Home About us Contact
Kinds of Stenosis
Terms modified by Stenosis
Late Presentation of Pulmonary Valve Stenosis Confirmed by Cardiovascular Magnetic ResonanceCONGENITAL HEART DISEASE, Issue 3 2008
Didier Locca MD
ABSTRACT We describe the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with increasing exertional dyspnea. He was found to have an ejection systolic murmur and evidence of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, with a peak velocity of 4.5 m/s recorded by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance showed right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary valve stenosis, peak recorded velocity 4.2 m/s, with thickened pulmonary valve leaflets of reduced mobility, and poststenotic dilatation of the main pulmonary artery. The case illustrates that severe pulmonary valve stenosis can present late in life and that cardiovascular magnetic resonance can be useful in clarifying nature and level of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in an adult. [source]
Stent Dilatation of a Right Ventricle to Pulmonary Artery Conduit in a Postoperative Patient with Hypoplastic Left Heart SyndromeCONGENITAL HEART DISEASE, Issue 2 2008
Rowan Walsh MD
ABSTRACT A 10-day-old child with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) underwent first-stage palliation for HLHS, Norwood procedure with a Sano modification, i.e., placement of a right ventricular to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit. The patient developed progressively worsening systemic oxygen desaturation in the immediate postoperative period. Stenosis of the proximal RV-PA conduit was diagnosed by echocardiography. In the catheterization laboratory stent placement in the conduit was performed. This resulted in increased systemic oxygen saturation. The patient was eventually discharged from the hospital with adequate oxygen saturations. [source]
Subvalvular Stenosis After Aortic Valve ReplacementCONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 4 2008
Jack P. Chen MD
First page of article [source]
Diagnostic Accuracy of Handheld Echocardiography for Evaluation of Aortic StenosisECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2010
Arnd Schaefer M.D.
Background: Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Early identification of these patients by echocardiography is crucial. We conducted this study to evaluate a handheld ultrasound device (HCU) in patients with suspected severe aortic stenosis (AS) in comparison to a standard echocardiography device (SE). Methods: A HCU (Vivid I; GE Healthcare) and a SE device (Philips iE 33) were used to evaluate 50 consecutive patients with suspected severe AS. Two consecutive echocardiographic studies were performed by two experienced and blinded examiners using HCU and SE device. AS was graded by mean transaortic pressure, aortic valve area (AVA), and indexed AVA (AVA adjusted for body surface area). Results: Mean difference for mean transaortic gradient, AVA and indexed AVA for the SE and HCU device were 1.28 mmHg (,0.70 to 3.26 mmHg), ,0.02 cm2 (,0.06 to 0.01 cm2), and ,0.01 cm2/m2 (,0.03 to 0.01 cm2/m2), respectively. Discrepancies between both devices were not associated with misinterpretation of the degree of AS. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that HCU can be used to evaluate patients with suspected AS. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY 2010;27:481-486) [source]
Does Left Atrial Size Predict Mortality in Asymptomatic Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis?ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2010
Grace Casaclang-Verzosa M.D.
