Stimulatory Effects (stimulatory + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Structure,Activity Relationship Studies on the Immune Stimulatory Effects of Base-Modified CpG Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonists

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 9 2006
Marion Jurk Dr.
Abstract Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated deoxycytidylyl-deoxyguanosine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs are able to stimulate potent immune responses through a signaling pathway involving Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). We have investigated the structure,activity relationship (SAR) of base-modified CpG oligonucleotides with TLR9 by measuring TLR9 activation by 20-mer oligonucleotides having just a single human recognition motif (5,-GTCGTT-3,) in functional cell-based TLR9 assays. Substitution of guanine by hypoxanthine and 6-thioguanine resulted in activity similar to the unmodified parent molecule, whereas purine, 2-aminopurine, 2,6-diaminopurine, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine substitution resulted in approximately 40,60,% reduction in activity, and 7-deazaguanine substitution led to the strongest (80,%) reduction in TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, none of the investigated modifications at C5 and N4 of cytosine were well tolerated with respect to human TLR9 stimulation. Our results are compatible with a SAR model in which guanine is recognized by the Hoogsteen site, and C5 is most critical for recognition of cytosine. In addition, we found significant species-specific differences between human and murine TLR9 recognition, which demonstrates the importance of choosing appropriate assay systems for SAR studies. [source]

Sonic hedgehog is involved in osteoblast differentiation by cooperating with BMP-2

Takahito Yuasa
The roles of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp-2) in osteoblast differentiation were investigated using in vitro cell systems. Recombinant amino-terminal portion of SHH (rSHH-N) dose dependently stimulated ALP activity in C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1 cells. rSHH-N induced expression of Osteocalcin mRNA in C3H10T1/2 cells. A soluble form of the receptor for type IA BMP receptor antagonized rSHH-N-induced ALP activity in C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1 cells, indicating that BMPs are involved in SHH-induced osteoblast differentiation. Simultaneous supplement with rSHH-N and BMP-2 synergistically induced ALP activity and expression of Osteocalcin mRNA in C3H10T1/2 cells. Pretreatment with rSHH-N for 6 h enhanced the response to BMP-2 by increasing ALP activity in C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1 cells. Stimulatory effects of rSHH-N and additive effects with rSHH-N and BMP-2 on ALP activity were also observed in mouse primary osteoblastic cells. Transplantation of BMP-2 (1 ,g) into muscle of mice induced formation of ectopic bone, whereas transplantation of r-SHH-N (1,5 ,g) failed to generate it. These results indicate that Shh plays important roles in osteoblast differentiation by cooperating with BMP. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Neural Circuits Regulating Pulsatile Luteinizing Hormone Release in the Female Guinea-Pig: Opioid, Adrenergic and Serotonergic Interactions

A. C. Gore
Abstract We studied three neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) release: opioid peptides, serotonin and norepinephrine, using the ovariectomized guinea-pig. This is an attractive animal model due to the regularity of its LH pulses, enabling any disruptions to be clearly ascertained. In all experiments, a specific agonist or antagonist was administered, either alone or serially to enable detection of interactions, and effects on mean LH concentrations, pulse amplitude and interpulse interval were determined by PULSAR analysis. In the ovariectomized guinea-pig, catecholamines are stimulatory (acting through the ,1 and ,2 but not , receptors, unlike other species), opioids inhibitory and serotonin permissively stimulatory to pulsatile LH release. Stimulatory effects of the opiate antagonist were not blocked by pretreatment with an ,1 - or ,2 -adrenergic antagonist. Similarly, pretreatment with the opiate antagonist did not prevent the suppression of LH release by ,1 and ,2 antagonists. This suggests that, in the guinea-pig, effects of opiates and catecholamines on LH release are exerted by independent pathways to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) neurones. For the opiate,serotonin interactions, pretreatment with the serotonergic antagonist did not block the stimulatory effect of the opiate antagonist on LH release. However, pretreatment with the opiate agonist could not be overcome by the serotonergic agonist. This suggests that the effects of the serotonin system on LHRH release may be indirectly mediated by opioid neurones. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the three neurotransmitter systems studied are critically involved in normal pulsatile LH release in the female guinea-pig, and demonstrate novel functional relationships between the opioid and the adrenergic and serotonergic systems. [source]

Stimulatory effects of the soy phytoestrogen genistein on noradrenaline transporter and serotonin transporter activity

Yumiko Toyohira
Abstract We examined the effects of genistein, one of the major soy phytoestrogens, on the activity of noradrenaline transporter (NAT) and serotonin transporter. Treatment with genistein (10,nM,10,,M) for 20,min stimulated [3H]noradrenaline (NA) uptake by SK-N-SH cells. Genistein also stimulated [3H]NA uptake and [3H]serotonin uptake by NAT and serotonin transporter transiently transfected COS-7 cells, respectively. Kinetics analysis of the effect of genistein on NAT activity in NAT-transfected COS-7 cells revealed that genistein significantly increased the maximal velocity of NA transport with little or no change in the affinity. Scatchard analysis of [3H]nisoxetine binding to NAT-transfected COS-7 cells showed that genistein increased the maximal binding without altering the dissociation constant. Although genistein is also known to be an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, daidzein, another soy phytoestrogen and an inactive genistein analogue against tyrosine kinases, had little effect on [3H]NA uptake by SK-N-SH cells. The stimulatory effects on NAT activity were observed by treatment of tyrphostin 25, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, whereas orthovanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, suppressed [3H]NA uptake by NAT-transfected COS-7 cells. These findings suggest that genistein up-regulates the activity of neuronal monoamine transporters probably through processes involving protein tyrosine phosphorylation. [source]

Chronic toxicity and responses of several important enzymes in Daphnia magna on exposure to sublethal microcystin-LR

