Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Strains

  • Enterococcu faecali strain
  • Microcysti strain
  • Pseudomona aeruginosa strain
  • Pseudomona strain
  • Sulfolobu tokodaii strain
  • additional strain
  • albican strain
  • applied strain
  • atcc strain
  • attenuated strain
  • aureu strain
  • avirulent strain
  • b strain
  • b. cereus strain
  • b. subtili strain
  • b. thuringiensi strain
  • bacillus cereus strain
  • bacillus strain
  • bacillus subtili strain
  • bacillus thuringiensi strain
  • background strain
  • bacteria strain
  • bacterial strain
  • biocontrol strain
  • broiler strain
  • c strain
  • c. albican strain
  • c. jejuni strain
  • c57bl/6 strain
  • candida albican strain
  • candida strain
  • caregiver strain
  • cell strain
  • cereus strain
  • cerevisiae strain
  • certain strain
  • chinese strain
  • circumferential strain
  • clinical strain
  • coli strain
  • collection strain
  • commercial strain
  • common strain
  • compatible strain
  • compressive strain
  • congenic strain
  • control strain
  • creep strain
  • critical strain
  • culture collection strain
  • culture strain
  • cyanobacterial strain
  • deletion strain
  • different e. coli strain
  • different mouse strain
  • different strain
  • difficile strain
  • diploid strain
  • disruption strain
  • distinct strain
  • dominant strain
  • drug-resistant strain
  • e. coli strain
  • e. faecali strain
  • ebv strain
  • economic strain
  • elastic strain
  • emotional strain
  • engineered strain
  • environmental strain
  • escherichia coli strain
  • european strain
  • faecali strain
  • faecium strain
  • failure strain
  • falciparum strain
  • field strain
  • financial strain
  • finite strain
  • fracture strain
  • frankia strain
  • fungal strain
  • gingivali strain
  • h. pylori strain
  • h7 strain
  • hbv strain
  • hcv strain
  • helicobacter pylori strain
  • high strain
  • hiv strain
  • hiv-1 strain
  • host strain
  • human strain
  • ia strain
  • identical strain
  • ii strain
  • inbred mouse strain
  • inbred strain
  • increasing strain
  • indicator strain
  • individual strain
  • industrial strain
  • industrial yeast strain
  • infecting strain
  • influenza strain
  • internal strain
  • isogenic strain
  • isolated strain
  • japanese strain
  • jejuni strain
  • job strain
  • knockout strain
  • l. lacti strain
  • l. monocytogene strain
  • lab strain
  • laboratory strain
  • lacti strain
  • lactobacillus strain
  • large strain
  • lattice strain
  • listeria monocytogene strain
  • live vaccine strain
  • local strain
  • longitudinal strain
  • many strain
  • maximum strain
  • mechanical strain
  • microbial strain
  • monocytogene strain
  • mouse strain
  • mrsa strain
  • mucoid strain
  • multiple strain
  • mutan strain
  • mutant strain
  • mv strain
  • mycobacterium tuberculosis strain
  • myocardial strain
  • native strain
  • natural strain
  • negative strain
  • new strain
  • non-pathogenic strain
  • normal strain
  • novel strain
  • null strain
  • o157 strain
  • one strain
  • other strain
  • p. aeruginosa strain
  • p. gingivali strain
  • parahaemolyticu strain
  • parasite strain
  • parent strain
  • parental strain
  • particular strain
  • pastori strain
  • pathogenic strain
  • phytoplasma strain
  • plane strain
  • plastic strain
  • positive strain
  • predominant strain
  • principal strain
  • prion strain
  • probiotic strain
  • progenitor strain
  • pylori strain
  • radial strain
  • rat strain
  • recombinant escherichia coli strain
  • recombinant inbred strain
  • recombinant strain
  • reference strain
  • relate strain
  • representative strain
  • residual strain
  • resistant strain
  • ri strain
  • ring strain
  • s. aureu strain
  • s. cerevisiae strain
  • s. mutan strain
  • saccharomyces cerevisiae strain
  • salmonella strain
  • same strain
  • selected probiotic strain
  • selected strain
  • sensitive strain
  • several strain
  • severe strain
  • shear strain
  • significant strain
  • silkworm strain
  • similar strain
  • single strain
  • small strain
  • sp. strain
  • specific strain
  • standard strain
  • staphylococcus aureu strain
  • starter strain
  • stec strain
  • steric strain
  • studied strain
  • subtili strain
  • surface strain
  • susceptible mouse strain
  • susceptible strain
  • syringae strain
  • systolic strain
  • tabaci strain
  • tensile strain
  • test strain
  • tested strain
  • tester strain
  • thuringiensi strain
  • tokodaii strain
  • total strain
  • toxic strain
  • toxigenic strain
  • toxin-producing strain
  • transgenic mouse strain
  • transgenic strain
  • trichoderma strain
  • tuberculosis strain
  • tumefacien strain
  • type strain
  • ultimate strain
  • unique strain
  • unrelated strain
  • vaccine strain
  • various strain
  • vibrio parahaemolyticu strain
  • viral strain
  • virulent strain
  • virus strain
  • wild strain
  • wild type strain
  • wild-type strain
  • wine strain
  • wistar strain
  • wolbachia strain
  • wt strain
  • yeast strain
  • yield strain

