Stimulatory Capacity (stimulatory + capacity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Stimulatory Capacity

  • cell stimulatory capacity

  • Selected Abstracts

    Modulation of dendritic cell phenotype and functionin an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelium

    Matt Butler
    Abstract A network of dendritic cells (DC) can be detected in close proximity to the epithelial cells overlying Peyer's patches in the gut. Intestinal DC show distinct phenotypes as compared to DC from the systemic lymph nodes (relatively low MHC and costimulatory molecules and high IL-10 and TGF,) and may play a role in maintaining tolerance to enteric antigens. We show that a similar phenotype is induced in the presence of a polarised epithelial cell monolayer in vitro. Monocyte-derived DC were co-cultured with Caco-2 intestinal epithelial monolayers for 24,h. Co-culture resulted in DC with reduced expression of MHC class,II, CD86, and CD80, and poor T,cell stimulatory capacity. Cytokine profiles showed reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine production, and co-cultured DC were less sensitive to stimulation via Toll-like receptors (TLR2, 4, and 6) as a result of increased levels of autocrine TGF, production. However, phenotypic changes in co-cultured DC could not be blocked by removal of apoptotic cells or addition of anti-TGF, antibodies, suggesting that other soluble factors are involved in DC modulation. Thus, polarised epithelial cell monolayers create a ,tolerogenic' environment which modulates the activity of DC. These results highlight the regulatory importance of the epithelial microenvironment at mucosal surfaces. [source]

    Paradoxical effects of interleukin-10 on the maturation of murine myeloid dendritic cells

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Dianne L. Commeren
    Summary The immunoregulatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), has been shown to inhibit the maturation of human myeloid dendritic cells (DC). In the present study, we demonstrate that IL-10 has paradoxical effects on the maturation of murine myeloid bone marrow-derived DC. On the one hand, IL-10 inhibits the maturation of murine myeloid DC. The addition of IL-10 to granulocyte,macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-supported murine BM-derived DC cultures reduced the frequency of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIbright cells. These IL-10-pretreated DC have a reduced capacity to stimulate T cells in an allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction. On the other hand, however, and in contrast to the effects of IL-10 on human DC, we found that the addition of IL-10 from the initiation of the culture onwards induced an up-regulation of the expression of the costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 on murine myeloid DC, as compared to DC generated with GM-CSF only. Moreover, a subpopulation of IL-10-pretreated MHC class IIdim DC lacked the capacity to take up dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), a feature of DC maturation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the generation of murine myeloid DC in the presence of IL-10 results in a population of incompletely matured MHC class IIdim CD80+ CD86+ DC. These DC lack T-cell stimulatory capacity, suggesting a role for IL-10 in conferring tolerogenic properties on murine myeloid DC. [source]

    Activation of macrophages and interference with CD4+ T-cell stimulation by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    Susanne Zur Lage
    Summary Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ptb) and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium) are closely related but exhibit significant differences in their interaction with the host immune system. The macrophage line, J774, was infected with M. ptb and M. avium and analysed for cytokine production and stimulatory capacity towards antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Under all conditions J774 cells were activated to produce proinflammatory cytokines. No influence on the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), B7.1, B7.2 or CD40 was found. However, the antigen-specific stimulatory capacity of J774 cells for a CD4+ T-cell line was significantly inhibited after infection with M. ptb, but not with M. avium. When a T-cell hybridoma expressing a T-cell receptor identical to that of the T-cell line was used, this inhibition was not observed, suggesting that costimulation which is essential for the CD4+ T-cell line is influenced by the pathogenic bacterium M. ptb. [source]

    Enhanced maturation and functional capacity of monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells by the synthetic immunomodulator Murabutide

