND METHODS This longitudinal, descriptive study included 143 children 7 to 15 years of age who experienced a motor vehicle,related injury. Parents/guardians completed the Child Behavior Checklist Behavioral Problem Scale. Each child and parent completed the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) section of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents at 2 and 6 months postinjury. RESULTS Twenty-two percent of the children met criteria for PTSD. There were no associations for presence or absence of PTSD with age, gender, race, injury, or cause of injury. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Children who are injured in motor vehicle crashes are at risk for PTSD. Anticipatory guidance about behavioral distress symptoms should be provided to parents of children who experience motor vehicle related injuries. [source]

    Greater Prevalence and Incidence of Dementia in Older Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    [See editorial comments by Dr. Soo Borson, pp 1797-1798]
    OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dementia in older veterans. DESIGN: Administrative database study of individuals seen within one regional division of the Veterans Affairs healthcare network. SETTING: Veterans Integrated Service Network 16. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans aged 65 and older who had a diagnosis of PTSD or who were recipients of a Purple Heart (PH) and a comparison group of the same age with no PTSD diagnosis or PH were divided into four groups: those with PTSD and no PH (PTSD+/PH,, n=3,660), those with PH and no PTSD (PTSD,/PH+, n=1,503), those with PTSD and a PH (PTSD+/PH+, n=153), and those without PTSD or a PH (PTSD,/PH,, n=5,165). MEASUREMENTS: Incidence and prevalence of dementia after controlling for confounding factors in multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The PTSD+/PH, group had a significantly higher incidence and prevalence of dementia than the groups without PTSD with or without a PH. The prevalence and incidence of a dementia diagnosis remained two times as high in the PTSD+/PH, group as in the PTSD,/PH+ or PTSD,/PH, group after adjusting for the confounding factors. There were no statistically significant differences between the other groups. CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence of dementia is greater in veterans with PTSD. It is unclear whether this is due to a common risk factor underlying PTSD and dementia or to PTSD being a risk factor for dementia. Regardless, this study suggests that veterans with PTSD should be screened more closely for dementia. Because PTSD is so common in veterans, this association has important implications for veteran care. [source]

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Dementia: A Lifelong Cost of War?

    Soo Borson MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children: Controversies and Unresolved Issues

    June A. Tierney MSN
    TOPIC. Questions regarding hozu severely traumatized children may meet diagnostic criteria for an accurate diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the comorbidity of PTSD zuith many other psychiatric illnesses, and the possibility that PTSD is not a valid diagnostic formulation as it has been applied to children and adolescents demonstrate that the currently held concept of PTSD may not be operationally sound. PURPOSE. To explore recent empirical studies to demonstrate the current state of controversy and postulate future direction of the conceptual framework. SOURCES. Selected published literature. CONCLUSIONS. PTSD in children and adolescents, as it is popularly understood as a conceptual framework, is found to be undergoing a conceptual metamorphosis. [source]

    Preliminary evidence of efficacy for EMDR resource development and installation in the stabilization phase of treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder

    Deborah L. Korn
    This article reviews the complexity of adaptation and symptomatology in adult survivors of childhood neglect and abuse who meet criteria for the proposed diagnosis of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD), also known as Disorders of Extreme Stress, Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS). A specific EMDR protocol, Resource Development and Installation (RDI), is proposed as an effective intervention in the initial stabilization phase of treatment with Complex PTSD/DESNOS. Descriptive psychometric and behavioral outcome measures from two single case studies are presented which appear to support the use of RDI. Suggestions are offered for future treatment outcome research with this challenging population. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 1465,1487, 2002. [source]

    Information Processing of Sexual Abuse in Elders

    Ann W. Burgess
    Sexual abuse is considered to be a pandemic contemporary public health issue, with significant physical and psychosocial consequences for its victims. However, the incidence of elder sexual assault is difficult to estimate with any degree of confidence. A convenience sample of 284 case records were reviewed for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to present the limited data noted on record review on four PTSD symptoms of startle, physiological upset, anger, and numbness. A treatment model for information processing of intrapsychic trauma is presented to describe domain disruption within a nursing diagnosis of rape trauma syndrome and provide guidance for sensitive assessment and intervention. [source]