  • Terms modified by Strains

  • strain able
  • strain amplitude
  • strain analysis
  • strain approach
  • strain atcc
  • strain behavior
  • strain behaviour
  • strain belonging
  • strain capable
  • strain collection
  • strain combination
  • strain component
  • strain condition
  • strain curve
  • strain cycle
  • strain data
  • strain deficient
  • strain dependent
  • strain development
  • strain difference
  • strain differentiation
  • strain distribution
  • strain energy
  • strain energy density
  • strain energy release rate
  • strain exhibiting
  • strain field
  • strain formulation
  • strain gauge
  • strain gauge plethysmography
  • strain gradient
  • strain hardening
  • strain heterogeneity
  • strain imaging
  • strain index
  • strain injury
  • strain isolated
  • strain isolation
  • strain level
  • strain localization
  • strain measurement
  • strain method
  • strain mode
  • strain mouse
  • strain only
  • strain partitioning
  • strain pattern
  • strain pcc
  • strain plasticity
  • strain present
  • strain problem
  • strain property
  • strain rate
  • strain rate effects
  • strain rate imaging
  • strain rate sensitivity
  • strain relatedness
  • strain relation
  • strain relationships
  • strain relaxation
  • strain resistant
  • strain response
  • strain selection
  • strain sensitivity
  • strain state
  • strain tensor
  • strain theory
  • strain type
  • strain used
  • strain value
  • strain variation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Vertebral Trabecular Bone Volume Fraction and Microarchitecture in Mice,

