Standards

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Standards

  • academic standards
  • acceptable standards
  • accepted standards
  • accounting standards
  • accreditation standards
  • auditing standards
  • authentic standards
  • calibration standards
  • care standards
  • clinical laboratory standards
  • commercial standards
  • common standards
  • competency standards
  • consolidate standards
  • control standards
  • current standards
  • different standards
  • disclosure standards
  • double standards
  • education standards
  • educational standards
  • emission standards
  • environmental standards
  • ethical standards
  • european standards
  • external standards
  • financial reporting standards
  • global standards
  • gold standards
  • governance standards
  • growth standards
  • health standards
  • high ethical standards
  • high standards
  • industry standards
  • internal standards
  • international accounting standards
  • international financial reporting standards
  • international standards
  • labor standards
  • laboratory standards
  • labour standards
  • legal standards
  • methodological standards
  • minimum standards
  • moral standards
  • national standards
  • new standards
  • normative standards
  • performance standards
  • polystyrene standards
  • practice standards
  • product standards
  • professional standards
  • quality standards
  • reference standards
  • regulatory standards
  • reporting standards
  • rigorous standards
  • safety standards
  • scientific standards
  • specific standards
  • technical standards
  • technology standards
  • water quality standards

  • Terms modified by Standards

  • standards board
  • standards institute
  • standards set

  • Selected Abstracts


    Antimalarial drug quality in Africa

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 5 2007
    A. A. Amin PhD
    Abstract Background and objective: There are several reports of sub-standard and counterfeit antimalarial drugs circulating in the markets of developing countries; we aimed to review the literature for the African continent. Methods: A search was conducted in PubMed in English using the medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: ,Antimalarials/analysis'[MeSH] OR ,Antimalarials/standards'[MeSH] AND ,Africa'[MeSH]' to include articles published up to and including 26 February 2007. Data were augmented with reports on the quality of antimalarial drugs in Africa obtained from colleagues in the World Health Organization. We summarized the data under the following themes: content and dissolution; relative bioavailability of antimalarial products; antimalarial stability and shelf life; general tests on pharmaceutical dosage forms; and the presence of degradation or unidentifiable impurities in formulations. Results and discussion: The search yielded 21 relevant peer-reviewed articles and three reports on the quality of antimalarial drugs in Africa. The literature was varied in the quality and breadth of data presented, with most bioavailability studies poorly designed and executed. The review highlights the common finding in drug quality studies that (i) most antimalarial products pass the basic tests for pharmaceutical dosage forms, such as the uniformity of weight for tablets, (ii) most antimalarial drugs pass the content test and (iii) in vitro product dissolution is the main problem area where most drugs fail to meet required pharmacopoeial specifications, especially with regard to sulfadoxine,pyrimethamine products. In addition, there are worryingly high quality failure rates for artemisinin monotherapies such as dihydroartemisinin (DHA); for instance all five DHA sampled products in one study in Nairobi, Kenya, were reported to have failed the requisite tests. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to strengthen pharmaceutical management systems such as post-marketing surveillance and the broader health systems in Africa to ensure populations in the continent have access to antimalarial drugs that are safe, of the highest quality standards and that retain their integrity throughout the distribution chain through adequate enforcement of existing legislation and enactment of new ones if necessary, and provision of the necessary resources for drug quality assurance. [source]


    FOUR PROPOSITIONS ABOUT INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2009
    Art Carden
    International labour rights organisations pay considerable attention to the working conditions in less developed countries. For labour rights activists, labour standards such as collective bargaining rights and maternal leave promote economic progress. We argue that this perspective has the causation backwards and that it is economic development that causes the codification of improved working conditions. [source]


    CAN GLOBALISATION DEPRESS LIVING STANDARDS IN THE WEST?