Background: We assessed the hypothesis that diastolic function represented by left atrial size determines the rate of development of symptoms and the risk of all-cause mortality in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Methods: From a database of 622 asymptomatic patients with isolated severe AS (velocity by Doppler , 4 m/sec) followed for 5.4 ± 4 years, we reviewed the echocardiograms and evaluated Doppler echocardiographic indices of diastolic function. Prediction of symptom development and mortality by left atrial diameter with and without adjusting for clinical and echocardiographic parameters was performed using Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis. Results: The age was 71 ± 11 years and 317 (62%) patients were males. The aortic valve mean gradient was 46 ± 11 mmHg, and the Doppler-derived aortic valve area was 0.9 ± 0.2 cm2. During follow-up, symptoms developed in 233 (45%), valve surgery was performed in 290 (57%) and 138 (27%) died. Left atrial enlargement was significantly correlated with symptom development (P < 0.05) but the association diminished after adjusting for aortic valve area and peak velocity (P = 0.2). However, atrial diameter predicted death independent of age and gender (P = 0.007), comorbid conditions (P = 0.03), and AS severity and Doppler parameters of diastolic function (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Diastolic function, represented as left atrial diameter, is related to mortality in asymptomatic patients with severe AS. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY 2010;27:105-109) [source]
Discrepancy between Gradients Derived by Cardiac Catheterization and by Doppler Echocardiography in Aortic Stenosis: How Often Does Pressure Recovery Play a Role?ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 9 2009
Studies have shown very good correlation between Doppler-derived gradients and gradients obtained by cardiac catheterization (cath) in aortic stenosis (AS). However, the phenomenon of pressure recovery may lead to significant overestimation of aortic valve (AV) gradients by Doppler echocardiography (echo). We hypothesized that echo-derived gradients will be higher in mild,moderate AS because of pressure recovery. We studied 94 patients who had echo and cardiac caths in a span of 1 week. The mean age was 72 ± 13 years, 54% males, 79% had coronary artery disease, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 45 ± 22%. The mean cardiac output and cardiac indices were 5.1 ± 1.4/2.7 ± 0.6 (l/mt), (l/m2), respectively. For those with mild AS, echo overestimated gradients in 9.5% of patients (4/42) by an average of 19 mmHg, thus misclassifying the degree of stenosis. In those with moderate AS, 14% (3/21) were misclassified as severe AS (gradient overestimation by an average of 13.6 mmHg). In those with severe AS, echo underestimated gradients in 13% (4/31) by an average of 22.7 mmHg. The aorta at the sinotubular junction was 2.8 cm in those patients with mild AS in whom gradients were overestimated by more than 20 mmHg compared to a sinotubular junction diameter of 3.12 cm in those with mild AS and no overestimation of gradients. The AV area/aortic root ratio was 0 .4 in those with mild AS and 0.2 in those with severe AS (P < 0.05). [source]
Echo-Tracking Assessment of Carotid Artery Stiffness in Patients with Aortic Valve StenosisECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2009
Francesco Antonini-Canterin M.D.
Background: There is little information about mechanical properties of large arteries in patients (pts) with aortic stenosis (AS). Methods: Nineteen patients with AS (aortic valve area: 0.88 ± 0.29 cm2) and 24 control subjects without AS but with a similar distribution of risk factors were recruited. , index, pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep), arterial compliance (AC), augmentation index (AIx), and local pulse-wave velocity (PWV) were obtained at the level of right common carotid artery (CCA) by a real time echo-tracking system. Time to dominant peak of carotid diameter change waveform, corrected for heart rate (tDPc), and maximum rate of rise of carotid diameter (dD/dt) were measured. Systemic arterial compliance (SAC) was also calculated. Parameters of AS severity (mean gradient, valve area, stroke work loss [SWL]) were determined. Results: tDPc was higher in patients with AS than in controls (7.9 ± 0.6 vs. 6.6 ± 0.7, P < 0.0001) while dD/dt was lower (5.3 ± 3.6 mm/s vs. 7.8 ± 2.8 mm/s, P = 0.01). AIx was significantly higher in AS group (32.5 ± 13.6% vs. 20.6 ± 12.2%, P = 0.005) and had a linear correlation both with tDPc (r = 0.63, P < 0.0001) and with dD/dt (r =,0.38, P = 0.01). There was a significant correlation between carotid AC and SAC (r = 0.49, P = 0.03), but only carotid AC was related to SWL (r = 0.51, P = 0.02), while SAC was not (P = 0.26).Conclusions: AIx was the only parameter of arterial rigidity found to be higher in patients with AS than in controls. Carotid AC showed a significant correlation with SAC and it seemed to be more closely related to AS severity than to SAC. [source]
Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiographic Coronary Flow Imaging in Identification of Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Stenosis in Patients with Left Bundle Branch BlockECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 10 2008
Ozer Soylu M.D.