Wei Chen
Abstract In the current study, the toxicological mechanisms of microcystin-LR and its disadvantageous effects on Daphnia magna were examined. Survival rate, number of newborn, activity of several important enzymes [glutathione S-transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphatases, and glutathione], accumulated microcystins, and ultrastructural changes in different organs of Daphnia were monitored over the course of 21-day chronic tests. The results indicated that low concentrations of dissolved microcystin had no harmful effect on Daphnia. On the contrary, stimulatory effects were detected. In the presence of toxin at high dosage and for long-term exposure, GST and glutathione levels decreased significantly. The decreased enzyme activity in the antioxidant system probably was caused by detoxification reactions with toxins. And these processes of detoxification at the beginning of chronic tests may enable phosphatases in Daphnia magna to withstand inhibition by the toxins. At the same time, we also found that the LDH activity in test animals increased with exposure to microcystin-LR, indicating that adverse effects occurred in Daphnia. With microcystin given at a higher dosage or for a longer exposure, the effect on Daphnia magna was fatal. In the meantime, microcystin began to accumulate in Daphnia magna, and phosphatase activity started to be inhibited. From the ultrastructure results of cells in D. magna, we obtained new information: the alimentary canal may be the target organ affected by exposure of microcystins to D. magna. The results of the current study also suggested that the oxidative damage and PPI (protein phosphatase inhibition) mechanisms of vertebrates also are adapted to Daphnia. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 20: 323,330, 2005. [source]

In vitro effects of lidocaine on the contractility of equine jejunal smooth muscle challenged by ischaemia-reperfusion injury

Summary Reasons for performing study: Post operative ileus (POI) in horses is a severe complication after colic surgery. A commonly used prokinetic drug is lidocaine, which has been shown to have stimulatory effects on intestinal motility. The cellular mechanisms through which lidocaine affects smooth muscle activity are not yet known. Objectives: To examine the effects of lidocaine on smooth muscle in vitro and identify mechanisms by which it may affect the contractility of intestinal smooth muscle. Hypothesis: Ischaemia and reperfusion associated with intestinal strangulation can cause smooth muscle injury. Consequently, muscle cell functionality and contractile performance is decreased. Lidocaine can improve basic cell functions and thereby muscle cell contractility especially in ischaemia-reperfusion-challenged smooth muscle. Methods: To examine the effects of lidocaine on smooth muscle function directly, isometric force performance was measured in vitro in noninjured and in vivo ischaemia-reperfusion injured smooth muscle tissues. Dose-dependent response of lidocaine was measured in both samples. To assess membrane permeability as a marker of basic cell function, release of creatine kinase (CK) was measured by in vitro incubations. Results: Lidocaine-stimulated contractility of ischaemia-reperfusion injured smooth muscle was more pronounced than that of noninjured smooth muscle. A 3-phasic dose-dependency was observed with an initial recovery of contractility especially in ischaemia-reperfusion injured smooth muscle followed by a plateau phase where contractility was maintained over a broad concentration range. CK release was decreased by lidocaine. Conclusion: Lidocaine may improve smooth muscle contractility and basic cell function by cellular repair mechanisms which are still unknown. Improving contractility of smooth muscle after ischaemia-reperfusion injury is essential in recovery of propulsive intestinal motility. Potential relevance: Characterisation of the cellular mechanisms of effects of lidocaine, especially on ischaemia-reperfusion injured smooth muscle, may lead to improved treatment strategies for horses with POI. [source]

Effects of glucose ingestion on cardiac autonomic nervous system in healthy centenarians: differences with aged subjects

Background Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) investigates the cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. In particular, low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) is considered an index of cardiac sympatho-vagal balance and is stimulated by glucose ingestion in healthy subjects. No studies have evaluated the effect of glucose ingestion on cardiac ANS in centenarians. Materials and methods In 30 healthy centenarians (HC) and 25 aged subjects (AS) power spectral analysis of HRV was investigated during an oral glucose ingestion. Results Glucose ingestion rose LF/HF ratio in both groups studied. Such stimulatory effects were restrained to the first 60 min of the study. Independent of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and fasting plasma norepinephrine and FT3 concentrations, HC had basal total power (1318 546 vs. 1918 818 msec2, P < 0.01), lower low frequency (LF) (33 21 vs. 50 11 n.u. , P < 0.03), and higher high frequency (HF) (74 18 vs. 43 15 n.u., P < 0.05) than AS. Consequently, LF/HF ratio (0.43 0.07 vs. 0.91 0.05, P < 0.02) was also lower in HC than in AS. In AS, but not in HC, the baseline LF/HF ratio correlated significantly with BMI (r = 0.48, P < 0.01), waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (r = 0.45, P < 0.02), fasting plasma insulin (r = 0.49, P < 0.01) and norepinephrine (r = 0.57, P < 0.02) concentration. Glucose ingestion was associated with a significant rise in LF/HF ratio in both groups studied but per cent changes in glucose mediated stimulation of LF/HF was lower in HC than in AS. In a control study, water administration did not affect power spectral parameters of HRV. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that basal- and glucose-stimulated LF/HF, an indirect index of cardiac sympatho-vagal balance, are lower in HC than in AS. [source]

The expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and biosynthesis of leukotriene B4 in acute myeloid leukemia cells

Gudmundur Runarsson
Abstract Leukotrienes (LT) exert stimulatory effects on myelopoiesis, beside their inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. Here, we have studied the expression and activity of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells (16 clones) and G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cells. CD34+ cells from patients with non-myeloid malignancies expressed cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase but not 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). The enzyme cPLA2 was abundantly expressed in AML cells and the activity of the enzyme was high in certain AML clones. The expression of 5-LO, FLAP, and LTA4 hydrolase in AML clones was in general lower than in healthy donor polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). The calcium ionophore A23187-induced release of [14C] arachidonic acid (AA) in AML cells was low, compared with PMNL, and did not correlate with the expression of cPLA2 protein. Biosynthesis of LTB4, upon calcium ionophore A23187 activation, was only observed in five of the investigated AML clones and only three of the most differentiated clones produced similar amounts of LTB4 as PMNL. The capacity of various cell clones to produce LTs could neither be explained by the difference in [1 , 14C] AA release nor 5-LO expression. Taken together, these results indicate that LT synthesis is under development during early myelopoiesis and the capacity to produce LTs is gained upon maturation. High expression of cPLA2 in AML suggests a putative role of this enzyme in the pathophysiology of this disease. [source]

PRECLINICAL STUDY: Is withdrawal hyperalgesia in morphine-dependent mice a direct effect of a low concentration of the residual drug?