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2005
    E. J. Mishan
    This article argues that unguarded optimism among liberal economists in the West as to the social and economic consequences of globalisation is misguided. Increased and freer international trade may depress living standards in the West as firms move production to those countries where factors of production (including labour) are cheaper and immigrants from poorer countries depress wages in wealthier nations. [source]


    IMPOSING LABOUR STANDARDS HELPS THE POOR AND PROTECTS DO MESTIC WORKERS

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2002
    Geoffrey E. Wood
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    SURVEYING UNIVERSITY STUDENT STANDARDS IN ECONOMICS

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 2 2005
    Peter Abelson
    In late 2003 and early 2004 the Economic Society of Australia surveyed the Heads of Economics Departments in Australia to determine their views on three main issues: student standards; major factors affecting these standards; and policy implications. This paper describes the main results of the survey, reviews the conduct and value of this kind of survey, and discusses policy implications for economics in universities. Most respondents considered that student standards have declined and that the main causes include lower entry standards, high student/staff ratios, and a declining culture of study. However, some respondents argued that standards are multi-dimensional and that people may properly attach different weights to different attributes. Strong precautions assuring anonymity to respondents minimised strategic responses, but may not have eliminated them entirely. However, the respondents' views were based largely on experience rather than evidence and a major finding of this paper is the need for more evidence on standards and on the factors that influence them. Most respondents favoured a decentralised university-based approach to dealing with these issues, contending that centralised accreditation is inappropriate and that market forces would promote quality issues. In the writer's view, externally set and assessed exams as part of university examination procedures would lift standards and send out improved market signals. [source]


    DISCLOSING CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: COMMON STANDARDS IN UNCOMMON CONTEXTS

    ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
    ISIDORE S. OBOT
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    MODEL STANDARDS OF PRACTICE FOR CHILD CUSTODY EVALUATION

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2007
    Task Force for Model Standards of Practice for Child Custody Evaluation
    First page of article [source]


    CAN THE ISO 14000 SERIES ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROVIDE A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO GOVERNMENT REGULATION?

    AMERICAN BUSINESS LAW JOURNAL, Issue 2 2000
    PAULETTE L. STENZEL
    First page of article [source]


    ON OPTIMAL LEGAL STANDARDS FOR COMPETITION POLICY: A GENERAL WELFARE-BASED ANALYSIS,

    THE JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2009
    YANNIS KATSOULACOS
    We present a new welfare-based framework for optimally choosing legal standards (decision rules). We formalise the decision-theoretic considerations widely discussed in the existing literature by capturing the quality of the underlying analysis and information available to a regulatory authority, and we obtain a precise necessary and sufficient set of conditions for determining when an Economics or Effects-Based approach would be able to discriminate effectively between benign and harmful actions and consequently dominate per se as a decision-making procedure. We then show that in a full welfare-based approach, the choice between legal standards must additionally take into account, (i) indirect (deterrence) effects of the choice of standard on the behaviour of all firms when deciding whether or not to adopt a particular practice; and (ii) procedural effects of certain features of the administrative process in particular delays in reaching decisions; and the investigation of only a fraction of the actions taking place. We therefore derive necessary and sufficient conditions for adopting Discriminating Rules, as advocated by the Effects-Based approach. We also examine what type of Discriminating rule will be optimal under different conditions that characterise different business practices. We apply our framework to two recent landmark decisions , Microsoft vs. EU Commission (2007) and Leegin vs. PSKS (2007) , in which a change in legal standards has been proposed, and show that it can powerfully clarify and enhance the arguments deployed in these cases. [source]


    WHY THE AVANDIA SCANDAL PROVES BIG PHARMA NEEDS STRONGER ETHICAL STANDARDS

    BIOETHICS, Issue 8 2010
    Sean Philpott
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Revised STandards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA): Extending the CONSORT Statement

    JOURNAL OF EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE, Issue 3 2010
    Hugh MacPherson
    The STandards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) were published in five journals in 2001 and 2002. These guidelines, in the form of a checklist and explanations for use by authors and journal editors, were designed to improve reporting of acupuncture trials, particularly the interventions, thereby facilitating their interpretation and replication. Subsequent reviews of the application and impact of STRICTA have highlighted the value of STRICTA as well as scope for improvements and revision. To manage the revision process a collaboration between the STRICTA Group, the CONSORT Group, and the Chinese Cochrane Centre was developed in 2008. An expert panel with 47 participants was convened that provided electronic feedback on a revised draft of the checklist. At a subsequent face-to-face meeting in Freiburg, a group of 21 participants further revised the STRICTA checklist and planned dissemination. The new STRICTA checklist, which is an official extension of CONSORT, includes six items and 17 sub-items. These set out reporting guidelines for the acupuncture rationale, the details of needling, the treatment regimen, other components of treatment, the practitioner background, and the control or comparator interventions. In addition, and as part of this revision process, the explanations for each item have been elaborated, and examples of good reporting for each item are provided. In addition, the word "controlled" in STRICTA is replaced by "clinical," to indicate that STRICTA is applicable to a broad range of clinical evaluation designs, including uncontrolled outcome studies and case reports. It is intended that the revised STRICTA, in conjunction with both the main CONSORT Statement and extension for nonpharmacologic treatment, will raise the quality of reporting of clinical trials of acupuncture. [source]