Background: Conventional noninvasive methods have well-known limitations for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). However, advancements in Doppler echocardiography permit transthoracic imaging of coronary flow velocities (CFV) and measurement of coronary flow reserve (CFR). Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic value of transthoracic CFR measurements for detection of significant left anterior descending (LAD) stenosis in patients with LBBB and compare it to that of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Methods: Simultaneous transthoracic CFR measurements and MPS were analyzed in 44 consecutive patients with suspected CAD and permanent LBBB. Typical diastolic predominant phasic CFV Doppler spectra of distal LAD were obtained at rest and during a two-step (0.56,0.84 mg/kg) dipyridamole infusion protocol. CFR was defined as the ratio of peak hyperemic velocities to the baseline values. A reversible perfusion defect at LAD territory was accepted as a positive scintigraphy finding for significant LAD stenosis. A coronary angiography was performed within 5 days of the CFR studies. Results: The hyperemic diastolic peak velocity (44 ± 9 cm/sec vs 62 ± 2 cm/sec; P=0.01) and diastolic CFR (1.38 ± 0.17 vs 1.93 ± 0.3; P=0.001) were significantly lower in patients with LAD stenosis compared to those without LAD stenosis. The diastolic CFR values of <1.6 yielded a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94% in the identification of significant LAD stenosis. In comparison, MPS detected LAD stenosis with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 29%. Conclusions: CFR measurement by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is an accurate method that may improve noninvasive identification of LAD stenosis in patients with LBBB. [source]
A Larger Aortic Annulus Causes Aortic Regurgitation and a Smaller Aortic Annulus Causes Aortic Stenosis in Bicuspid Aortic ValveECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2008
Makoto Sonoda M.D.
A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) often causes aortic stenosis (AS) or regurgitation (AR). In 54 patients with a BAV (48 ± 16 years), transthoracic and transesophageal echo were performed to measure aortic annulus diameter (AAD), to evaluate the severity of aortic valve disease (AVD) and to calculate the area eccentricity index (AEI) of a BAV defined as a ratio of the larger aortic cusp area to a smaller aortic cusp area. By multiple linear regression analysis, the severity of AR correlated significantly with the AAD (r = 0.38) and AEI (r = 0.35) (P < 0.05) and that of AS correlated significantly with the AAD (r =,0.40) and AEI (r = 0.34) (P < 0.05). Thirty-six patients showed anteroposteriorly (A-P) located BAVs and 18 patients showed right-left (R-L) located BAVs. The AAD was larger in A-P type than in R-L type (15 ± 3 vs 13 ± 2 mm/BSA, P < 0.05) and there was no difference in the age and AEI between the two groups. AR was more severe in A-P type than in R-L type while AS was more severe in R-L type than in A-P type (P < 0.05). Twenty-nine patients showed raphes. The AEI was larger in raphe (+) type than in raphe (,) type (1.83 ± 0.53 vs 1.51 ± 0.47, P < 0.05) and there was no difference in the AAD and severity of AVD between the two groups. In conclusion, a BAV with larger aortic annulus or A-P located will tend to cause AR while a BAV with smaller aortic annulus or R-L located will tend to cause AS. [source]
ECHO ROUNDS: Percutaneous Balloon Valvuloplasty for Pulmonic Stenosis: The Role of Multimodality ImagingECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2008
Davinder S. Jassal M.D., F.R.C.P.C.
Pulmonic valvular stenosis represents the most frequent cause of right ventricular outflow obstruction. Transthoracic echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice in the diagnosis, evaluation and longitudinal follow-up of individuals with pulmonic stenosis (PS). Although valvular PS is usually diagnosed by two-dimensional imaging, Doppler echocardiography allows for the quantification of severity of the valvular lesion. In patients with limited acoustic windows, computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging may provide complementary anatomical characterization of the pulmonic annulus and valve prior to percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty. [source]
Validation of the Peak to Mean Pressure Decrease Ratio as a New Method of Assessing Aortic Stenosis Using the Gorlin Formula and the Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance-Based Hybrid MethodECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2007
Dariusch Haghi M.D.