    Mary L Bouxsein
    Abstract BMD, which reflects both cortical and cancellous bone, has been shown to be highly heritable; however, little is known about the specific genetic factors regulating trabecular bone. Genome-wide linkage analysis of vertebral trabecular bone traits in 914 adult female mice from the F2 intercross of C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ inbred strains revealed a pattern of genetic regulation derived from 13 autosomes, with 5,13 QTLs associated with each of the traits. Ultimately, identification of genes that regulate trabecular bone traits may yield important information regarding mechanisms that regulate mechanical integrity of the skeleton. Introduction: Both cortical and cancellous bone influence the mechanical integrity of the skeleton, with the relative contribution of each varying with skeletal site. Whereas areal BMD, which reflects both cortical and cancellous bone, has been shown to be highly heritable, little is known about the genetic determinants of trabecular bone density and architecture. Materials and Methods: To identify heritable determinants of vertebral trabecular bone traits, we evaluated the fifth lumbar vertebra from 914 adult female mice from the F2 intercross of C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) progenitor strains. High-resolution ,CT was used to assess total volume (TV), bone volume (BV), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), separation (Tb.Sp), and number (Tb.N) of the trabecular bone in the vertebral body in the progenitors (n = 8/strain) and female B6C3H-F2 progeny (n = 914). Genomic DNA from F2 progeny was screened for 118 PCR-based markers discriminating B6 and C3H alleles on all 19 autosomes. Results and Conclusions: Despite having a slightly larger trabecular bone compartment, C3H progenitors had dramatically lower vertebral trabecular BV/TV (,53%) and Tb.N (,40%) and higher Tb.Sp (71%) compared with B6 progenitors (p < 0.001 for all). Genome-wide quantitative trait analysis revealed a pattern of genetic regulation derived from 13 autosomes, with 5,13 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with each of the vertebral trabecular bone traits, exhibiting adjusted LOD scores ranging from 3.1 to 14.4. The variance explained in the F2 population by each of the individual QTL after adjusting for contributions from other QTLs ranged from 0.8% to 5.9%. Taken together, the QTLs explained 22,33% of the variance of the vertebral traits in the F2 population. In conclusion, we observed a complex pattern of genetic regulation for vertebral trabecular bone volume fraction and microarchitecture using the F2 intercross of the C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strains and identified a number of QTLs, some of which are distinct from those that were previously identified for total femoral and vertebral BMD. Identification of genes that regulate trabecular bone traits may ultimately yield important information regarding the mechanisms that regulate the acquisition and maintenance of mechanical integrity of the skeleton. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Although Agnew's (1992) general strain theory (GST) has secured a fair degree of support since its introduction, researchers have had trouble explaining why some individuals are more likely than others to react to strain with delinquency. This study uses data from the National Survey of Children to address this issue. Drawing on Agnew (1997) and the psychological research on personality traits, it is predicted that juveniles high in negative emotionality and low in constraint will be more likely to react to strain with delinquency. Data support this prediction. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 2 2004
    Yong-ling Jin
    Abstract, Effects of the critical parameters (spray pressure, the distance between a sprayer and the sprayed plant, the concentration of infective juveniles (Us), volumes of the sprayed suspension of IJs, the temperature and humidity combinations) and the addition of various adjuvants on the survival and persistence of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae All strain on leaf surfaces of the Chinese cabbage Brassica pekingensis were determined. The results showed that (1) The pressure of a sprayer had negative influence on the persistence of IJs on the leaf. (2) The numbers of the living IJs collected on the leaf significantly increased with the IJ dosages applied on the leaf when the dosage was over 2 000 IJs per mL. (3) More IJs (from 10.1 IJs/cm2 to 45.5 IJs/cm2) were collected on the leaf when more volumes of IJ suspension (from 3.3 mL to 19.8 mL) were sprayed. However, when the highest volume of IJ suspension was used, the IJ numbers collected did not increase. (4) In general, the survival of the IJs on the leaf decreased with the exposure time. (5) The formulation of IJs by adding xanthan gum, a sticker and detergent surfactant enhanced the survival and persistence of IJs. The number of living IJs on the leaf with 0.3 % of xanthan gum was 150 times higher than that of the IJs with water alone. IJ suspensions with different concentrations of glycerin and with 0.5 % molasses and 0.01 % detergent surfactant showed similar effects. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2002
    J.D. NUTT
    ABSTRACT Virulence gene expression in Salmonella is triggered by a variety of environmental factors including changes in the gastrointestinal environment of birds during different dietary regimes. The objective of this study was to determine if growth of specific microorganisms alters the environmental conditions sufficiently to signal Salmonella Typhimurium virulence response. Spent media was obtained from a Salmonella Typhimurium hilA:lacZY fusion strain, a poultry Salmonella Typhimurium strain, Eschcrichia coli K12, and Lactobacillus caseii Spent media samples were collected after 2, 4, 8 and 24 h of growth in brain heart infusion broth (BHI) and M9 media, ,-galactosidase assays were performed on the samples to determine virulence expression. Virulence response to Salmonella, spent media was 2-fold greater than Lactobacillus spent media at 4, 8 and 24 h growth (P < 0.05). Virulence expression almost doubled when exposed to Salmonella Typhimurium (NONA) spent media compared to mixed culture spent media at 4 h, and Salmonella Typhimurium (NONA) was significantly higher than mixed culture spent media at 24 h (P < 0.05). Based on these results, it appears that growth of similar bacterial species may alter the composition of rich media sufficiently to influence virulence. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Yuki Tsuchikane
    Members of the Closterium peracerosum,strigosum,littorale (C. psl.) complex are unicellular charophycean algae in which there are two modes of zygospore formation, heterothallic and homothallic. A homothallic strain of Closterium (designation, kodama20) was isolated from a Japanese rice paddy field. Based on alignment of the 1506 group-I introns, which interrupt nuclear SSU rDNAs, homothallic kodama20 is most closely related to the heterothallic mating group II-B, which is partially sexually isolated from group II-A. Time-lapse photography of the conjugation process in kodama20 revealed that most of the observed zygospores originated from one vegetative cell. The sexual conjugation process consisted of five stages: (1) cell division resulting in the formation of two sister gametangial cells from one vegetative cell, (2) formation of a sexual pair between the two sister gametangial cells (or between gametangial cells of another adjoined individual), (3) formation of conjugation papillae, (4) release of gametic protoplasts from both members of a pair, and (5) formation of the zygospore by protoplast fusion. For conjugation to progress, the cell density and light condition in the culture was critical. We suggested the presence of a conjugation promotion factor. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Dariusz Dziga
    Several cyanobacterial species have a high potential to dominate in marine environments and freshwater reservoirs, and the ecological and physiological reasons for this phenomenon are not understood comprehensively. In this study, the ability of a Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz. strain to produce free dissolved enzymes was documented. We have observed that this highly toxic strain releases alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase, and ,-glucosidase into the ambient environment. Additionally, the inhibitory activity of selected phenols produced by aquatic plants on the activity of these enzymes was analyzed. The investigated compounds, pyrogallol and, to a lesser degree, hydroquinone, decreased the activity of extracellular enzymes produced by M. aeruginosa, with leucine aminopeptidase being the most sensitive to the inhibitors. The noncompetitive character of enzymatic inhibition suggests that the polyphenols produced by aquatic plants are able to influence the activity of different extracellular or membrane-bound enzymes. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Fernando Garza-Sánchez
    The growth of microalgae in hypersaline conditions requires that cells accumulate osmoprotectants. In many instances, these are polyols. We isolated the diatom Nitzschia ovalis H. J. Arn. from the saline and alkaline water body Mono Lake (CA, USA). This isolate can grow in salinities ranging from 5 to 120 parts per thousand (ppt) of salt but normally at 90 ppt salinity. In this report, we identified the major polyol osmoprotectant as 1,4/2,5 cyclohexanetetrol by electron ionization-mass spectrometry (EI,MS), 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and infrared (IR) and showed an increase in cellular concentration in response to rising salinity. This increase in the cyclitol concentration was evaluated by gas chromatography of the derived tetraacetylated cyclohexanetetrol obtaining an average of 0.7 fmol · cell,1 at 5 ppt and rising to 22.5 fmol · cell,1 at 120 ppt. The 1,4/2,5 cyclohexanetetrol was also detected in the red alga Porphyridium purpureum. Analysis of the free amino acid content in N. ovalis cultures exposed to changes in salinity showed that proline and lysine also accumulate with increased salinity, but the cellular concentration of these amino acids is about 10-fold lower than the concentration of 1,4/2,5 cyclohexanetetrol. The comparison of amino acid concentration per cell with cyclitol suggests that this polyol is important in compensating the cellular osmotic pressure due to increased salinity, but other physiological functions could also be considered. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Osnat Gillor
    Phosphorus (P) is widely considered to be the main nutrient limiting the productivity of freshwater phytoplankton, but an assessment of its bioavailability in natural samples is highly complex. In an attempt to provide a novel tool for this purpose, the promoter of the alkaline phosphatase gene, phoA, from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 was fused to the luxAB luciferase genes of the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi. The resulting construct was introduced into a neutral site on the Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 genome to yield strain APL, which emitted light when inorganic P concentrations fell below 2.3 ,M. Light emission of P-deprived cells decreased rapidly upon inorganic P readdition. The reporter was demonstrated to be a sensitive tool for monitoring the bioavailability of both inorganic and organic P sources. In water samples taken from a natural freshwater environment (Lake Kinneret, Israel), the luminescence measured correlated with total dissolved phosphate concentrations. [source]