    Perceptions of psychological first aid among providers responding to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike,

    Brian Allen
    Psychological First Aid (PFA), developed by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and the Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, has been widely disseminated both nationally and internationally, and adopted and used by a number of disaster response organizations and agencies after major catastrophic events across the United States. This study represents a first examination of the perceptions of providers who utilized PFA in response to a disaster. Study participants included 50 individuals who utilized PFA in their response to Hurricane Gustav or Ike. Findings indicated that participation in PFA training was perceived to increase confidence in working with adults and children. PFA was not seen as harmful to survivors, and was perceived as an appropriate intervention for responding in the aftermath of hurricanes. [source]

    PTSD symptoms, substance use, and vipassana meditation among incarcerated individuals

    T. L. Simpson
    The present study evaluated whether Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptom severity was associated with participation and treatment outcomes comparing a Vipassana meditation course to treatment as usual in an incarcerated sample. This study utilizes secondary data. The original study demonstrated that Vipassana meditation is associated with reductions in substance use. The present study found that PTSD symptom severity did not differ significantly between those who did and did not volunteer to take the course. Participation in the Vipassana course was associated with significantly greater reductions in substance use than treatment as usual, regardless of PTSD symptom severity levels. These results suggest that Vipassana meditation is worthy of further study for those with comorbid PTSD and substance use problems. [source]

    Use of mental health treatment among veterans filing claims for posttraumatic stress disorder

    Nina A. Sayer
    This study examines predictors of current mental health service use in a sample of 154 veterans filing claims for Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits based on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Our conceptual framework was the behavioral model that classifies predictors of service utilization into predisposing (background), enabling (e.g., insurance) and need (e.g., symptoms) factors. Slightly more than half of the PTSD claimants were receiving mental health treatment at the time of claim initiation. Mean symptom levels were clinically significant in both users and nonusers of mental health treatment. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, mental health treatment use was associated with younger age, marriage, and dependence on public insurance. Implications for future research are discussed. [source]

    Which instruments are most commonly used to assess traumatic event exposure and posttraumatic effects?: A survey of traumatic stress professionals

    Jon D. Elhai
    We report findings from a Web-based survey of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies' members (n = 227) regarding use of trauma exposure and posttraumatic assessment instruments. Across clinical and research settings, the most widely used tests included the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Trauma Symptom Inventory, Life Events Checklist, Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale, PTSD Checklist, Impact of Event Scale,Revised, and Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children. Highest professional degree, time since degree award, and student status yielded no differences in extent of reported trauma assessment test use. [source]

    The relationship among personality variables, exposure to traumatic events, and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms,

    Dean Lauterbach
    Abstract In examining predictors of posttraumatic stress, researchers have focused on trauma intensity and devoted less attention to other variables. This study examined how personality and demographic variables are related to the likelihood of experiencing a trauma, and to the severity of posttraumatic symptoms in a sample of 402 college students reporting a wide range of trauma. Elevations in antisocial and borderline traits were significant predictors of retraumatization, accounting for 12% of the variance. Personality variables and trauma intensity were significant predictors of PTSD severity, accounting for 43% of the variance. Neuroticism interacted with trauma intensity in predicting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) severity. Among persons low in Neuroticism, there was a modest trauma intensity,PTSD relationship, whereas among persons high in neuroticism there was a strong relationship. [source]

    Coping with technological disaster: An application of the conservation of resources model to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Catalina M. Arata
    Abstract One hundred twenty-five commercial fishers in Cordova, Alaska, completed a mailed survey regarding current mental health functioning 6 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Economic and social impacts of the oil spill and coping and psychological functioning (modified Coping Strategies Scales, Symptom Checklist 90-R) were measured. Multiple regression was used to test the utility of the Conservation of Resources stress model for explaining observed psychological symptoms. Current symptoms of depression, anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were associated with conditions resource loss and avoidant coping strategies. The Conservation of Resources model provided a framework for explaining psychological impacts of the oil spill. Future research is needed to identify factors related to recovery. [source]