Background: We sought to validate the recently introduced peak to mean pressure decrease ratio (PMPDR), using the Gorlin formula and a hybrid method which combines cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived stroke volume with transaortic Doppler measurements to calculate aortic valve area (AVA). Methods: Data analysis in 32 patients with severe (AVA <= 0.75 cm2) or moderate aortic stenosis who had prospectively been entered into our aortic stenosis database. Results: Gorlin-derived AVA was 0.61 ± 0.10 cm2 in severe and 0.92 ± 0.14 cm2 in moderate aortic stenosis (P < 0.01). Corresponding values for PMPRD were 1.61 ± 0.10 and 1.73 ± 0.18, respectively (P < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for PMPDR <1.5 to predict severe aortic stenosis were 0.12, 0.92, 0.67, and 0.44 as assessed by the Gorlin formula. Conclusions: Using the Gorlin formula as the reference standard, our study confirms results of a previously reported study on the performance of PMPDR for assessment of aortic stenosis. [source]
Impact of Effective Valvotomy in Mitral Stenosis on Pulmonary Venous Flow PatternECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2006
Solange Bernardes Tatani M.D.
Aims: Transesophageal Doppler echocardiography (TEE) is a useful tool to investigate pulmonary venous flow (PVF) velocity, which is altered in patients with mitral stenosis (MS). This study used TEE to analyze the variations in the PVF pattern after successful valvar dilatation in MS patients. Methods/Results: A total of 15 MS patients, mean age 27.2 years, underwent effective percutaneous balloon valvotomy (PBV). All were submitted to TEE before and after PBV. TEE assessed systolic (SPFV) and diastolic (DPFV) peak flow velocities and their ratio (SPFV/DPFV), time-velocity integrals (STVI and DTVI) and their ratio, and diastolic flow deceleration (DFD). Valvotomy yielded statistically significant increases (P , 0.05) in the SPFV: increase on average by 67% and STVI by 120%, as well as in the diastolic component: increased on average by 35%, DTVI by 33%, and DFD by 75%. Conclusion: TEE demonstrated that PBV induced a global increase in velocities of PVF, probably related to improvement of left atrial emptying. [source]
Catheterization,Doppler Discrepancies in Nonsimultaneous Evaluations of Aortic StenosisECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2005
Payam Aghassi M.D.
Prior validation studies have established that simultaneously measured catheter (cath) and Doppler mean pressure gradients (MPG) correlate closely in evaluation of aortic stenosis (AS). In clinical practice, however, cath and Doppler are rarely performed simultaneously; which may lead to discrepant results. Accordingly, our aim was to ascertain agreement between these methods and investigate factors associated with discrepant results. We reviewed findings in 100 consecutive evaluations for AS performed in 97 patients (mean age 72 ± 10 yr) in which cath and Doppler were performed within 6 weeks. We recorded MPG, aortic valve area (AVA), cardiac output, and ejection fraction (EF) by both methods. Aortic root diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVIDd) and posterior wall thickness (PWT) were measured by echocardiography and gender, heart rate, and heart rhythm were also recorded. An MPG discrepancy was defined as an intrapatient difference > 10 mmHg. Mean pressure gradients by cath and Doppler were 36 ± 22 mmHg and 37 ± 20 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.73). Linear regression showed good correlation (r = 0.82) between the techniques. An MPG discrepancy was found in 36 (36%) of 100 evaluations; in 19 (53%) of 36 evaluations MPG by Doppler was higher than cath, and in 17 (47%) of 36, it was lower. In 33 evaluations, EF differed by >10% between techniques. Linear regression analyses revealed that EF difference between studies was a significant predictor of MPG discrepancy (P = 0.004). Women had significantly higher MPG than men by both cath and Doppler (43 ± 25 mmHg versus 29 ± 15 mmHg [P = 0.001]; 42 ± 23 mmHg versus 32 ± 15 mmHg [P = 0.014], respectively). Women exhibited discrepant results in 23 (47%) of 49 evaluations versus 13 (25%) of 51 evaluations in men (P = 0.037). After adjustment for women's higher MPG, there was no statistically significant difference in MPG discrepancy between genders (P = 0.22). No significant interactions between MPG and aortic root diameter, relative wall thickness (RWT), heart rate, heart rhythm, cardiac output, and time interval between studies were found. In clinical practice, significant discrepancies in MPG were common when cath and Doppler are performed nonsimultaneously. No systematic bias was observed and Doppler results were as likely yield lower as higher MPGs than cath. EF difference was a significant predictor of discrepant MPG. Aortic root diameter, relative wall thickness, heart rate, heart rhythm, cardiac output, presence or severity of coronary artery disease, and time interval between studies were not predictors of discrepant results. [source]
Noninvasive Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve Measurement in the Posterior Descending Coronary Artery for Detecting Coronary Stenosis in the Right Coronary Artery Using Contrast-Enhanced Transthoracic Doppler EchocardiographyECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2004
Hiroyuki Watanabe M.D.