    ABSTRACT Four species of Brettanomyces (intermedius, bruxellensis, custersianus, clausenii) were examined to ascertain their acetic acid production capacity. The results showed that B. bruxellensis was the strain with the best volumetric productivity ,and ,specific ,production ,rate ,(P = 0.065 gL,1 h,1; ,Vp = 0.43 gg,1h,1). The best kinetic parameters were reached (P = 0.133 gL,1 h,1; Yp/s = 0.23; Pmax = 11.64 gL,1) ,at ,an ,airflow ,of ,288 Lh,1,(0.6 vvm, ,OTR = 124 mgO2L,1,h,1), and substrate inhibition was not observed. The influence of temperature and agitation on acetic acid production by B. bruxellensis in a glucose medium was investigated at different levels, 26, 30, 34C and 250, 350, 450 rpm, respectively. Temperature and agitation were shown to be deci-sive factors (P < 0.05) in acetic acid production at 288 Lh,1(0.6 vvm, OTR = 124 mgO2L,1 h). The optimal conditions for a high volumetric productivity were 30C and 250 rpm, respectively. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2000
    ABSTRACT One strain of 11 serotypes or 11 strains of Salmonella, which were isolated from the ceca of broilers, were surveyed for their growth kinetics on sterile ground chicken breast burgers incubated at 25C to determine the variation of lag time and specific growth rate. Growth curves, four per strain, were fit to a two-phase linear model to determine lag time (h) and specific growth rate (log10/h). Repeatability of growth kinetics measurements for individual strains had a mean coefficient of variation of 11.7% for lag time (range: 5.8 to 17.3%) and a mean coefficient of variation of 6.7% for specific growth rate (range: 2.7 to 13.3%). Lag time among strains ranged from 2.2 to 3.1 h with a mean of 2.8 h for all strains, whereas specific growth rate among strains ranged from 0.3 to 0.38 log10 per h with a mean of 0.35 log10per h for all strains. One-way analysis of variance indicated that lag time (P =0.029) and specific growth rate (P =0.025) differed slightly among strains. S. Haardt had a shorter (P < 0.05) lag time than S. Agona and S. Brandenburg, whereas the specific growth rate of S. Enteritidis was less than (P < 0.05) the specific growth rates of S. Typhimurium and S. Brandenburg. All other strains had similar lag times and specific growth rates. The coefficient of variation among strains was 9.4% for lag time and 5.7% for specific growth rate. These results indicate that there were only minor differences in the lag times and specific growth rates among the strains of Salmonella surveyed. Thus, the growth kinetic values obtained with one strain of Salmonella may be useful for predicting the growth of other strains of Salmonella for which data do not currently exist. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    D. Wayne Coats
    Amoebophrya ceratii (Koeppen) Cachon is an obligate parasite of dinoflagellates and may represent a species complex. However, little is known about the biology and host range of different strains of Amoebophrya Cachon. Here, we determined parasite generation time and dinospore infectivity, survival, and ability to infect nonprimary hosts for strains of Amoebophrya from Akashiwo sanguinea (Hirasaka) G. Hansen et Moestrup, Gymnodinium instriatum (Freudenthal et Lee) Coats comb. nov., and Karlodinium micrum (Leadbeater et Dodge) J. Larsen. Akashiwo sanguinea was readily infected, with parasite prevalence reaching 100% in dinospore:host inoculations above a 10:1 ratio. Parasitism also approached 100% in G. instriatum, but only when inoculations exceeded a 40:1 ratio. Karlodinium micrum appeared partially resistant to infection, as parasite prevalence saturated at 92%. Parasite generation time differed markedly among Amoebophrya strains. Survival and infectivity of dinospores decreased over time, with strains from G. instriatum and A. sanguinea unable to initiate infections after 2 and 5 days, respectively. By contrast, dinospores from Amoebophrya parasitizing K. micrum remained infective for up to 11 days. Akashiwo sanguinea and G. instriatum were not infected when exposed to dinospores from nonprimary Amoebophrya strains. Karlodinium micrum, however, was attacked by dinospores of Amoebophrya from the other two host species, but infections failed to reach maturity. Observed differences in host,parasite biology support the hypothesis that Amoebophrya ceratii represents a complex of host-specific species. Results also suggest that Amoebophrya strains have evolved somewhat divergent survival strategies that may encompass sexuality, heterotrophy during the "free-living" dinospore stage, and dormancy. [source]