    Relationship Between Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Pain in Two American Indian Tribes

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 1 2005
    Dedra Buchwald MD
    ABSTRACT Objectives., To estimate the association of lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and pain in American Indians, and determine if tribe, sex, cultural and psychosocial factors, or major depression influence the magnitude of this association. Design., A cross-sectional probability sample survey completed between 1997 and 2000. A structured interview was conducted by trained, tribal members to gather information on demographic and cultural features, physical health status, psychiatric disorders, and functional status. Setting., General community. Participants., A total of 3,084 individuals randomly selected from the tribal rolls of a Southwestern (N = 1,446) and a Northern Plains (N = 1,638) tribal group who were 15,54 years of age and lived on or within 20 miles of their reservations. Outcome Measures., Bodily pain subscale of the Short Form-36. Linear regression models were fit to examine the association between lifetime PTSD and pain, adjusting for demographic, cultural, psychosocial features, painful medical conditions, and major depression. Results., The prevalence of lifetime PTSD was 16% in the Southwestern and 14% in the Northern Plains; women were nearly twice as likely as men to have lifetime PTSD in both tribes. The final adjusted model demonstrated that mean Short Form-36 bodily pain subscale scores were lower (indicating more pain) among individuals with lifetime PTSD than those without lifetime PTSD. Effect modification by tribe, sex, and depression was not observed. Conclusions., Lifetime PTSD was strongly associated with bodily pain in this rural sample of American Indians. Clinicians should be aware of, and address, the link between physical pain syndromes and PTSD. [source]

    In Search of an Effective Treatment for Combat-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Can the Stellate Ganglion Block Be the Answer?

    PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 4 2010
    Eugene Lipov MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Community Violence and Urban Families: Experiences, Effects, and Directions for Intervention

    Karyn Horowitz MD
    The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of community-level stressors (particularly violence), coping strategies, and resources to prevent exposure to violence or to mitigate its effects in an inner-city community. Parents and children participated in focus groups, and children also completed standardized instruments. In the focus groups, parents and children identified several areas of concern related to "helpers," schools, community safety, and emotional distress. They identified protective resources including intensive monitoring and social supports. Fifty percent of the children met criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and another 21% met criteria for partial PTSD. The mental health issues in children living with ongoing community violence necessitate that researchers use a qualitative approach to inform future interventions. [source]

    Cumulative Adversity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence From a Diverse Community Sample of Young Adults

    Donald A. Lloyd PhD
    The authors hypothesized that a history of adversities, whether they were objectively traumatic or not, predicts risk for 1st onset of PTSD. Survival analysis in a community sample of 1,803 young adults revealed that risk is associated with retrospectively reported adverse experiences that occurred in years prior to the focal traumatic event. Analyses control for clustering of events proximal to onset. Implications for etiology and preventive intervention are noted. [source]

    Attachment Style Classification and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Former Prisoners of War

    Michael Dieperink M.D., Ph.D.
    Adult attachment style and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology were investigated in 107 former prisoner of war veterans. Those with secure attachment styles scored significantly lower on measures of PTSD than did those with insecure styles, and attachment style was a stronger predictor of PTSD symptom intensity than was trauma severity. The suggested association between attachment style and PTSD's development and persistence are discussed in relation to research and clinical practice. [source]

    A Student-Directed Community Project to Support Sexually Abused Women Veterans Suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Donna Marie Wing R.N., Ed.D.
    While awareness of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sexual abuse continues to grow, it has only been during the past few years that the military has realized the prevalence and impact of sexual abuse inflicted upon women while on active military duty. Though Veteran Administration (VA) agencies throughout the United States have given concerted attention to this problem, published resources specific to PTSD and military sexual abuse have been limited. In this article the authors present the results of a 2 ½-year endeavor to address the problem of PTSD and military sexual abuse at the Tulsa VA Outpatient Clinic. The project started with a research study and the subsequent initiation of a PTSD women veterans support group, and culminated in the development of resource manuals for both professional staff and women veterans. [source]

