Stimulation Trials (stimulation + trials)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Claustral Lesions Delay Amygdaloid Kindling in the Rat

EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2000
Paul Mohapel
Summary: Purpose: Lesions of the claustrum in cats and primates have been shown to disrupt the development and expression of amygdaloid-kindled seizures in cats and primates. Because the structure and connectivity of the claustrum can vary between species, we wanted to examine the effects of claustral lesions on kindling in rats. Methods: One group of rats received bilateral radiofrequency lesions of both anterior and posterior regions of the claustrum before amygdaloid kindling. Another group of rats received bilateral anterior and posterior radiofrequency lesions of the claustrum after amygdaloid kindling. Some rats were tested for transfer of kindling to the contralateral amygdala after claustral lesions. Results: Small lesions that destroyed 13% of the claustrum were capable of delaying, but not blocking, amygdaloid kindling. The delay in kindling was due to an increase in the stimulation trials required to kindle to stage 5 seizures. The lesions had no effect on established kindled seizures or on transfer to the contralateral amygdala. Conclusions: As in other species, the claustrum in the rat appears to play a role in kindling from the amygdala. Because of the restricted size of our claustral lesions, however, we were unable to conclusively assess the full extent of the claustrum's participation in limbic kindling. [source]

Amygdala amino acid and monoamine levels in genetically Fast and Slow kindling rat strains during massed amygdala kindling: a microdialysis study

Rick S. Shin
Abstract We investigated the neurochemistry of epileptic seizures in rats selectively bred to be seizure-prone (Fast) vs. seizure-resistant (Slow) to amygdala kindling. Microdialysis was used to measure levels of amino acids [glutamate, aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)] and monoamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin) during ,massed' stimulation (MS) (every 6 min) of the ipsilateral amygdala for a total of 40 stimulation trials. Behavioral seizure profiles together with their afterdischarge thresholds (ADTs) and associated durations were assessed during the procedure, and subsequently were redetermined 1, 7 and 14 days later. Then normal ,daily' kindling commenced and continued until the animal reached the fully kindled state. During MS, several generalized seizures were triggered in Fast rats that were associated with long afterdischarge (AD) durations and intermittent periods of elevated thresholds, but in Slow rats, most stimulations were associated with stable ADTs and short ADs. Progressively increasing extracellular glutamate and decreasing GABA was observed in Fast rats during the MS, whereas Slow rats showed levels similar to baseline values. Levels of noradrenaline and dopamine, but not of serotonin, were also increased in both strains throughout the MS treatment. In Fast rats, a dramatic lengthening of AD durations occurred 7 and 14 days following MS, as well as subsequent strong positive transfer to daily kindling, all of which were not seen in Slow rats. Together, these results show that repeated, closely spaced stimulations of the amygdala can differentially alter excitatory and/or inhibitory transmitter levels in a seizure network, and that sensitivity to this manipulation is genetically determined. [source]

Maternal depression and anxiety effects on the human fetus: Preliminary findings and clinical implications,

John N.I. Dieter
Newborns of depressed and anxious mothers show biobehavioral abnormalities suggesting that maternal psychological distress has negative effects on the fetus. Two studies examined the fetuses of depressed and nondepressed mothers: (a) a cross-sectional investigation of fetal activity during the second and third trimesters and (b) an examination of behavioral and heart rate response to vibratory stimulation in late-gestation fetuses. Fetuses of depressed mothers were more active during the fifth, sixth, and seventh gestational months. Assessment of late-term fetuses consisted of a baseline, trials of vibratory stimulation directed towards measuring habituation, and a poststimulation period. During baseline, the fetuses of depressed mothers exhibited a lower heart rate. During stimulation trials, they showed less total movement and appeared to habituate more often. Approximately 35% of the variance in fetal behavior was accounted for by the mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms. Maternal depression may be linked to greater fetal activity during the second and third trimesters and decreased behavioral responsivity during late gestation. The response of late-term fetuses of depressed mothers to vibratory stimulation may reflect "receptor adaptation/effector fatigue" and not true habitation. Future studies should examine the value of clinical interventions provided to the pregnant mother. [source]

Learning to breathe: control of the inspiratory,expiratory phase transition shifts from sensory- to central-dominated during postnatal development in rats

Mathias Dutschmann
The hallmark of the dynamic regulation of the transitions between inspiration and expiration is the timing of the inspiratory off-switch (IOS) mechanisms. IOS is mediated by pulmonary vagal afferent feedback (Breuer,Hering reflex) and by central interactions involving the Kölliker,Fuse nuclei (KFn). We hypothesized that the balance between these two mechanisms controlling IOS may change during postnatal development. We tested this hypothesis by comparing neural responses to repetitive rhythmic vagal stimulation, at a stimulation frequency that paces baseline breathing, using in situ perfused brainstem preparations of rats at different postnatal ages. At ages < P15 (P, postnatal days), phrenic nerve activity (PNA) was immediately paced and entrained to the afferent input and this pattern remained unchanged by repetitive stimulations, indicating that vagal input stereotypically dominated the control of IOS. In contrast, PNA entrainment at > P15 was initially insignificant, but increased after repetitive vagal stimulation or lung inflation. This progressive adaption of PNA to the pattern of the sensory input was accompanied by the emergence of anticipatory centrally mediated IOS preceding the stimulus trains. The anticipatory IOS was blocked by bilateral microinjections of NMDA receptor antagonists into the KFn and PNA was immediately paced and entrained, as it was seen at ages < P15. We conclude that as postnatal maturation advances, synaptic mechanisms involving NMDA receptors in the KFn can override the vagally evoked IOS after ,training' using repetitive stimulation trials. The anticipatory IOS may imply a hitherto undescribed form of pattern learning and recall in convergent sensory and central synaptic pathways that mediate IOS. [source]