Background: Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) measurement by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) has been found to be useful for assessing left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) stenosis. However, this method has been restricted only for the LAD. The purpose of this study was to detect severe right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis by CFVR measurement using contrast-enhanced TTDE. Methods: In 60 consecutive patients with angina pectoris (mean (SD) age: 60 (11), 18 women), coronary flow velocities in the RCA were recorded in the postero-descending coronary artery by contrast-enhanced TTDE at rest and during hyperemia induced by intravenous infusion of adenosine triphosphate (140 mcg/ml/kg). CFVR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to basal peak and mean diastolic flow velocity. CFVR measurements by TTDE were compared with the results of coronary angiography performed within 1 week. Results: Coronary flow velocity was successfully recorded in 49 (82%) of the 60 patients with contrast agent. CFVR (mean (SD)) was 1.4 (0.4) in patients with, and 2.6 (0.6) in patients without significant stenosis in the RCA (%diameter stenosis > 75%, P < 0.001). Using the cutoff value 2.0 for CFVR in the RCA, its sensitivity and specificity in detecting significant stenosis in the RCA were 88% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: CFVR measurement in the postero-descending coronary artery by contrast enhanced TTDE is a new, noninvasive method to detect significant stenosis in the RCA. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 21, April 2004) [source]
Left Ventricular Long-Axis Function Is Reduced in Patients with Rheumatic Mitral StenosisECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2004
Necla Özer M.D.
Left ventricular long-axis function evaluated by M-mode or tissue Doppler echocardiography has been shown to be useful indexes of left ventricular systolic function; however it has not been evaluated in patients with mitral stenosis. We examined the left ventricular long-axis function of the patients with pure mitral stenosis and normal global systolic function as assessed by fractional shortening of the left ventricle (LV). Fifty-two patients with pure mitral stenosis and twenty-two healthy controls were evaluated by echocardiography. Although there was no statistically significant difference in global systolic function, M-mode derived systolic motion of the septal side and (12 ± 3 vs 14.4 ± 1.5 mm, P = 0.016) the lateral side of mitral annulus (13.2 ± 3 vs 16.8 ± 2 mm, P = 0.001) were both significantly lower in the patients with mitral stenosis than control subjects. Similarly tissue Doppler systolic velocity of the septal annulus (7.6 ± 1.1 vs 10.4 ± 3.2 cm/s, P = 0.03) and lateral mitral annulus (7.6 ± 1.1 vs 10.4 ± 3.2 cm/s, P = 0.003) were also significantly lower in patients with mitral stenosis than in controls. There was a statistically significant correlation between septal annular motion and annular velocity (r = 0.643, P = 0.002). Septal annular motion and annular velocity were also correlated with left atrial ejection fraction (r = 0.338, P = 0.005 and r = 0.676, P = 0.001, respectively). Thus, patients with mitral stenosis had significantly impaired long-axis function evaluated by M-mode or tissue Doppler echocardiography despite normal global systolic function. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 21, February 2004) [source]
Live Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Assessment of Mitral StenosisECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2003
Vikramjit Singh M.D.