Vardit Rubovitch
ABSTRACT Withdrawal of opioid drugs leads to a cluster of unpleasant symptoms in dependent subjects. These symptoms are stimulatory in nature and oppose the acute, inhibitory effects of opiates. The conventional theory that explains the opioid withdrawal syndrome assumes that chronic usage of opioid drugs activates compensatory mechanisms whose stimulatory effects are revealed upon elimination of the inhibitory opioid drug from the body. Based on previous studies that show a dose-dependent dual activity of opiates, including pain perception, we present here an alternative explanation to the phenomenon of withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. According to this explanation, the residual low concentration of the drug that remains after cessation of its administration elicits the stimulatory withdrawal hyperalgesia. The goal of the present study was to test this hypothesis. In the present study we rendered mice dependent on morphine by a daily administration of the drug. Cessation of morphine application elicited withdrawal hyperalgesia that was completely blocked by a high dose of the opiate antagonist naloxone (100 mg/kg). Similarly, naloxone (2 mg/kg)-induced withdrawal hyperalgesia was also blocked by 100 mg/kg of naloxone. The blockage of withdrawal hyperalgesia by naloxone suggested the involvement of opioid receptors in the phenomenon and indicated that withdrawal hyperalgesia is a direct effect of a residual, low concentration of morphine. Acute experiments that show morphine- and naloxone-induced hyperalgesia further verified our hypothesis. Our findings offer a novel, alternative approach to opiate detoxifications that may prevent withdrawal symptoms by a complete blockage of the opioid receptors using a high dose of the opioid antagonist. [source]

REVIEW: The alcohol-preferring P rat and animal models of excessive alcohol drinking

Richard L. Bell
ABSTRACT The alcohol-preferring, P, rat was developed by selective breeding to study ethanol drinking behavior and its consequences. Characterization of this line indicates the P rat meets all of the criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism, and displays, relative to their alcohol-non-preferring, NP, counterparts, a number of phenotypic traits associated with alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Behaviorally, compared with NP rats, P rats are less sensitive to the sedative and aversive effects of ethanol and more sensitive to the stimulatory effects of ethanol. Neurochemically, research with the P line indicates the endogenous dopaminergic, serotonergic, GABAergic, opiodergic, and peptidergic systems may be involved in a predisposition for alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Paralleling the clinical literature, genetically selected P rats display levels of ethanol intake during adolescence comparable to that seen during adulthood. Binge drinking has been associated with an increased risk for health and other problems associated with ethanol abuse. A model of binge-like drinking during the dark cycle indicates that P rats will consume 6 g/kg/day of ethanol in as little as three 1-hour access periods/day, which approximates the 24-hour intake of P rats with free-choice access to a single concentration of ethanol. The alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) is a transient increase in ethanol intake above baseline values upon re-exposure to ethanol access after an extended period of deprivation. The ADE has been proposed to be an animal model of relapse behavior, with the adult P rat displaying a robust ADE after prolonged abstinence. Overall, these findings indicate that the P rat can be effectively used in models assessing alcohol-preference, a genetic predisposition for alcohol abuse and/or alcoholism, and excessive drinking using protocols of binge-like or relapse-like drinking. [source]

Reduced ethanol response in the alcohol-preferring RHA rats and neuropeptide mRNAs in relevant structures

Marc Guitart-Masip
Abstract Roman rat strains, genetically selected for high (RHA) or low (RLA) active avoidance acquisition in the two-way shuttle box, differ in dopaminergic activity. These two strains appear to be a valid laboratory model of divergent sensation/novelty and substance-seeking profiles. RHA rats show higher ethanol intake and preference than do RLA rats, and it was suggested that RHA rats are more tolerant than RLA to the effects of alcohol. In the hole-board test, we found that the non-alcohol-preferring RLA rats showed enhanced responsiveness to the stimulatory effects of intraperitoneal administration of 0.25 g/kg ethanol when compared with RHA rats. In situ hybridization analysis showed higher levels of preprodynorphin in the accumbens shell and higher levels of preproenkephalin in the cingulate cortex in RHA rats. RLA rats showed higher levels of enkephalin gene transcripts in restricted areas of the dorsal striatum. Finally, differences in cholecystokinin gene transcript, suggestive of a different arrangement of certain interneurons, were found in different cortical areas. The differences in peptide gene expression found between the two strains might reflect the differences in alcohol preference and sensitivity. RHA rats may have more predictive value than other rodent alcoholism models, as high initial tolerance to ethanol is a risk factor for alcoholism in humans. [source]

Influence of prostaglandin F2, and its analogues on hair regrowth and follicular melanogenesis in a murine model

S. Sasaki
Abstract:, Latanoprost and isopropyl unoprostone, which are analogues of prostaglandin F2, (PGF2,), are promising drugs for the reduction of intra-ocular pressure. However, they have been reported to have side effects, including hypertrichosis and hyperpigmentation of the eyelashes and periocular skin, and occasionally poliosis. In order to investigate these effects further, PGF2,, latanoprost and isopropyl unoprostone were applied to the dorsal skin of 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice, and hair length was measured during the treatment. The three molecules all showed stimulatory effects on the murine hair follicles and the follicular melanocytes in both the telogen and anagen stages, and stimulated conversion from the telogen to the anagen phase. PGE2 is known to act synergistically with PGF2,, and hence the influence of PGE2 was also examined. PGE2 did not induce distinct telogen-to-anagen conversion, but showed moderate growth stimulatory effects on early anagen hair follicles. In addition, we observed a case of hypertrichosis and trichomegaly with an excess of melanogenesis, leading to the emergence of white hair, suggesting that poliosis can occur as a side effect of eye treatment with solutions of PGF2, analogues. The stimulatory effects of PGF2,and PGE2 on hair growth have been discussed with regard to the role of protein kinase C and mast cells. [source]

Interaction with calmodulin is important for the secretion of thimet oligopeptidase following stimulation

