Stimulatory Factors (stimulatory + factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Identification of a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the first tandem repeat sequence of the thymidylate synthase 2R allele

Lisa F. Lincz
Abstract Thymidylate synthase (TS) activity is an important determinant of response to chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine prodrugs and its expression is largely determined by the number of functional upstream stimulatory factor (USF) E-box consensus elements present in the 5,regulatory region of the TYMS gene. Two known polymorphisms in this area, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) consisting of 2 or 3 repeats (2R/3R) of a 28-bp sequence and a further G > C single nucleotide substitution within the second repeat of the 3R, result in genotypes with between 2 and 4 functional repeats in most humans. Here, we identify a further G > C SNP in the first repeat of the TYMS 2R allele, which effectively abolishes the only functional USF protein binding site in this promoter. The frequency of the new allele was found to be 4.2% (95% CI = 1.4,9.6%), accounting for 8.8% (95% CI = 2.9,19.3%) of all 2R alleles in our patient cohort. Thus, we observed that the lowest number of inherited functional binding sites is 1 instead of 2 as previously thought, and could potentially be 0 in a homozygous individual. This would severely decrease TS expression and may have implications for predicting efficacy and toxicity of therapy with commonly used fluorouracil-based therapy regimes. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

High glucose levels upregulate upstream stimulatory factor 2 gene transcription in mesangial cells

Lihua Shi
Abstract Previously, we demonstrated that upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) mediates high glucose-induced thrombospondin1 (TSP1) gene expression and TGF-, activity in glomerular mesangial cells and plays a role in diabetic renal complications. In the present studies, we further determined the molecular mechanisms by which high glucose levels regulate USF2 gene expression. In primary rat mesangial cells, we found that glucose treatment time and dose-dependently up-regulated USF2 expression (mRNA and protein). By using cycloheximide to block the de novo protein synthesis, similar rate of USF2 degradation was found under either normal glucose or high glucose conditions. USF2 mRNA stability was not altered by high glucose treatment. Furthermore, high glucose treatment stimulated USF2 gene promoter activity. By using the luciferase-promoter deletion assay, site-directed mutagenesis, and transactivation assay, we identified a glucose-responsive element in the USF2 gene promoter (,1,740 to ,1,620, relative to the transcription start site) and demonstrated that glucose-induced USF2 expression is mediated through a cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent transactivation of the USF2 promoter. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated CREB knock down abolished glucose-induced USF2 expression. Taken together, these data indicate that high glucose levels up-regulate USF2 gene transcription in mesangial cells through CREB-dependent transactivation of the USF2 promoter. J. Cell. Biochem. 103: 1952,1961, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Purification and identification of a transcription factor, USF-2, binding to E-box element in the promoter of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)

Shoulei Jiang
Abstract Controversy remains about the identity of the transcription factor(s) (TFs), which bind to the two E-box elements (CACGTG, proximal and distal) of the human telomerase (hTERT) gene promoter, the essential elements in the regulation of telomerase. Here, systematic oligonucleotide trapping supplemented with 2-DE and proteomic methods was used to identify E-box binding TFs. Although insufficient purity was obtained from the proximal E-box element trapping, further fractionation provided by 2-DE and specific identification from Southwestern blotting analysis allow us to clearly identify an E-box binding TF. The protein spot was cut from 2-DE and in-gel digested with trypsin for LC-nanospray ESI-MS/MS analysis. This identified upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2). Western blotting analysis with specific antibodies clearly shows USF2 present in the purified fraction and USF2 antibody supershifts the specific DNA-binding complex on non-denaturing gels. Furthermore, a novel method was developed in which the specific DNA-TF complex was separated on a non-denaturing gel, the band was cut and applied to SDS-PAGE for a second dimension. Western blots of this second gel also confirmed the presence of USF2. [source]