    U Proske
    SUMMARY 1.,One common soft-tissue injury in sports involving sprinting and kicking a ball is the hamstring strain. Strain injuries often occur while the contracting muscle is lengthened, an eccentric contraction. We have proposed that the microscopic damage to muscle fibres that routinely occurs after a period of unaccustomed eccentric exercise can lead to a more severe strain injury. 2.,An indicator of susceptibility for the damage from eccentric exercise is the optimum angle for torque. When this is at a short muscle length, the muscle is more prone to eccentric damage. It is known that subjects most at risk of a hamstring strain have a previous history of hamstring strains. By means of isokinetic dynamometry, we have measured the optimum angle for torque for nine athletes with a history of unilateral hamstring strains. We also measured optimum angles for 18 athletes with no previous history of strain injuries. It was found that mean optimum angle in the previously injured muscles was at a significantly shorter length than for the uninjured muscles of the other leg and for muscles of both legs in the uninjured group. This result suggests that previously injured muscles are more prone to eccentric damage and, therefore, according to our hypothesis, more prone to strain injuries than uninjured muscles. 3.,After a period of unaccustomed eccentric exercise, if the exercise is repeated 1 week later, there is much less evidence of damage because the muscle has undergone an adaptation process that protects it against further damage. We propose that for athletes considered at risk of a hamstring strain, as indicated by the optimum angle for torque, a regular programme of mild eccentric exercise should be undertaken. This approach seems to work because evidence from a group of athletes who have implemented such a programme shows a significant reduction in the incidence of hamstring strains. [source]

    Heat or Cold Packs for Neck and Back Strain: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Efficacy

    Gregory Garra DO
    Abstract Objectives:, Acute back and neck strains are very common. In addition to administering analgesics, these strains are often treated with either heat or cold packs. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of heat and cold in relieving pain from back and neck strains. The authors hypothesized that pain relief would not differ between hot and cold packs. Methods:, This was a randomized, controlled trial conducted at a university-based emergency department (ED) with an annual census of 90,000 visits. ED patients >18 years old with acute back or neck strains were eligible for inclusion. All patients received 400 mg of ibuprofen orally and then were randomized to 30 minutes of heating pad or cold pack applied to the strained area. Outcomes of interest were pain severity before and after pack application on a validated 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (no pain) to 100 (worst pain), percentage of patients requiring rescue analgesia, subjective report of pain relief on a verbal rating scale (VRS), and future desire for similar packs. Outcomes were compared with t-tests and chi-square tests. A sample of 60 patients had 80% power to detect a 15-mm difference in pain scores. Results:, Sixty patients were randomized to heat (n = 31) or cold (n = 29) therapy. Mean (±standard deviation [SD]) age was 37.8 (±14.7) years, 51.6% were female, and 66.7% were white. Groups were similar in baseline patient and pain characteristics. There were no differences between the heat and cold groups in the severity of pain before (75 mm [95% CI = 66 to 83] vs. 72 mm [95% CI = 65 to 78]; p = 0.56) or after (66 mm [95% CI = 57 to 75] vs. 64 mm [95% CI = 56 to 73]; p = 0.75) therapy. Pain was rated better or much better in 16/31 (51.6%) and 18/29 (62.1%) patients in the heat and cold groups, respectively (p = 0.27). There were no between-group differences in the desire for and administration of additional analgesia. Twenty-five of 31 (80.6%) patients in the heat group and 22 of 29 (75.9%) patients in the cold group would use the same therapy if injured in the future (p = 0.65). Conclusions:, The addition of a 30-minute topical application of a heating pad or cold pack to ibuprofen therapy for the treatment of acute neck or back strain results in a mild yet similar improvement in the pain severity. However, it is possible that pain relief is mainly the result of ibuprofen therapy. Choice of heat or cold therapy should be based on patient and practitioner preferences and availability. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:484,489 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Strain field measurements of rubber by image analysis and design criteria for laminated rubber bearings (LRB)