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 16 2009
Lilian C. Russo
Thimet oligopeptidase (EC; EP24.15) was originally described as a neuropeptide-metabolizing enzyme, highly expressed in the brain, kidneys and neuroendocrine tissue. EP24.15 lacks a typical signal peptide sequence for entry into the secretory pathway and is secreted by cells via an unconventional and unknown mechanism. In this study, we identified a novel calcium-dependent interaction between EP24.15 and calmodulin, which is important for the stimulated, but not constitutive, secretion of EP24.15. We demonstrated that, in vitro, EP24.15 and calmodulin physically interact only in the presence of Ca2+, with an estimated Kd value of 0.52 ,m. Confocal microscopy confirmed that EP24.15 colocalizes with calmodulin in the cytosol of resting HEK293 cells. This colocalization markedly increases when cells are treated with either the calcium ionophore A23187 or the protein kinase A activator forskolin. Overexpression of calmodulin in HEK293 cells is sufficient to greatly increase the A23187-stimulated secretion of EP24.15, which can be inhibited by the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium. The specific inhibition of protein kinase A with KT5720 reduces the A23187-stimulated secretion of EP24.15 and inhibits the synergistic effects of forskolin with A23187. Treatment with calmidazolium and KT5720 nearly abolishes the stimulatory effects of A23187 on EP24.15 secretion. Together, these data suggest that the interaction between EP24.15 and calmodulin is regulated within cells and is important for the stimulated secretion of EP24.15 from HEK293 cells. Structured digital abstract ,,MINT-7148420: EP24.15 (uniprotkb:P52888) and Calmodulin (uniprotkb:P62161) bind (MI:0407) by surface plasmon resonance (MI:0107) ,,MINT-7148437: EP24.15 (uniprotkb:P52888) and Calmodulin (uniprotkb:P62158) colocalize (MI:0403) by surface plasmon resonance (MI:0107) ,,MINT-7148406: Calmodulin (uniprotkb:P62161) binds (MI:0407) to EP24.15 (uniprotkb:P52888) by pull down (MI:0096) [source]

Curvature properties of novel forms of phosphatidylcholine with branched acyl chains

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 10 2000
Richard M. Epand
We studied the properties of a series of phosphatidylcholine molecules with branched acyl chains. These lipids have previously been shown to have marked stimulatory effects on the side-chain cleavage activity of cytochrome P450SCC (CYP11A1), an enzyme of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The synthetic lipids used were diacyl phosphatidylcholines with the decanoyl, dodecanoyl or tetradecanoyl chain having a hexyl, octyl or decyl straight chain aliphatic branch at the 2-position. All three lipids lowered the bilayer to hexagonal phase transition temperature of dielaidoyl phosphatidylethanolamine, the lipids with longer acyl chains being more effective in this regard. As pure lipids all of the forms were found by X-ray diffraction to be predominantly in the hexagonal phase (HII) over the entire temperature range of 7,75 C. The properties of the HII phase were unusual with regard to the small size of the lattice spacings and the small temperature dependence of the spacings. We used tetradecane to relieve hydrocarbon packing constraints to determine the intrinsic radius of curvature of the lipid monolayer. The elastic bending modulus was measured in the presence of tetradecane by introducing an osmotic gradient across the hexagonal phase cylinders with aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol). The elastic bending modulus was found to be higher than that observed with other lipids and to increase with temperature. Both the small intrinsic radius of curvature and the high elastic bending modulus indicate that the presence of these lipids in bilayer membranes will impose a high degree of negative curvature strain. [source]

Nitrogen-regulated effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on methane emissions from paddy rice fields

Abstract Using the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) techniques, we carried out a 3-year mono-factorial experiment in temperate paddy rice fields of Japan (1998,2000) and a 3-year multifactorial experiment in subtropical paddy rice fields in the Yangtze River delta in China (2001,2003), to investigate the methane (CH4) emissions in response to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (20040 mmol mol,1 higher than that in the ambient atmosphere). No significant effect of the elevated CO2 upon seasonal accumulative CH4 emissions was observed in the first rice season, but significant stimulatory effects (CH4 increase ranging from 38% to 188%, with a mean of 88%) were observed in the second and third rice seasons in the fields with or without organic matter addition. The stimulatory effects of the elevated CO2 upon seasonal accumulative CH4 emissions were negatively correlated with the addition rates of decomposable organic carbon (P<0.05), but positively with the rates of nitrogen fertilizers applied in either the current rice season (P<0.05) or the whole year (P<0.01). Six mechanisms were proposed to explain collectively the observations. Soil nitrogen availability was identified as an important regulator. The effect of soil nitrogen availability on the observed relation between elevated CO2 and CH4 emission can be explained by (a) modifying the C/N ratio of the plant residues formed in the previous growing season(s); (b) changing the inhibitory effect of high C/N ratio on plant residue decomposition in the current growing season; and (c) altering the stimulatory effects of CO2 enrichment upon plant growth, as well as nitrogen uptake in the current growing season. This study implies that the concurrent enrichment of reactive nitrogen in the global ecosystems may accelerate the increase of atmospheric methane by initiating a stimulatory effect of the ongoing dramatic atmospheric CO2 enrichment upon methane emissions from nitrogen-poor paddy rice ecosystems and further amplifying the existing stimulatory effect in nitrogen-rich paddy rice ecosystems. [source]

The response of two Glomus mycorrhizal fungi and a fine endophyte to elevated atmospheric CO2, soil warming and drought

Philip L. Staddon
Abstract Plantago lanceolata plants were grown under various environmental conditions in association with the mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae, G. caledonium and a fine endophyte either individually or all together. Using a time-course approach, we investigated the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2), soil warming and drought and their interactions on root length colonized (RLC) by mycorrhizal fungi and extraradical mycorrhizal hyphal (EMH) production. Plant growth responded as would be expected to the environmental manipulations. There was no plant growth-independent effect of eCO2 on mycorrhizal colonization; however, EMH production was stimulated by eCO2, i.e. there was increased partitioning of below-ground carbon to the EMH. Soil warming directly stimulated both percent RLC by the Glomus species and EMH density; soil warming did not affect RLC by the fine endophyte. Drought decreased percent RLC for the fine endophyte, but not for the Glomus species. The presence of one mycorrhizal fungus did not affect the response of another to the environmental variables. There was no evidence of any interactive effects of the environmental variables on RLC, but there were significant environmental interactions on EMH production. In particular, the stimulatory effects of eCO2 and soil warming on EMH density were not additive. The results are discussed in terms of the soil carbon cycle, highlighting some crucial gaps in our knowledge. If future environmental changes affect mycorrhizal fungal turnover and respiration, then this could have important implications for the terrestrial carbon cycle. [source]

Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and actions by genistein in human prostate cancer cells and by soy isoflavones in prostate cancer patients

Srilatha Swami
Abstract Soy and its constituent isoflavone genistein inhibit the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Our study in both cultured cells and PCa patients reveals a novel pathway for the actions of genistein, namely the inhibition of the synthesis and biological actions of prostaglandins (PGs), known stimulators of PCa growth. In the cell culture experiments, genistein decreased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein expression in both human PCa cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3) and primary prostate epithelial cells and increased 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) mRNA levels in primary prostate cells. As a result genistein significantly reduced the secretion of PGE2 by these cells. EP4 and FP PG receptor mRNA were also reduced by genistein, providing an additional mechanism for the suppression of PG biological effects. Further, the growth stimulatory effects of both exogenous PGs and endogenous PGs derived from precursor arachidonic acid were attenuated by genistein. We also performed a pilot randomised double blind clinical study in which placebo or soy isoflavone supplements were given to PCa patients in the neo-adjuvant setting for 2 weeks before prostatectomy. Gene expression changes were measured in the prostatectomy specimens. In PCa patients ingesting isoflavones, we observed significant decreases in prostate COX-2 mRNA and increases in p21 mRNA. There were significant correlations between COX-2 mRNA suppression, p21 mRNA stimulation and serum isoflavone levels. We propose that the inhibition of the PG pathway contributes to the beneficial effect of soy isoflavones in PCa chemoprevention and/or treatment. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Differential response to phytoestrogens in endocrine sensitive and resistant breast cancer cells in vitro

Jane L. Limer
Abstract Women approaching menopause increasingly investigate alternatives to hormone replacement therapy. Plant phytoestrogens are being promoted as "natural" alternatives but there is a lack of substantive data to advocate their safe use in breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen (TAM), or in those who have relapsed. The aim of our study was to investigate the proliferative effects and mode of action of the phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein and coumestrol on TAM-sensitive (-s) and resistant (-r) breast cancer cells under in vitro conditions designed to mimic the hormonal environment of the pre- and post-menopausal breast. At physiological concentrations (<10 ,M) and under reduced estrogen (E2) conditions, genistein was mitogenic to TAM-s cells with TAM-r cells generally refractory. Daidzein and coumestrol were growth stimulatory irrespective of TAM sensitivity. Transcriptional activity was ERE-mediated. Combining phytoestrogens with E2 (simulating the pre-menopausal breast environment) had no effect on growth of TAM-s or TAM-r cells. Addition of 4-HT mimicked the hormonal environment in post-menopausal breast cancer patients receiving TAM. The growth inhibitory effects of 4-HT were abrogated in TAM-s cells when combined with genistein and coumestrol, and to a lesser extent, daidzein, where significant growth stimulatory effects were observed. In TAM-r cells, proliferation did not exceed control values. At phytoestrogen concentrations above 10 ,M, growth inhibitory effects were seen, irrespective of estrogenic environment or cell sensitivity to TAM. Our in vitro data suggests that phytoestrogens could have potentially adverse mitogenic effects on tumour cells and should probably be avoided by patients who remain sensitive to TAM or in those with pre-existing and possibly undiagnosed breast tumours. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Immunotoxicity of acute acephate exposure in control or IL-1-challenged rats: correlation between the immune cell composition and corticosteroid concentration in blood

Ashok K. Singh
Abstract Corticosterone concentration and the immune cell composition were measured in rats exposed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection to different doses (10,500 mg kg,1) of acephate (Ace) and 250 g kg,1 of interleukin 1 (IL-1), either alone or in combination. Two different combination protocols were used: IL-1 and Ace were administered simultaneously; and IL-1 was injected 60 min after Ace administration (sequential exposure). Ace, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, increased blood corticosterone concentrations, suppressed blood CD4, CD8, B cell and monocyte contents and increased blood neutrophil counts. The Ace-induced changes lasted for up to 24 h after Ace exposure. Interleukin 1 increased blood corticosterone concentrations without affecting blood or brain AChE activities. The IL-1-induced corticosterone concentration returned to the basal level within 3,10 h after IL-1 exposure. The CD4, CD8, B cell and monocyte counts increased significantly at 10 min after IL-1 exposure. The cell counts decreased gradually thereafter and returned to the basal level within 30 min after IL-1 exposure. Simultaneous exposure of rats to Ace and IL-1 partially suppressed the IL-1-induced increase in the immune cell counts and decreased the immune cell numbers below the basal values. Sequential injection of Ace and IL-1 blocked the IL-1-induced increase in the immune cell numbers. Thus, Ace exposure would impair the normal distribution of immune cells and deregulate the IL-1 response in rats. This study therefore suggests that Ace would suppress the immune cell numbers in blood, thus decreasing an organism's immunity. Ace exposure occurring concurrent with injury would augment the acute-phase response, which would augment the toxic effects of IL-1 and other cytokines, and Ace exposure occurring prior to the injury would suppress or abolish the initial stimulatory effects of IL-1, which would decrease an organism's ability to combat infection or injury. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sexual dimorphism in cortical bone size and strength but not density is determined by independent and time-specific actions of sex steroids and IGF-1: Evidence from pubertal mouse models