In the present study, we describe our experience in using live three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography in the assessment of mitral stenosis. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 20, November 2003) [source]
Noninvasive Assessment of Significant Right Coronary Artery Stenosis Based on Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve in the Right Coronary Artery by Transthoracic Doppler EchocardiographyECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2003
M.D., Yoshiki Ueno
Background: Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) has been reported to be useful for the noninvasive assessment of coronary stenosis in the left anterior descending artery. However, the measurement of CFVR in the right coronary artery by TTDE has not yet been validated in a clinical study. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CFVR by TTDE can detect significant stenosis in the right coronary artery. Methods: We studied 50 patients who underwent coronary angiography. Coronary flow velocity in the posterior descending branch of the right coronary artery (PD) was measured by TTDE both at baseline and during hyperemia induced by the intravenous infusion of adenosine triphosphate. CFVR was calculated as the hyperemia/baseline (average diastolic peak velocity). Results: Adequate spectral Doppler recordings in the PD were obtained in 36 patients including 26 patients who were given an echocardiographic contrast agent to improve Doppler spectral signals. The study population was divided into 2 groups with (Group A;n = 11) and without (Group B;n = 25) significant stenosis in the right coronary artery. CFVR in Group A was significantly smaller than that in Group B (1.6±0.3versus2.5±0.4; P < 0.0001). The sensitivity of a CFVR of <2.0 for predicting the presence of significant stenosis in the right coronary artery was 91%, and the specificity was 88%. Conclusions: The measurement of CFVR in the PD by TTDE is useful for the noninvasive assessment of significant stenosis in the right coronary artery. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 20, August 2003) [source]
The Myocardial Performance Index in Patients with Aortic StenosisECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2002
Jude A. Mugerwa M.D.
Objectives: This study was designed to determine the effect of chronic afterload on a Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (MPI) combining both systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction. Methods: The study included 36 patients with a diagnosis of aortic stenosis and 36 normal subjects. Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (MPI), defined as the sum of the isovolumic contraction time and isovolumic relaxation time divided by ejection time, was measured from the mitral valve inflow and left ventricular outflow velocity patterns and was then related to the aortic valve area, valve gradient, and other echocardiographic variables. Results: The values of the Doppler-derived MPI in the patients with aortic stenosis were significantly higher than those in the controls (0.54 ± 0.20 vs 0.38 ± 0.04, respectively; P < 0.001). Transmitral deceleration time and the E/A ratio (r = 0.47 and r = 0.35, respectively; P < 0.05) were significant univariate correlates, and mitral deceleration time was the only significant correlate of MPI. However the index did not correlate with aortic valve area, peak and mean valve gradients, left ventricular mass, or age. Conclusions: Doppler-derived MPI reflects severity of global left ventricular dysfunction in patients with aortic stenosis and may be of clinical value in this patient population. [source]
Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area (PISA) in the Evaluation of Fixed Membranous Subaortic StenosisECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2002
Gregory M. Goodkin M.D.
The evaluation of the severity of subaortic stenosis is usually expressed by the magnitude of the subvalvular gradient. Calculation of the membrane orifice area noninvasively is difficult by the standard means. We present a patient in whom the area was calculated using the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method. This method should have clinical applicability because it is not flow dependent and can be used in patients with normal, reduced, or increased stroke volume. [source]
Fibrotic Aortic Stenosis in a Patient with DwarfismECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2000
Wen Ying Huang M.D.