Doublecortin expression levels in adult brain reflect neurogenesis

Sebastien Couillard-Despres
Abstract Progress in the field of neurogenesis is currently limited by the lack of tools enabling fast and quantitative analysis of neurogenesis in the adult brain. Doublecortin (DCX) has recently been used as a marker for neurogenesis. However, it was not clear whether DCX could be used to assess modulations occurring in the rate of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian central nervous system following lesioning or stimulatory factors. Using two paradigms increasing neurogenesis levels (physical activity and epileptic seizures), we demonstrate that quantification of DCX-expressing cells allows for an accurate measurement of modulations in the rate of adult neurogenesis. Importantly, we excluded induction of DCX expression during physiological or reactive gliogenesis and excluded also DCX re-expression during regenerative axonal growth. Our data validate DCX as a reliable and specific marker that reflects levels of adult neurogenesis and its modulation. We demonstrate that DCX is a valuable alternative to techniques currently used to measure the levels of neurogenesis. Importantly, in contrast to conventional techniques, analysis of neurogenesis through the detection of DCX does not require in vivo labelling of proliferating cells, thereby opening new avenues for the study of human neurogenesis under normal and pathological conditions. [source]

UXT interacts with the transcriptional repressor protein EVI1 and suppresses cell transformation

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 15 2007
Roger McGilvray
The EVI1 transcriptional repressor is critical to the normal development of a variety of tissues and participates in the progression of acute myeloid leukaemias. The repressor domain (Rp) was used to screen an adult human kidney yeast two-hybrid library and a novel binding partner designated ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT) was isolated. Enforced expression of UXT in Evi1-expressing Rat1 fibroblasts suppresses cell transformation and UXT may therefore be a negative regulator of Evi1 biological activity. The Rp-binding site for UXT was determined and non-UXT-binding Evi1 mutants (Evi1,706,707) were developed which retain the ability to bind the corepressor mCtBP2. Evi1,706,707 transforms Rat1 fibroblasts, showing that the interaction is not essential for Evi1-mediated cell transformation. However, Evi1,706,707 produces an increased proportion of large colonies relative to wild-type, showing that endogenous UXT has an inhibitory effect on Evi1 biological activity. Exogenous UXT still suppresses Evi1,706,707-mediated cell transformation, indicating that it inhibits cell proliferation and/or survival by both Evi1-dependent and Evi1-independent mechanisms. These observations are consistent with the growth-suppressive function attributed to UXT in human prostate cancer. Our results show that UXT suppresses cell transformation and might mediate this function by interaction and inhibition of the biological activity of cell proliferation and survival stimulatory factors like Evi1. [source]

Inhibition of 13-cis retinoic acid-induced gene expression of homeobox B7 by thalidomide

an Milanovi
Abstract Thalidomide and 13-cis retinoic acid (RA) show anticancer effects as sole agents or in combination with other drugs. However, induction of homeobox (HOX) gene expression by 13-cis RA may contribute to tumor progression thereby potentially limiting its efficacy. The purpose was to test if thalidomide can inhibit 13-cis RA-induced HOXB7 expression and whether thalidomide may enhance the antiproliferative effect of 13-cis RA in U343MG glioblastoma cells. Quantitative real-time PCR showed significant inhibition of 13-cis RA-induced HOXB7 expression by thalidomide with IC50 , 0.1,0.2 ,g/ml when given simultaneously with 13-cis RA but not when administered 18h later (p < 0.0001). 13-cis RA alone inhibited proliferation and colony formation in a concentration-dependent manner whereas growth inhibition by thalidomide alone at 5,100 ,g/ml was constant at 80,90% of controls. At 10% serum concentration, growth inhibition by a combination of the 2 drugs was additive but at 1% serum, growth inhibition was synergistic. It is concluded that thalidomide inhibits the RA-induced HOXB7 expression in glioblastoma cells and that 13-cis RA/thalidomide combinations can in principle enhance cytotoxicity. The improved cell kill induced by thalidomide is attributed to downregulation of growth stimulatory factors induced by 13-cis RA. Implications for the modus operandi of thalidomide in embryogenesis are noted. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Evidence for a role for anti-Müllerian hormone in the suppression of follicle activation in mouse ovaries and bovine ovarian cortex grafted beneath the chick chorioallantoic membrane