    Chamindalal Sujeewa Lewangamage
    Abstract Although seismic isolation rubber bearings in bridges and buildings have proven to be a very effective passive method for reducing earthquake-induced forces, a detailed mechanical modeling of the rubber that is used in bearings under large strains has not been established. Therefore, a 3D model of failure behavior and the design criteria for the safety evaluation of seismic isolation bearings have not yet been developed. This paper presents: (1) correlation-based template-matching algorithms to measure large strain fields of continua; (2) a failure criterion for rubber; and (3) the design criteria for the safety evaluation of laminated algorithms, data-validation algorithms were developed and implemented to eliminate possible unrealistic displacement vectors present in the measured displacement field. The algorithms were successfully employed in the strain field measurement of LRB and rubber materials that are subjected to failure. The measured local strains for rubber material at failure were used to develop a failure criterion for rubber. The validity of the proposed criterion was evaluated by applying it to the LRB; the criterion was introduced into a 3D finite element model of LRB, compared with the experimental results of bearings failure, and verified. Finally, design criteria are proposed for LRB for the safety evaluation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Association of Left Atrial Strain and Strain Rate Assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 10 2009
    Wei-Chuan Tsai M.D.
    Background: We hypothesized that contraction of the LA wall could be documented by speckle tracking and could be applied for assessment of LA function. This study tried to identify the association between LA longitudinal strain (LAS) and strain rate (LASR) measured by speckle tracking with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Methods: Fifty-two patients (61 ± 17 years old, 23 men) with sinus rhythm at baseline referred for the evaluation of episodic palpitation were included. Standard four-chamber and two-chamber views were acquired and analyzed off-line. Peak LAS and LASR were carefully identified as the peak negative inflection of speckle tracking waves after P-wave gated by electrocardiography. Results: Ten patients (19%) had PAF. LAS, LASR, age, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, left ventricular mass, LA volume, and mitral early filling-to-annulus early velocity ratio were different between patients with and without PAF. After multivariate analysis, LASR was significantly independently associated with PAF (OR 8.56, 95% CI 1.14,64.02, P = 0.036). Conclusion: Speckle tracking echocardiography could be used in measurements of LAS and LASR. Decreased negative LASR was independently associated with PAF. [source]

    Effect of Preload on Left Ventricular Longitudinal Strain by 2D Speckle Tracking

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2008
    Jin-Oh Choi M.D.
    Background: Peak systolic longitudinal strain (PSLS) obtained using the 2D speckle tracking method is a novel indicator of the long-axis function of the left ventricle (LV). We used the 2D strain profile to examine the effect of preload reduction by hemodialysis (HD) on LV PSLS in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Method and results: Twenty-nine pairs of echocardiographic evaluations were obtained before and after dialysis. Global LV PSLS was ,18.4 ± 2.9%, at baseline and decreased to ,16.9 ± 3.2% after HD (P < 0.001). Segmental analysis showed that the decrease in PSLS after dialysis was most prominent in mid-LV segments (,17.1 ± 3.5% vs. ,15.4 ± 3.4%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: PSLS obtained from the 2D strain profile is a reliable parameter that may be useful for evaluating LV systolic long-axis function. However, PSLS should be applied cautiously in ESRD patients because it could be affected by dialysis. [source]

    Detection of Subclinical Cardiac Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis by Echocardiographic Strain Imaging

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2008
    Alper Kepez M.D.
    Background: Cardiac involvement is one of the major problems in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Subclinical cardiac involvement has a higher frequency than thought previously. In this study we investigated whether subclinical cardiac involvement can be detected by using echocardiographic strain imaging in SSc patients without pulmonary hypertension. Methods: Echocardiographic examinations were performed to 27 SSc patients and 26 healthy controls. Left ventricular strain parameters were obtained from apical views and average strain value was calculated from these measurements. Results: There were no significant differences between patients and controls regarding two-dimensional (2D), conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler velocity measurements. Strain was reduced in 6 of 12 segments of the left ventricle (LV) and in 1 of 2 segments of the right ventricle (RV). Strain rate (SR) was reduced in 2 of 12 segments of the LV and 1 of 2 segments of the RV in SSc patients as compared to controls (P < 0.05 for all). These involvements did not match any particular coronary artery distribution. More important differences were detected by average strain and SR values of the LV between patients and controls (19.78 ± 3.00% vs 23.41 ± 2.73%, P < 0.001; 2.01 ± 0.41 vs 2.23 ± 0.27/sec, P = 0.026, respectively). Furthermore, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) in scleroderma patients significantly correlated with LV average strain (r = 0.59; P = 0.001). Conclusion: Evaluation of ventricular function by using echocardiographic strain imaging appears to be useful to detect subclinical cardiac involvement in SSc patients with normal standard echocardiographic and tissue Doppler velocity findings. [source]

    Effect of Angular Error on Tissue Doppler Velocities and Strain

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2003
    Camilla Storaa M.S.
    One of the major criticisms of ultrasound Doppler is its angle dependency, that is its ability to measure velocity components directly to or from the transducer only. The present article aims to investigate the impact of this angular error in a clinical setting. Apical two- and four-chamber views were recorded in 43 individuals, and the myocardium was marked by hand in each image. We assume that the main direction of the myocardial velocities is longitudinal and correct for the angular error by backprojecting measured velocities onto the longitudinal direction drawn. Strain was calculated from both corrected and uncorrected velocities in 12 segments for each individual. The results indicate that the difference between strain values calculated from corrected and uncorrected velocities is insignificant in 5 segments and within a decimal range in 11 segments. The biggest difference between measured and corrected strain values was found in the apical segments. Strain is also found to be more robust against angular error than velocities because the difference between corrected and uncorrected values is smaller for strain. Considering that there are multiple sources of noise in ultrasound Doppler measurements, the authors conclude that the angular error has so little impact on longitudinal strain that correction for this error can safely be omitted. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 20, October 2003) [source]

    Improved ,-Glucanase Production by a Recombinant Escherichia coli Strain using Zinc-Ion Supplemented Medium