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    Vincent Vidal
    Summary Murabutide is a safe synthetic immunomodulator derived from muramyl dipeptide, the smallest bioactive unit of bacterial peptidoglycan. Although it is well known that muramyl peptides modulate the functions of monocytes/macrophages, their activity on dendritic cells is poorly documented. We thus investigated the effects of Murabutide on immunophenotype, endocytosis, T-cell stimulatory capacity, and cytokine secretion of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (iDCs). We found that Murabutide triggers immunophenotypic changes as upon treatment, iDCs up-regulate the surface expression of the major histocompatibility complex type II molecule human leucocyte antigen-DR, the co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86 and CD40 and the differentiation marker CD83, and down-regulate the expression of the mannose receptor. These phenotypic changes are also mirrored by changes in their biological activity. Subsequent to treatment with the synthetic immunomodulator, DC have a decreased endocytic capacity but exhibit enhanced stimulatory capacity for both allogeneic and autologous T cells. In addition, Murabutide-stimulated iDCs have a greater cytostatic activity toward the tumour cell line THP-1. Furthermore, in the presence of Murabutide, DCs transiently increased the release of macrophage inhibitory protein-1,, tumour necrosis factor-, and interleukin-10, whereas the enhanced production of macrophage-colony stimulating factor was sustained over the 3-day period analysed. In addition, Murabutide triggers the phosphorylation of the three classes of mitogen-activated protein kinases in iDCs. Altogether our results demonstrate that Murabutide triggers the maturation and activation of monocyte-derived iDCs. As this immunomodulator is approved for administration in humans, it could be a useful adjunct to boost the efficacy of DC-based vaccines designed against tumours or virus-infected cells. [source]

    Immunotherapy using autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with leukemic cell lysates for acute myeloid leukemia relapse after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    Je-Jung Lee
    Abstract Although a second stem cell transplantation (SCT) can be used as salvage therapy in patients with relapsing leukemia after SCT, most of these patients have a poor outcome. We tried clinical vaccination using monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with leukemic lysates to treat relapsing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after autologous SCT. To generate DCs, CD14+ cells isolated from peripheral blood stem cell products were cultured in AIM-V in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. Adding TNF-, on day 6 induced maturation of the DCs, which were harvested on day 8 or 9. The DCs were incubated with tumor lysate and KLH for 2 hr at 37°C. After certifying the absence of microorganisms and endotoxins, the patients received four DC vaccinations at two- to three-week intervals. Two patients received four DC vaccinations with means of 7.8 × 106 and 9 × 106 DCs at two- to three-week intervals. The DC vaccinations were well tolerated with no apparent side effects. After the vaccinations, the patients showed immunological responses with positive delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reaction and increasing autologous T cells stimulatory capacity to the DCs; however, the BM blast percentage of the patients did not improve. The results suggest that DCs are a feasible cellular therapy for relapsing AML after autologous SCT. J Clin Apheresis 19:66,70, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Distribution of Langerhans cells and mast cells within the human oral mucosa: new application sites of allergens in sublingual immunotherapy?

    ALLERGY, Issue 6 2008
    J.-P. Allam
    Background:, Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) represents an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. While antigen-presenting cells such as Langerhans cells (LCs) are thought to contribute to the effectiveness of SLIT, mast cells (MCs) most likely account for adverse reactions such as sublingual edema. As little is known about LCs and MCs within the oral cavity, we investigated their distribution in search for mucosal sites with highest LCs and lowest MCs density. Methods:, Biopsies were taken simultaneously from human vestibulum, bucca, palatum, lingua, sublingua, gingiva, and skin. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were used to detect MCs, LCs and high affinity receptor for IgE (Fc,RI) expression of LCs. Mixed lymphocyte reactions were performed to assess their stimulatory capacity. Results:, Highest density of MCs was detected within the gingiva, while the lowest density of MCs was found within the palatum and lingua. However, sublingual MCs were located within glands, which might explain swelling of sublingual caruncle in some SLIT patients. Highest density of LCs was detected within the vestibular region with lowest density in sublingual region. Highest expression of Fc,RI was detected on LCs within the vestibulum. Furthermore LCs from different regions displayed similar stimulatory capacity towards allogeneic T cells. Conclusions:, In view of our data, different mucosal regions such as the vestibulum might represent alternative SLIT application sites with potent allergen uptake. Our data might serve as a basis for new application strategies for SLIT to enhance efficiency and reduce local adverse reactions. [source]

    Understanding dendritic cell biology and its role in immunological disorders through proteomic profiling

    Gabriela Bomfim Ferreira
    Abstract Dendritic cells (DC) have always been present on the bright spot of immune research. They have been extensively studied for the last 35 years, and much is known about their different phenotypes, stimulatory capacity, and role in the immune system. During the last 15 years, great attention has been given to studies on global gene and protein expression profiles during the differentiation and maturation processes of these cells. It is well understood that studying the proteome, together with information on the role of protein post-translational modifications (PTM), will reveal the real dynamics of a living cell. The rapid increase of proteomic studies during the last decade describing the differentiation and maturation process in DCs, as well as modifications brought by the use of different compounds that either increase or decrease their immunogenicity, reflects the importance of understanding the molecular processes behind the functional properties of these cells. In the present review, we will give an overview of proteomic studies focusing on DCs. Thereby we will concentrate on the importance of these studies in understanding DC behavior from a molecular point of view and how these findings have aided in understanding the differences in functional properties of these cells. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Impact of Female Sex Hormones on the Maturation and Function of Human Dendritic Cells