I. Gigli
Abstract The first critical transition in follicular development, the activation of primordial follicles to leave the pool of resting follicles and begin growth, is poorly understood, but it appears that the balance between inhibitory and stimulatory factors is important in regulating the exodus of follicles from the resting pool. There is evidence that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH; also known as MIS) inhibits follicle activation in mice, but whether it plays a similar role in non rodent species is not known. When pieces of bovine ovarian cortex, rich in primordial follicles, are cultured in serum-free medium, most follicles initiate growth, but when cortical pieces are grafted beneath the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos, follicle activation does not occur. Since embryonic chick gonads of both sexes produce and secrete high levels of AMH, the hypothesis that the AMH in the chick circulation inhibits follicle activation was tested. In Experiment 1, whole newborn mouse ovaries were grafted beneath the CAM (placed "in ovo") or cultured in vitro for 8 days. In vitro (or after 8 days in vivo) follicles activated and proceeded to the primary or secondary stage, but activation was suppressed in ovo. This inhibition was reversed if ovaries were removed from beneath the CAM and cultured in vitro. In contrast, when ovaries from mice null mutant for the AMH type II receptor were CAM-grafted in Experiment 2, follicle activation occurred in a similar fashion to activation in vitro. This finding strongly implicates AMH as the inhibitor of follicle activation in ovo. Since chick embryonic gonads are the source of circulating AMH, chicks were gonadectomized in Experiment 3, prior to grafting of pieces of bovine ovarian cortex beneath their CAMs. Bovine primordial follicles activated in the gonadectomized chicks, similar to the results for mice lacking the AMH type II receptor. Taken together these experiments provide strong evidence that AMH is the inhibitor of mouse follicle activation present in the circulation of embryonic chicks and provide indirect, and hence more tentative, evidence for AMH as an inhibitor of bovine follicle activation. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Embryonic stem cells and prospects for their use in regenerative medicine approaches to motor neurone disease

Y. A. Christou
Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells with the potential to differentiate into any cell type in the presence of appropriate stimulatory factors and environmental cues. Their broad developmental potential has led to valuable insights into the principles of developmental and cell biology and to the proposed use of human embryonic stem cells or their differentiated progeny in regenerative medicine. This review focuses on the prospects for the use of embryonic stem cells in cell-based therapy for motor neurone disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that specifically affects upper and lower motor neurones and leads ultimately to death from respiratory failure. Stem cell-derived motor neurones could conceivably be used to replace the degenerated cells, to provide authentic substrates for drug development and screening and for furthering our understanding of disease mechanisms. However, to reliably and accurately culture motor neurones, the complex pathways by which differentiation occurs in vivo must be understood and reiterated in vitro by embryonic stem cells. Here we discuss the need for new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of motor neurone disease, the developmental processes that result in motor neurone formation in vivo, a number of experimental approaches to motor neurone production in vitro and recent progress in the application of stem cells to the treatment and understanding of motor neurone disease. [source]

Glucocorticoids enhance interleukin-4 production to neo-antigen (hyaluronidase) in children immunocompromised with cytostatic drugs

Monika Edelbauer
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions to hyaluronidase have been observed in children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Glucocorticoids, used as therapy for brain edema, are discussed controversially as T helper 2 (Th2) stimulatory factors. In this study we investigated the role of glucocorticoids on a Th2 cytokine-promoting effect in children with CNS tumors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from: 29 children suffering from malignant brain tumors, of whom 23 received short-term glucocorticoid treatment (for 3,4 days) during the course of chemotherapy; 18 children with nephrotic syndrome or renal transplantation receiving long-term glucocorticoid treatment; and 13 healthy children, were incubated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and/or anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and, in a second approach, with hyaluronidase. The concentrations of Th cell-mediated cytokines , interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and interferon-, (IFN-,) , were measured in supernatants. The IL-4 production of PBMCs incubated with PHA/anti-CD28 mAb from children with repeated co-administration of glucocorticoids, hyaluronidase, and cytostatic drugs (median: 249.9 pg/ml; range: 234.4,261.7) was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than IL-4 production of PBMC from children of all the other groups (median: 86.18; range: 16.0,212.5). There was no significant difference in the levels of IL-10 and IFN-, within the groups. PBMCs stimulated only with hyaluronidase failed to produce detectable levels of cytokines. The results of this study indicate that repeated co-administration of glucocorticoids and hyaluronidase (a neo-antigen) enhance IL-4 production in vitro and thus may induce the production of specific IgE antibodies in children immunocompromised with cytostatic drugs. Hyaluronidase itself does not stimulate in vitro IL-4 synthesis in PBMCs of children receiving cytostatic drugs. [source]