Filip Callewaert
Abstract Although it is well established that males acquire more bone mass than females, the underlying mechanism and timing of this sex difference remain controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the relative contribution of sex steroid versus growth hormone,insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH,IGF-1) action to pubertal bone mass acquisition longitudinally in pubertal mice. Radial bone expansion peaked during early puberty (3 to 5 weeks of age) in male and female mice, with significantly more expansion in males than in females (+40%). Concomitantly, in 5,week old male versus female mice, periosteal and endocortical bone formation was higher (+70%) and lower (,47%), respectively, along with higher serum IGF-1 levels during early puberty in male mice. In female mice, ovariectomy increased radial bone expansion during early puberty as well as the endocortical perimeter. In male mice, orchidectomy reduced radial bone expansion only during late puberty (5 to 8 weeks of age), whereas combined androgen and estrogen deficiency modestly decreased radial bone expansion during early puberty, accompanied by lower IGF-1 levels. GHRKO mice with very low IGF-1 levels, on the other hand, showed limited radial bone expansion and no skeletal dimorphism. From these data we conclude that skeletal sexual dimorphism is established during early puberty and depends primarily on GH,IGF-1 action. In males, androgens and estrogens have stimulatory effects on bone size during late and early puberty, respectively. In females, estrogens limit bone size during early puberty. These longitudinal findings in mice provide strong evidence that skeletal dimorphism is determined by independent and time-specific effects of sex steroids and IGF-1. 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research [source]

IGF-I Receptor Is Required for the Anabolic Actions of Parathyroid Hormone on Bone,

Yongmei Wang
Abstract We showed that the IGF-IR,null mutation in mature osteoblasts leads to less bone and decreased periosteal bone formation and impaired the stimulatory effects of PTH on osteoprogenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Introduction: This study was carried out to examine the role of IGF-I signaling in mediating the actions of PTH on bone. Materials and Methods: Three-month-old mice with an osteoblast-specific IGF-I receptor null mutation (IGF-IR OBKO) and their normal littermates were treated with vehicle or PTH (80 ,g/kg body weight/d for 2 wk). Structural measurements of the proximal and midshaft of the tibia were made by ,CT. Trabecular and cortical bone formation was measured by bone histomorphometry. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were obtained to assess the effects of PTH on osteoprogenitor number and differentiation. Results: The fat-free weight of bone normalized to body weight (FFW/BW), bone volume (BV/TV), and cortical thickness (C.Th) in both proximal tibia and shaft were all less in the IGF-IR OBKO mice compared with controls. PTH decreased FFW/BW of the proximal tibia more substantially in controls than in IGF-IR OBKO mice. The increase in C.Th after PTH in the proximal tibia was comparable in both control and IGF-IR OBKO mice. Although trabecular and periosteal bone formation was markedly lower in the IGF-IR OBKO mice than in the control mice, endosteal bone formation was comparable in control and IGF-IR OBKO mice. PTH stimulated endosteal bone formation only in the control animals. Compared with BMSCs from control mice, BMSCs from IGF-IR OBKO mice showed equal alkaline phosphatase (ALP)+ colonies on day 14, but fewer mineralized nodules on day 28. Administration of PTH increased the number of ALP+ colonies and mineralized nodules on days 14 and 28 in BMSCs from control mice, but not in BMSCs from IGF-IR OBKO mice. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the IGF-IR null mutation in mature osteoblasts leads to less bone and decreased bone formation, in part because of the requirement for the IGF-IR in mature osteoblasts to enable PTH to stimulate osteoprogenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. [source]

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Restores Bone Volume, Microarchitecture, and Strength in Aged Ovariectomized Rats*,,

T Kuber Sampath PhD
Abstract We show the systemic administration of low levels of TSH increases bone volume and improves bone microarchitecture and strength in aged OVX rats. TSH's actions are mediated by its inhibitory effects on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption coupled with stimulatory effects on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, suggesting TSH directly affects bone remodeling in vivo. Introduction: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor haploinsufficient mice with normal circulating thyroid hormone levels have reduced bone mass, suggesting that TSH directly affects bone remodeling. We examined whether systemic TSH administration restored bone volume in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats and influenced osteoclast formation and osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were OVX at 6 months, and TSH therapy was started immediately after surgery (prevention mode; n = 80) or 7 mo later (restoration mode; n = 152). Hind limbs and lumbar spine BMD was measured at 2- or 4-wk intervals in vivo and ex vivo on termination at 8,16 wk. Long bones were subjected to ,CT, histomorphometric, and biomechanical analyses. The direct effect of TSH was examined in osteoclast and osteoblast progenitor cultures and established rat osteosarcoma-derived osteoblastic cells. Data were analyzed by ANOVA Dunnett test. Results: In the prevention mode, low doses (0.1 and 0.3 ,g) of native rat TSH prevented the progressive bone loss, and importantly, did not increase serum triiodothyroxine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels in aged OVX rats. In restoration mode, animals receiving 0.1 and 0.3 ,g TSH had increased BMD (10,11%), trabecular bone volume (100,130%), trabecular number (25,40%), trabecular thickness (45,60%), cortical thickness (5,16%), mineral apposition and bone formation rate (200,300%), and enhanced mechanical strength of the femur (51,60%) compared with control OVX rats. In vitro studies suggest that TSH's action is mediated by its inhibitory effects on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, as shown in hematopoietic stem cells cultivated from TSH-treated OVX rats. TSH also stimulates osteoblast differentiation, as shown by effects on alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin expression, and mineralization rate. Conclusions: These results show for the first time that systemically administered TSH prevents bone loss and restores bone mass in aged OVX rats through both antiresorptive and anabolic effects on bone remodeling. [source]

Stimulatory Effect of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-5 on Mouse Osteoclast Formation and Osteoclastic Bone-Resorbing Activity