    Sabine E. Segerer
    Problem, During pregnancy, the immune and the endocrine system cooperate to ensure that the fetal allograft develops without eliciting a maternal immune response. This is presumably in part achieved by dendritic cells (DCs) that play a dominant role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. In this study, we investigated whether female sex hormones, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone (Prog), and estradiol (E2), which are highly elevated during pregnancy, induce the differentiation of DCs into a tolerance-inducing phenotype. Methods/Results, Immature DCs were generated from blood-derived monocytes and differentiated in the presence of hCG, Prog, E2, or Dexamethasone (Dex) as a control. Unlike Dex, female sex hormones did not prevent the upregulation of surface markers characteristic for mature DCs, such as CD40, CD83, and CD86, except for hCG, which inhibited HLA-DR expression. Similarly, hCG, Prog, and E2 had any impact on neither the rearrangement of the F-actin cytoskeleton nor the enhanced chemokine secretion following DC maturation, both of which were strongly altered by Dex. Nevertheless, the T-cell stimulatory capacity of DCs was significantly reduced after hCG and E2 exposure. Conclusion, Our findings suggest that the female sex hormones hCG and E2 inhibit the T-cell stimulatory capacity of DCs, which may help in preventing an allogenic T-cell response against the embryo. [source]

    Inhibition of Obliterative Airway Disease Development in Murine Tracheal Allografts by Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Deficiency

    Félix G. Fernández
    This study was designed to define the roles of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in obliterative airway disease (OAD) in heterotopic murine tracheal allografts, considered a suitable animal model for chronic lung allograft rejection. BALB/c tracheal allografts were transplanted into MMP-2-deficient (,/,) and MMP-9,/, mice. Also, wild-type recipients were treated with doxycycline, a nonspecific MMP inhibitor. After 10, 20 and 30 days, allografts were analyzed for OAD development, intragraft levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the frequency and cytokine/chemokine production profile of alloreactive T cells. Allografts transplanted into wild-type mice developed OAD lesions within 30 days. These allografts revealed significant upregulation of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Allografts transplanted into MMP-9,/, and doxycycline-treated recipients did not develop OAD. In contrast, allografts transplanted into MMP-2,/, mice developed OAD lesions with normal kinetics. Interestingly, MMP-9,/, recipients showed an enhanced T cell alloreactivity associated with an abnormal profile of cytokine/chemokine production. The enhanced T cell alloreactivity in MMP-9,/, mice was mediated by enhanced dendritic cell stimulatory capacity as well as enhanced T cell responsive capacity. These results suggest that MMP-9 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OAD and may represent a target for the therapeutic intervention of chronic lung allograft rejection. [source]

    Mouse dendritic cells matured by ingestion of apoptotic blebs induce T cells to produce interleukin-17

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2009
    Justin H. Fransen
    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the formation of antinuclear autoantibodies. Increased apoptosis and reduced clearance of apoptotic material have been assigned a role in the pathogenesis of SLE, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. During apoptosis apoptotic blebs are formed in which autoantigens are clustered. The cellular remnants after blebbing are referred to as apoptotic cell bodies. We undertook this study to compare the effects of apoptotic blebs and apoptotic cell bodies on maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and their T cell stimulatory capacity in a murine setting. Methods The uptake by DCs of apoptotic blebs and apoptotic cell bodies was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. DC maturation and DC-induced T cell activation were determined by measuring expression of costimulatory molecules using flow cytometry and by measuring production of cytokines using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results DCs internalized apoptotic blebs more efficiently than apoptotic cell bodies. Incubation of DCs with apoptotic blebs resulted in increased CD40 and CD86 expression and increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor , production, while apoptotic cell bodies had no stimulatory effects. Using chloroquine, apoptotic bleb,induced DC maturation was shown to be independent of Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9. Interestingly, in cocultures with allogeneic T cells, bleb-matured DCs induced production of IL-2, interferon-,, and, in particular, IL-17, suggesting a Th1/Th17 response. Conclusion Apoptotic blebs, in contrast to apoptotic cell bodies, induce DC maturation, thereby providing DCs with increased Th17 cell stimulatory capacity. These data imply that apoptotic bleb,induced DC maturation represents an important driving force in the autoimmune response in SLE. [source]