    Symptom Severity, Alcohol Craving, and Age of Trauma Onset in Childhood and Adolescent Trauma Survivors with Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Julie A. Schumacher PhD
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are frequently comorbid disorders. Given evidence that childhood traumas may be associated with broader, more severe psychological sequelae than later traumas, the present study examined whether the association between alcohol and trauma symptomatology is more pronounced among individuals with earlier trauma onsets in a sample of 42 childhood and adolescent trauma survivors diagnosed with comorbid AD-PTSD. As predicted, individuals reporting childhood traumas reported greater severity of trauma and alcohol symptoms and greater alcohol craving. These results suggest that individuals with childhood trauma histories may be particularly vulnerable to relapse following AD treatment. [source]

    Integrating Tobacco Cessation Treatment into Mental Health Care for Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Miles McFall PhD
    The integration of tobacco cessation treatment into mental health care for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), known as Integrated Care (IC), was evaluated in an uncontrolled feasibility and effectiveness study. Veterans (N = 107) in PTSD treatment at two outpatient clinics received IC delivered by mental health practitioners. Outcomes were seven-day point prevalence abstinence measured at two, four, six, and nine months post-enrollment and repeated seven-day point prevalence abstinence (RPPA) obtained across three consecutive assessment intervals (four, six, and nine months). Abstinence rates at the four assessment intervals were 28%, 23%, 25%, and 18%, respectively, and RPPA was 15%. The number of IC sessions and a previous quit history greater than six months predicted RPPA. Stopping smoking was not associated with worsening PTSD or depression. [source]

    Practitioner Review: The Assessment and Treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Sean Perrin
    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a syndrome defined by the intrusive re- experiencing of a trauma, avoidance of traumatic reminders, and persistent physiological arousal. PTSD is associated with high levels of comorbidity and may increase the risk for additional disorders over time. While controversies remain regarding the applicability of the PTSD criteria to very young children, it has proved to be a useful framework for guiding assessment and treatment research with older children and adolescents. This article presents an overview of the literature on the clinical characteristics, assessment, and treatment of PTSD in children and adolescents. [source]

    Splintered memories or vivid landmarks?

    Qualities, organization of traumatic memories with, without PTSD
    One hundred and eighty-one students answered a standardized questionnaire on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): 25 reported trauma(s) and indicated a pattern of after-effects that matched a PTSD symptom profile, whereas 88 indicated trauma(s) but no PTSD symptom profile. Both groups answered a questionnaire addressing the recollective quality, integration and coherence of the traumatic memory that currently affected them most. Participants with a PTSD symptom profile reported more vivid recollection of emotion and sensory impressions. They reported more observer perspective in the memory (seeing themselves ,from the outside'), but no more fragmentation. They also agreed more with the statement that the trauma had become part of their identity, and perceived more thematic connections between the trauma and current events in their lives. The two groups showed different patterns of correlations which indicated different coping styles. Overall, the findings suggest that traumas form dysfunctional reference points for the organization of other personal memories in people with PTSD symptoms, leading to fluctuations between vivid intrusions and avoidance. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Posttraumatic Symptoms, Functional Impairment, and Coping among Adolescents on Both Sides of the Israeli,Palestinian Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Approach