In this report, we present an adult patient with dwarfism who had severe aortic stenosis with markedly thickened fibrotic valve leaflets without calcification. These findings were well demonstrated by both two- and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and confirmed at surgery and by pathological examination. [source]
Emergency Department Diagnosis of Mitral Stenosis and Left Atrial Thrombus Using Bedside UltrasonographyACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 5 2010
David C. Riley MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]
Single-stage surgical repair of benign laryngotracheal stenosis in adultsHEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 2 2004
Jolanda van den Boogert PhD
Abstract Background. Benign laryngotracheal stenosis causes considerable morbidity. In a retrospective study, we describe the results of our surgical treatment. Methods. Between June 1999 and June 2002, 14 adults with laryngotracheal stenosis were referred to our hospital. Stenosis resulted from mechanical ventilation in 11 patients, from Wegener's granulomatosis in 2 patients, and from strangulation in 1 patient. Eleven patients had a tracheotomy. One patient was found unfit for surgery. Nine patients underwent cricotracheal resection (CTR) with end-to-end anastomosis, and four patients underwent single-stage laryngotracheoplasty (SS-LTP) without stenting. Results. There were no perioperative deaths. Patients were extubated after mean of 3 days (range, 0,10 days; CTR 2.3 days vs SS-LTP 3.5 days, p = .45). There were in-hospital complications in five patients. Mean hospital stay was 19 days (range, 8,53 days; after CTR 24 days vs SS-LTP 9 days, p = .015). With regard to airway patency and voice recovery, 10 patients (77%) had good results, including 1 patient with two readmissions, and 3 (23%) had satisfactory results, including 1 patient with 11 additional nonsurgical interventions. Conclusions . Benign laryngotracheal stenosis in the adult patient can be repaired successfully using a strategy of two single-stage surgical procedures. All patients had good or satisfactory functional results. A multidisciplinary approach was essential to achieve these good results. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 111,117, 2004 [source]
Surgical Techniques: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation with "No Touch" of the Aortic Arch for the Treatment of Severe Aortic Stenosis Associated with Complex Aortic AtherosclerosisJOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 5 2010
Rodrigo Bagur M.D.
Subclavian Artery Stenosis Detected with Transit-Time Flowmeter during OPCABJOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 2 2010
Vassilios Economopoulos M.D.
(J Card Surg 2010;25:176-177) [source]
Primary Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma: Surgical Management and Differential Diagnosis with Pulmonary Embolism and Pulmonary Valve StenosisJOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 6 2009
Xiao-Peng Hu M.D.
We present six cases of primary pulmonary artery sarcomas and discuss clinical features, differential diagnosis, surgical treatment, and outcome of the tumors. Methods: Between January 1994 and July 2008, six patients were identified with the disease during operation. Three patients were initially diagnosed with pulmonary valve stenosis, and two patients had a presumptive diagnosis of chronic pulmonary embolism. Two patients had simple or partial tumor resection. Four patients had radical tumor resection and homograft reconstruction of the pulmonary arteries. Results: Histological examinations showed five malignant mesenchymomas and one fibrosarcoma. One patient died of refractory pulmonary hypertension during operation. Two patients died 4 months postoperatively because of brain metastases. Two patients were alive for 3 and 9 months, respectively after the operation with recurrent tumor. One patient is alive even 2 years after resection with no signs of recurrence or metastasis. Conclusions: Because of similar clinical features, pulmonary artery sarcomas are often confused with other pulmonary vascular obstructive diseases. Computed tomography scanning and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging could be useful methods for differential diagnosis. The prognosis is very poor. The survival time after resection varies from several months to several years depending on the presence of recurrence or metastasis. Early diagnosis and radical surgical resection presents the only opportunity for a potential cure. [source]
Hypercholesterolemia Association with Aortic Stenosis of Various EtiologiesJOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 2 2009
Murat Bülent Rabu
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hypercholesterolemia in development of aortic valve calcification in different etiologies. Methods: The study included 988 patients with rheumatic, congenital, or degenerative aortic stenosis, who underwent aortic valve replacement at Ko,uyolu Heart and Research Hospital between 1985 and 2005. Effects of hypercholesterolemia and high low-density lipoprotein level on calcific aortic stenosis or massive aortic valve calcification were analyzed for each etiologic group. Results: Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the high serum cholesterol level (>200 mg/dL) was related to massive aortic valve calcification in all patients (p = 0.003). Hypercholesterolemia was linked to calcific aortic stenosis and massive calcification in patients with degenerative etiology (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively) and it was related to massive calcification in patients with congenital bicuspid aorta (p = 0.02). Other independent risk factors for calcific aortic stenosis and massive calcification in the degenerative group were high low-density lipoprotein level (>130 mg/dL; p = 0.03 and p = 0.05, respectively) and high serum C-reactive protein level (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Hypercholesterolemia is related to increased risk of aortic valve calcification in patients with degenerative and congenital etiology. Preventive treatment of hypercholesterolemia could play an important role to decrease or inhibit development of aortic valve calcification. [source]
Determinants of Incomplete Left Ventricular Mass Regression Following Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic StenosisJOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 4 2005
Naoji Hanayama M.D.