    U. Beshay
    Abstract In order to investigate the suitability of different metal chelates for affinity chromatography, an expression vector was constructed. It contained a hybrid ,-glucanase as a model protein fused with a His6 -tag and a secretion cassette providing the ability to secrete ,-glucanase into the culture medium. Supplementation of zinc to the medium led to a rapidly increased expression and release of the target protein into the cultivation medium. Results in respect to the supplementation of the commonly used Terrific Broth "TB-medium" with different metal ions are reported with special emphasis on the influence of zinc ions. A concentration of zinc ions in the order of about 0.175 mM led to optimal results. Batch cultivation under well-controlled conditions showed that the growth behavior did not change significantly by adding zinc ions. Growth in a stirred tank bioreactor was much faster in unsupplemented TB-medium compared to shake flask experiments leading to a much higher biomass concentration (15,g/L instead of 3,g/L). The secretion of ,-glucanase under theses conditions started at the transition into the stationary phase and increased to yield an extracellular activity of 1350,U/mL at the end of the fermentation process. An even higher yield of extracellular ,-glucanase (2800,U/mL) was reached when the fermentation was carried out with TB-medium supplemented with 0.175,mM ZnSO4. [source]

    Structural Studies of the O-Chain Polysaccharide from Plesiomonas shigelloides Strain 302,73 (Serotype O1)

    Giuseppina Pieretti
    Abstract Plesiomonas shigelloides is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It has been found in an aquatic environment in the tropical and subtropical regions and is responsible for many gastrointestinal infections in humans, which take place from drinking untreated water or eating uncooked shellfish. Plesiomonas shigelloides has also been reported to provoke extraintestinal infections such as meningitis and bacteremia in immunocompromised adults and neonates. Despite the emerging importance of this pathogenic microorganism, only three different O-antigens have been characterised so far. The structure of the O-chain of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Plesiomonasshigelloides strain 302,73 (serotype O1) was determined by chemical analysis, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The polysaccharide was constituted by a linear pentasaccharidic repeating unit as follows: ,3)-,- L -PneNAc4OAc(1,4)-,- L -FucNAc(1,4)-,- L -FucNAc(1,4)-,- L -FucNAc(1,3)-,- D -QuiNAc4NHb(1, (PneNAc = 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-talose, Hb = (S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl) PneNAc O -acetylation was not stoichiometric and was found to be about 75,%. The position of the O -acetyl group and the amount of acetylation were deduced by NMR spectroscopic analysis. All the monosaccharides included in the repeating unit were deoxyamino sugars, which most probably, together with the presence of O -acetyl groups, were responsible for the recovery of the LPS in the phenol layer of the phenol/water extract of dried bacteria cells.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    The Role of Strain in New Semiconductor Devices

    Alex Dommann
    HRXRD is a very sensitive and non destructive technique to determine the strain in thin layer materials such as electron guides or the strain induces by the second order package of SOCs. In reciprocal space mapping (RSM), it is possible to separate the elastic component of the scattered intensity from the diffuse one. As a consequence, it is possible to study diffuse scattering due to defects of the crystal lattice. As an example we show also RSM's of a high-speed SiGe pMOS structure. [source]

    An enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain of serotype O111:H12 damages and invades cultured T84 cells and human colonic mucosa

    Cecilia M. Abe
    Abstract The pathogenic mechanisms of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are not well defined. We investigated the interaction of EAEC strain 236 (serotype O111:H12) with polarised Caco-2 and T84 human intestinal epithelial cells lines, and with human jejunal and colonic mucosa. Strain 236 adhered to both polarised cell lines and to both intestinal tissue types, but caused severe damage and was invasive only in T84 cells and colonic mucosa. In contrast, prototype EAEC strain 042, which also adhered to the cultured intestinal cell lines, did not adhere to or invade jejunal or colonic tissue. These observations suggest a heterogeneity of virulence properties within the EAEC category of diarrhoea-causing E. coli. [source]

    Strain- and region-specific gene expression profiles in mouse brain in response to chronic nicotine treatment

    J. Wang
    A pathway-focused complementary DNA microarray and gene ontology analysis were used to investigate gene expression profiles in the amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral tegmental area of C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J mice receiving nicotine in drinking water (100 ,g/ml in 2% saccharin for 2 weeks). A balanced experimental design and rigorous statistical analysis have led to the identification of 3.5,22.1% and 4.1,14.3% of the 638 sequence-verified genes as significantly modulated in the aforementioned brain regions of the C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J strains, respectively. Comparisons of differential expression among brain tissues showed that only a small number of genes were altered in multiple brain regions, suggesting presence of a brain region-specific transcriptional response to nicotine. Subsequent principal component analysis and Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer analysis showed significant enrichment of biological processes both in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J mice, i.e. cell cycle/proliferation, organogenesis and transmission of nerve impulse. Finally, we verified the observed changes in expression using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for six representative genes in the PFC region, providing an independent replication of our microarray results. Together, this report represents the first comprehensive gene expression profiling investigation of the changes caused by nicotine in brain tissues of the two mouse strains known to exhibit differential behavioral and physiological responses to nicotine. [source]

    The influence of strain of Holstein-Friesian dairy cow and pasture-based feeding system on grazing behaviour, intake and milk production