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Ruth Pat-Horenczyk
    This study assessed the effects of the ongoing violence on the mental health of Palestinian and Israeli youths. Parallel instruments were developed and adapted, as part of a collaborative project, in order to assess, in each society: (1) differential rates of exposure to the conflict, (2) the association between exposure and the severity of posttraumatic symptoms (PTS), and (3) the inter-relationships among PTS, functional impairment, somatic complaints, and coping strategies. Participants were 1,016 Israeli and 1,235 Palestinian adolescents. A self-report questionnaire assessed exposure. PTS was measured using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, functional impairment and somatic complaints were measured with the DISC, and coping strategies were assessed with Brief Cope. In both societies, greater exposure to conflict-related violence was associated with more PTS and more somatic complaints, with girls reporting more distress than boys. A total of 6.8 per cent of the Israeli students and 37.2 per cent of the Palestinian students met criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In both societies, but more pronounced in the Palestinian Authority, adolescents reported significant levels of functional impairment, mainly in the area of school functioning. Students with PTSD reported more somatic complaints as well as greater functional impairment. The results show the serious psychological impact of the ongoing violent conflict on Israeli and Palestinian students and point to the need to develop appropriate school-based interventions to address their mental health needs. Cette étude évalue les effets de la violence continuelle sur la santé mentale des jeunes palestiniens et israéliens. Des instruments analogues ont été développés et adaptés, dans le cadre d'un projet de collaboration, afin d'évaluer dans chaque société: (1) les différences de taux d'exposition au conflit, (2) l'association entre l'exposition et la sévérité des symptômes post-traumatiques (PTS) et (3) les interrelations entre les PTS, les troubles fonctionnels, les plaintes somatiques et les stratégies de faire-face. 1016 adolescents israéliens et 1235 adolescents palestiniens ont participéà cette étude. Un questionnaire auto-administré mesure l'exposition au conflit. Les PTS sont mesurés par l'utilisation de l'UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, les troubles fonctionnels et les plaintes somatiques sont approchés par le DISC, et les stratégies de faire-face par le Brief Cope. Dans les deux sociétés, une plus grande exposition au conflit et à ses violences est associée à des PTS plus importants et à plus de plaintes somatiques, les filles manifestant plus de détresse que les garçons. Un total de 6.8% des étudiants israéliens et 37.2% des étudiants palestiniens répondent à des critères du Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Dans les deux sociétés, mais de façon plus prononcée dans l'Autorité palestinienne, les adolescents rapportent des niveaux significatifs de troubles fonctionnels, principalement dans le domaine du fonctionnement scolaire. Les étudiants avec PTSD manifestent plus de plaintes somatiques, il en va de même pour les troubles fonctionnels. Les résultats montrent le sérieux impact psychologique d'un conflit violent et continuel sur les étudiants israéliens et palestiniens et signale le besoin de développer des interventions scolaires appropriées à leurs besoins en matière de santé mentale. [source]

    Individual differences in psychophysiological reactivity in adults with childhood abuse

    Christian G. Schmahl
    Little is known about the neurobiological correlates of stress-related disorders. In particular almost nothing is known about biological correlates of specific personality disorders that have been linked to stress. We measured heart rate and blood pressure reactivity in response to personalized traumatic scripts together with subjective psychological ratings in four women with a history of childhood abuse with no disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Histrionic Personality Disorder. Psychophysiology as well as subjective ratings differed markedly between the four women, with elevated reactions found in PTSD and histrionic personality, and extreme decline in physiological reactivity associated with a dissociative response in the borderline patient. It is concluded that reactivity to traumatic reminders can be correlated with the existence of different stress-related diagnoses. Personality characteristics seem to have an influence on psychophysiological reactivity in patients with stress-related psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Understanding the Psychological Impact of Terrorism on Youth: Moving Beyond Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Annette M. La GrecaArticle first published online: 23 JUL 200
    Comer and Kendall's (2007) comprehensive review of the impact of terrorism on youth organizes this important and burgeoning area of research. The present commentary focuses on youth outcomes associated with proximal contact with terrorist attacks, and highlights several important issues that merit attention. Specifically, the commentary emphasizes the importance of examining youths' postattack outcomes broadly (in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptoms), assessing traumatic grief and bereavement when mass casualties occur, and evaluating issues of comorbidity and functional impairment. Future research on the impact of terrorism on youth would benefit from adopting a developmental psychopathology perspective in understanding variables that may influence and be influenced by youths' reactions to terrorist events. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed. [source]