In this prospective study, we identified the predictors of Abn-LVMI. Methods: Between 1990 and 2000, 529 patients undergoing AVR for AS had clinical and hemodynamic data collected prospectively. Preoperative and annual postoperative transthoracic echos were employed to assess left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and hemodynamics. Abn-LVMI was defined as the 75th percentile of the lowest postoperative LVMI (>128 mg/m2, n = 133). All other patients were included in the normal regression group (N-LVMI). Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of Abn-LVMI. Results: Preoperative hypertension, diabetes, coronary disease, valve size, mean postoperative gradients, effective orifice area, and patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM, indexed EOA <0.60 cm2/m2) did not predict Abn-LVMI. By logistic regression the most important positive predictor of Abn-LVMI was the extent of preoperative LVMI, with an odds ratio of 37.5 (p < 0.0001). Survival (93.4 ± 1.8% vs 94.8 ± 2.3%, p = 0.90) and freedom from NYHA III,IV (75.0 ± 3.7% vs 76.6 ± 5.3%, p = 0.60) were similar for both groups at 7 years. Conclusions: Measures of valve hemodynamics were not important predictors of incomplete regression of hypertrophy. The extent of preoperative hypertrophy was the most important predictor, suggesting that earlier surgical intervention may reduce the extent of hypertrophy postoperatively. Furthermore, the significance of LV hypertrophy to long-term survival must be reassessed, in the absence of scientific evidence. [source]
Successful Surgical Correction of a Single Atrium Associated with Cleft Mitral Valve Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava and Pulmonary Valvular Stenosis as an Isolated Cardiac DefectJOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 3 2005
Akin Izgi M.D.
It is extremely rare for SA to be observed as an isolated defect. We report here a 13-year-old male patient with SA as an isolated cardiac defect, successfully corrected by surgery. [source]
Hybrid Therapy of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation and Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Mitral StenosisJOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
TAKESHI MACHINO M.D.
AF Ablation and PTMC.,Background: The rhythm control of atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with mitral stenosis (MS) is often difficult using antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs), even after a percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC). Few studies have examined the efficacy and safety of simultaneously performing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) and a PTMC in patients with MS and AF. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with drug-resistant AF and rheumatic MS underwent RFCA combined with a PTMC (n = 10; persistent AF-8, long-lasting [>1 year] persistent AF-2; RFCA group) or transthoracic direct cardioversion (DC) following a PTMC (n = 10; persistent AF-7, long-lasting persistent AF-3; DC group). In all patients, the mitral valve morphology was amenable to a PTMC, and more than 2 AADs had been ineffective in maintaining sinus rhythm (SR). In the RFCA group, a segmental pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was performed in the initial 5 patients, and an extensive PVI was performed in the remaining 5. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 4.0 ± 2.7 years, 8 patients (80%) in the RFCA group were maintained in SR, as compared to 1 (10%) in the DC group (hazard ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.75; P = 0.008 by the log-rank test). The prevalence of the concomitant use of class I and/or class III AADs was comparable between the 2 groups (P = 0.70). No complications occurred during the procedure or follow-up period in either group. Conclusions: The hybrid therapy using RFCA and a PTMC was safe and feasible, and significantly improved the AF free survival rate compared to DC following a PTMC. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 284,289, March 2010) [source]
Acute Pulmonary Vein Stenosis after Radiofrequency Catheter AblationJOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
NICOLAS COMBES M.D.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]