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
    S. McCarthy
    Abstract A comparative study of grazing behaviour, herbage intake and milk production of three strains of Holstein-Friesian dairy cow was conducted using three grass-based feeding systems over two years. The three strains of Holstein-Friesian cows were: high production North American (HP), high durability North American (HD) and New Zealand (NZ). The three grass-based feeding systems were: high grass allowance (MP), high concentrate (HC) and high stocking rate (HS). In each year seventy-two pluriparous cows, divided equally between strains of Holstein-Friesian and feeding systems were used. Strain of Holstein-Friesian cow and feeding system had significant effects on grazing behaviour, dry matter (DM) intake and milk production. The NZ strain had the longest grazing time while the HD strain had the shortest. The grazing time of cows in the HC system was shorter than those in both the HS and MP systems. There was a significant strain of Holstein-Friesian cow by feeding system interaction for DM intake of grass herbage and milk production. The NZ strain had the highest substitution rate with the HP strain having the lowest. Hence, response in milk production to concentrate was much greater with the HP than the NZ strain. Reduction in milk yield as a consequence of a higher stocking rate (MP vs. HS system) was, however, greater for the HP and HD strains compared with the NZ strain. The results suggest that differences in grazing behaviour are important in influencing DM intake and milk production. [source]

    On Storage Coefficient and Vertical Strain

    GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2006
    T.N. Narasimhan
    First page of article [source]

    The Relationship Between Helicobacter pylori Infection, the Virulence Genotypes of the Infecting Strain and Gastric Cancer in the African Setting

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2001
    J. A. Louw
    Abstract Background. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma remains controversial, especially in the African setting where infection is common, while gastric cancer is perceived to be uncommon, the basis of the so called ,African enigma'. This discrepancy between infection and the development of disease is commonly attributed to differences in host, environment and bacterial factors. Interest in the bacterial factors has focused on heterogeneity in the so-called ,virulence genes'. Aim. The aim of this prospective, case-controlled study was to establish whether H. pylori infection is significantly associated with gastric cancer and to investigate whether gastric cancer is associated with genotypically distinct (as it relates to the candidate virulence genes) organisms in this population. Methods. Patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer were matched with nonulcer dyspeptic controls for age (within 5 years), gender and ethnicity. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by RUT, histology, culture and serology (locally validated and used as default determinant of H. pylori status). Tumors were classified according to the Lauren classification. The ,virulence genotype' of 17 paired culture samples was determined by previously described and validated molecular techniques (cagA presence, vacA alleles, structure of the cag pathogenicity island and analysis of the iceA alleles). Categorical variables were analysed by the ,2 test. Results. Forty-eight patients (median age 59 years) could be adequately matched to controls. 39/48 (81%) cases and 43/48 (90%) controls were H. pylori positive (NS). Significant differences in the virulence genotypes of infecting strains were noted: vacAs2-controls 24%, cases 0%, p < .00001; vacAs1 present , cases 100%, controls 76%, p < .05; cagA -3,-length > 650 bp , cases 47%, controls 0%, p < .002; cag pathogenicity island intact , cases 82%, controls 43%, p < .04; iceA1 , cases 53%, controls 6%, p < .005. cagA was found in all subjects. Conclusion. This study indicates that, in this African population at least, there is no difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection when comparing gastric cancer cases with matched controls. However, the findings suggest that gastric cancer may be associated with infection by organisms that are genotypically different from those not associated with disease. [source]

    Madelung Strain in Cuprate Superconductors , A Route to Enhancement of the Critical Temperature

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 36 2009
    Vladimir Y. Butko
    "Madelung Strain" in cuprate films containing metal (M,=,La1.56Sr0.44CuO4) and insulator (I,=,La2CuO4) layers: X-ray diffraction shows that, unexpectedly, the volume of unit cell of the top layer adjusts to that of the bottom layer. The effect is due to long-range Coulomb forces; it affects interfacial superconductivity because the critical temperature scales with the unit-cell height. [source]

    Characterization of Charge Collection in Photodiodes under Mechanical Strain: Comparison between Organic Bulk Heterojunction and Amorphous Silicon

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 18 2009
    Tse Nga Ng
    Both gradual electrical changes and device failure mechanisms caused by mechanical strain in organic photodiodes are investigated and compared to a-Si:H deposited on plastic substrates. [source]

    Carbon Nanotube Networks: Sensing of Distributed Strain and Damage for Life Prediction and Self Healing,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 21 2006
    T. Thostenson
    Conducting carbon nanotube networks formed in an epoxy polymer matrix can be utilized as highly sensitive in,situ sensors for detecting the onset, nature, and evolution of damage in advanced polymer-based composites using direct-current measurements (see figure). These results hold promise for evaluation of autonomic self-healing approaches for polymers and for the development of enhanced life-prediction methodologies. [source]

    High, Purely Electrostrictive Strain in Lead-Free Dielectrics

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 1 2006
    C. Ang
    A high electrostrictive strain (,0.1%) with hysteresis-free behavior is observed in (Sr,Na,Bi)TiO3 solid solutions. Its strain versus polarization (P) completely follows the quadratic relation (see Figure), indicating a purely electrostrictive effect with an electrostrictive coefficient Q11 of 0.02,m4,C,2. These properties of this environmentally friendly lead-free material are comparable with those of the currently used lead-containing materials. [source]