Masanori Kanatani
Abstract Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) stimulates osteoblast proliferation directly or indirectly through IGF-I action, but its effects on osteoclast formation and osteoclastic activity are unknown. We tested the effects of IGFBP-5 on osteoclastic activity and osteoclast formation. IGFBP-5 significantly stimulated pit formation by pre-existent osteoclasts in mouse bone cell cultures and its stimulatory effect was completely blocked by IGF-I antibody (Ab). However, IGFBP-5 did not affect the bone-resorbing activity of isolated rabbit osteoclasts. When IGFBP-5 was added to unfractionated bone cells after degeneration of pre-existent osteoclasts, IGFBP-5 (77 pM,7.7 nM) dose-dependently stimulated osteoclast-like cell formation, irrespective of the presence of IGF-I Ab. Moreover, osteoclast-like cells newly formed by IGFBP-5 from unfractionated bone cells possessed the ability to form pits on dentine slices. We next examined the direct effect of IGFBP-5 on osteoclast precursors in the absence of stromal cells, using hemopoietic blast cells derived from spleen cells. IGFBP-5 dose-dependently stimulated osteoclast-like cell formation from osteoclast precursors, irrespective of the presence of IGF-I Ab. Growth hormone (GH) as well as IGF-I significantly stimulated bone resorption by pre-existent osteoclasts in mouse bone cell cultures and these stimulatory effects were completely blocked by IGF-I Ab. GH as well as IGF-I stimulated osteoclast-like cell formation from unfractionated bone cells and this stimulatory effect of GH was significantly but partially blocked by IGF-I Ab. The direct stimulatory effect of GH on osteoclast-like cell formation from hemopoietic blast cells was not affected by IGF-I Ab. The present data indicate that IGFBP-5 stimulates bone resorption both by stimulation of osteoclast formation in an IGF-I,independent fashion and by IGF-I,dependent activation of mature osteoclasts, possibly via osteoblasts, in vitro. (J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:902,910) [source]

Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Production Is Essential for Anabolic Effects of Thyroid Hormone in Osteoblasts,

Bill K. Huang
Abstract Thyroid hormone (T3) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are critical regulators of skeletal function. T3 increases IGF-I production in bone. To assess the potential role of IGF-I as a mediator of T3 actions, we characterized phenotypic markers of osteoblast activity in two osteoblast models, normal mouse osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, exposed to T3 alone or under conditions that interfere with IGF-I actions. T3 significantly increased osteoblast 3H-proline incorporation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin. Both ,IR3, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to the IGF-I receptor, and JB1, an IGF-I analogue antagonist, attenuated the stimulatory effects of T3. T3 effects also were decreased in cells transfected with antisense oligonucleotide (AS-ODN) to the IGF-I receptor gene. Both IGF-I and T3 had mitogenic effects that were inhibited by the antagonists. IGF-I by itself did not stimulate 3H-proline incorporation, ALP, and osteocalcin in the models used, revealing that although IGF-I is essential for the anabolic effects of T3, it acts in concert with other factors to elicit these phenotypic responses. (J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:188,197) [source]

Exendin-4 regulates pancreatic ABCA1 transcription via CaMKK/CaMKIV pathway

Junhua Li
Abstract ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in pancreatic , cells influences insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. This study investigates whether the long-acting agonist of the glucagon-like peptide 1, namely exendin-4, which mediates stimulatory effects on ABCA1 gene expression, could interfere with the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) cascade. ABCA1 promoter activity was examined by reporter gene assay in rat insulin-secreting INS-1 cells incubated with exendin-4. CaMKIV activity was assessed by detection of activation-loop phosphorylation (Thr196) of CaMKIV. We investigated the influence of the constitutively active form (CaMKIVc) or CaMKIV knockdown on ABCA1 expression. Increased abundance of ABCA1 protein was noted in response to rising concentrations of exendin-4 with maximum induction at 10 nM. Exendin-4 also stimulated ABCA1 promoter activity, but failed to do so in the presence of STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor. Up-regulation of CaMKIV phosphorylation (at Thr196) peaked after 10 min. of exposure to exendin-4. CaMKIVc enhanced or up-regulated ABCA1 promoter activity in INS-1 cells. Furthermore, exendin-4 induction of ABCA1 protein expression was significantly suppressed in cells treated with CaMKIV-siRNA. Activation of the CaMKK/CaMKIV cascade by exendin-4 stimulated ABCA1 gene transcription, indicating that exendin-4 plays an important role in insulin secretion and cholesterol ester content in pancreatic , cells. [source]

Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and lipopolysaccharide induced inducible NOS and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expressions by rutin, quercetin, and quercetin pentaacetate in RAW 264.7 macrophages

Yen-Chou Chen
Abstract Several natural flavonoids have been demonstrated to perform some beneficial biological activities, however, higher-effective concentrations and poor-absorptive efficacy in body of flavonoids blocked their practical applications. In the present study, we provided evidences to demonstrate that flavonoids rutin, quercetin, and its acetylated product quercetin pentaacetate were able to be used with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors (N -nitro- L -arginine (NLA) or N -nitro- L -arginine methyl ester (L -NAME)) in treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) productions, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expressions in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). The results showed that rutin, quercetin, and quercetin pentaacetate-inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a concentration-dependent manner without obvious cytotoxic effect on cells by MTT assay using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide as an indicator. Decrease of NO production by flavonoids was consistent with the inhibition on LPS-induced iNOS gene expression by western blotting. However, these compounds were unable to block iNOS enzyme activity by direct and indirect measurement on iNOS enzyme activity. Quercetin pentaacetate showed the obvious inhibition on LPS-induced PGE2 production and COX-2 gene expression and the inhibition was not result of suppression on COX-2 enzyme activity. Previous study demonstrated that decrease of NO production by L -arginine analogs effectively stimulated LPS-induced iNOS gene expression, and proposed that stimulatory effects on iNOS protein by NOS inhibitors might be harmful in treating sepsis. In this study, NLA or L -NAME treatment stimulated significantly on LPS-induced iNOS (but not COX-2) protein in RAW 264.7 cells which was inhibited by these three compounds. Quercetin pentaacetate, but not quercetin and rutin, showed the strong inhibitory activity on PGE2 production and COX-2 protein expression in NLA/LPS or L -NAME/LPS co-treated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicated that combinatorial treatment of L -arginine analogs and flavonoid derivates, such as quercetin pentaacetate, effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 productions, at the same time, inhibited enhanced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 genes. J. Cell. Biochem. 82: 537,548, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Photoperiod,Testicular,Immune Interaction in a Seasonal Breeder Indian Palm Squirrel Funambulus pennanti During the Reproductively Inactive and Active Phases

R. Ahmad
The differential effect of long (LD; 16 : 8 h light/dark), short (SD; 10 : 14 h light/dark) and natural day length (NDL; 12 : 12 h light/dark) during the reproductively inactive (RIP) and active (RAP) phases was assessed in relation to immunity and reproductive function of a tropical rodent Funambulus pennanti. They presented high immunity and low testicular activity during RIP and an opposite during RAP. SD increased spleen and thymus weight, leukocyte and lymphocyte counts, cell mediated immunity [i.e. blastogenic response in terms of percentage stimulation ratio of splenocytes and thymocytes (when challenged with concanavalin A)] and delayed type hypersensitivity to oxazolone. SD during RIP increased the above mentioned parameters and reduced testes weight compared to NDL groups. During RAP, LD reduced all the immunological parameters when compared with NDL and SD experiencing groups of RIP and RAP phases. The LD group reduced the immunological parameters compared to RAP, suggesting that LD had always an inhibitory effect on immune status being independent of reproductive phases. The intensity of the stimulatory effects of SD and inhibitory effects of LD during both reproductive phases was significantly different. We exposed another set of squirrels to the above photoperiodic schedule for prolonged period (30 weeks) during RAP. A clear testicular refractoriness followed by immunorefractoriness was observed in the group experiencing SD and LD for 30 weeks. The photorefractoriness presented by the testes was inversely related to the immunorefractoriness. The peripheral melatonin level of those squirrels reflected the photoperiodic signal perceived by squirrels for immunomodulation and gonadal function, suggesting that immune system and gonadal function might have coevolved. [source]

Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated-Transcript Peptide Mediation of Leptin Stimulatory Effect on the Rat Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Pulse Generator In Vitro

Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion was studied in vitro using explants of the retrochiasmatic hypothalamus from prepubertal male and female rats. Leptin caused a dose-dependent reduction of the GnRH interpulse interval in both sexes. We studied the effects of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) since this peptide was shown recently to mediate the anorectic effects of leptin in the hypothalamus. CART caused a reduction of the GnRH interpulse interval. This effect was prevented using an anti-CART antiserum which could partially overcome leptin stimulatory effects as well. Using hypothalamic explants from Zucker rats homozygous for the leptin receptor mutation ( fa/fa), GnRH pulse frequency was not affected by leptin, while a significant acceleration was caused by the CART-peptide. In conclusion, leptin involves the hypothalamic CART-peptide to stimulate the prepubertal GnRH pulse generator in vitro. [source]

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and its receptor (GIPR): Cellular localization, lesion-affected expression, and impaired regenerative axonal growth

Bettina A. Buhren
Abstract Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was initially described to be rapidly regulated by endocrine cells in response to nutrient ingestion, with stimulatory effects on insulin synthesis and release. Previously, we demonstrated a significant up-regulation of GIP mRNA in the rat subiculum after fornix injury. To gain more insight into the lesion-induced expression of GIP and its receptor (GIPR), expression profiles of the mRNAs were studied after rat sciatic nerve crush injury in 1) affected lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG), 2) spinal cord segments, and 3) proximal and distal nerve fragments by means of quantitative RT-PCR. Our results clearly identified lesion-induced as well as tissue type-specific mRNA regulation of GIP and its receptor. Furthermore, comprehensive immunohistochemical stainings not only confirmed and exceeded the previous observation of neuronal GIP expression but also revealed corresponding GIPR expression, implying putative modulatory functions of GIP/GIPR signaling in adult neurons. In complement, we also observed expression of GIP and its receptor in myelinating Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. Polarized localization of GIPR in the abaxonal Schwann cell membranes, plasma membrane-associated GIPR expression of satellite cells, and ependymal GIPR expression strongly suggests complex cell type-specific functions of GIP and GIPR in the adult nervous system that are presumably mediated by autocrine and paracrine interactions, respectively. Notably, in vivo analyses with GIPR-deficient mice suggest a critical role of GIP/GIPR signal transduction in promoting spontaneous recovery after nerve crush, insofar as traumatic injury of GIPR-deficient mouse sciatic nerve revealed impaired axonal regeneration compared with wild-type mice. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ethanol-Induced Social Facilitation in Adolescent Rats: Role of Endogenous Activity at Mu Opioid Receptors

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2009
Elena I. Varlinskaya
Background:, Ethanol consumption is considerably elevated during adolescence. Attractiveness of alcohol for humans during the adolescent developmental period is based, in part, on its ability to induce social facilitation,a facilitation of social interactions not only evident in human adolescents but also in adolescent rats. Endogenous opioid systems are among the multiple neural systems implicated in the behavioral and reinforcing effects of ethanol and may play a substantial role in modulating stimulatory effects of low doses of ethanol on social behavior during adolescence. This possibility was explored in the present study through the use of an animal model of peer-directed social behavior. Methods:, Sprague,Dawley rats were challenged early in adolescence with saline or ethanol intraperitoneally (i.p.), placed into an individual holding cage for 30 minutes, and then tested in a familiar situation with a nonmanipulated partner of the same age and sex. In Experiment 1, each test subject was injected subcutaneously with one of the three doses of a nonselective opioid antagonist naloxone (0, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg), 5 minutes prior to the social interaction test and 25 minutes following challenge with saline or ethanol (0.5 g/kg), whereas in Experiment 2 animals were challenged with one of the six doses of ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 g/kg) prior to injection of either saline or naloxone (0.05 mg/kg). In Experiment 3, animals were pretreated i.p. with the selective ,-opioid antagonist CTOP (0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to challenge with saline or ethanol (0.5 g/kg). Results:, Low doses of ethanol (0.5 and 0.75 g/kg) produced social facilitation, as indexed by significant increases in play fighting and social investigation. Both doses of naloxone and the three highest doses of CTOP blocked the stimulatory effects of ethanol on play fighting but not on social investigation. These effects were not associated with alterations in ethanol pharmacokinetic properties or with shifts in the biphasic ethanol dose,response curve. Conclusions:, Ethanol-induced facilitation of social play behavior seen in adolescent animals is mediated in part through ethanol-induced release of endogenous ligands for the ,-opioid receptor or an ethanol-associated enhancement of sensitivity of these receptors for their endogenous ligands. [source]