    Improving the quality of reporting acupuncture interventions: describing the collaboration between STRICTA, CONSORT and the Chinese Cochrane Centre

    JOURNAL OF EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE, Issue 1 2009
    Hugh MacPherson
    Background First published in 2001, STRICTA (STandards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture) was designed to expand on the reporting of one item within the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement checklist, the item relating to the intervention. Two recent reviews had found that STRICTA was highly regarded in the field and that there was a need for minor revisions. Objective To revise STRICTA within the CONSORT family of reporting guidelines. Design A collaborative effort involving the STRICTA Group, the CONSORT Group and the Chinese Cochrane Centre was agreed. A consultation process with 47 international experts provided detailed feedback on an initial draft of a revised checklist. These data, along with the two review studies, comprised the documentation for a consensus meeting in Freiburg, Germany in October 2008. A total of 21 participants attended the meeting, bringing their expertise as research methodologists, reporting guideline developers, acupuncturists, physicians and journal editors. Results At the workshop, a revised draft checklist was agreed. There was general consensus that STRICTA should continue to function as a stand-alone guideline as well as an extension to CONSORT. It was agreed that STRICTA should be sufficiently broad to cover all type of clinical studies, from case reports through uncontrolled studies to randomised controlled trials. It was also decided that explanations and examples, as with other CONSORT reporting guidelines, would provide a useful way of supporting the uptake to the new recommendations when published. Discussion The checklist will be subjected to further revision processes in order to further its impact and support wider dissemination. Journals that regularly publish acupuncture trials will be encouraged to adopt the revised STRICTA, include it in their guidelines for authors, and promote the adoption of its recommendations for clinical studies of acupuncture. [source]


    SVG Linearization and Accessibility

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 4 2002
    Ivan Herman
    Abstract The usage of SVG (Scaleable Vector Graphics) creates new possibilities as well as new challenges for theaccessibility of Web sites. This paper presents a metadata vocabulary to describe the information content ofan SVG file geared towards accessibility. When used with a suitable tool, this metadata description can helpin generating a textual ("linear") version of the content, which can be used for users with disabilities or withnon-visual devices. Although this paper concentrates on SVG, i.e. on graphics on the Web, the metadata approach and vocabularypresented below can be applied in relation to other technologies, too. Indeed, accessibility issues have a muchwider significance, and have an effect on areas like CAD, cartography, or information visualization. Hence, theexperiences of the work presented below may also be useful for practitioners in other areas. ACM CSS: I.3.4 Graphics Utilities,Graphics Packages, I.3.6 Methodology and Techniques,Graphics datastructures and data types, Standards, K.4.2 Social Issues,Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities [source]


    Agent-Based Interoperability without Product Model Standards

    COMPUTER-AIDED CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2007
    Udo Kannengiesser
    A major problem with standard translators is that a seamless data transfer instantly fails when not every translator implements a mapping into or from the standard format. This is frequently the case for large design projects that involve the use of a multitude of heterogeneous tools, possibly in evolving configurations over time. The agent-based approach developed and presented in this article aims to flexibly provide product models in a form adapted to the needs of the particular tools when there is no prior agreement on a common data format. Experiments show the feasibility of this approach as well as its efficacy and efficiency. [source]


    National Adoption of International Accounting Standards: An Institutional Perspective

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2010
    William Judge
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: Effective corporate governance requires accurate and reliable financial information. Historically, each nation has developed and pursued its own financial standards; however, as financial markets consolidate into a global market, there is a need for a common set of financial standards. As a result, there is a movement towards harmonization of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) throughout the global economy. While there has been considerable research on the effects of IFRS adoption, there has been relatively little systematic study as to the antecedents of IFRS adoption. Consequently, this study seeks to understand why some economies have quickly embraced IFRS standards while others partially adopt IFRS and still others continue to resist. Research Findings/Results: After controlling for market capitalization and GDP growth, we find that foreign aid, import penetration, and level of education achieved within a national economy are all predictive of the degree to which IFRS standards are adopted across 132 developing, transitional and developed economies. Theoretical/Academic Implications: We found that all three forms of isomorphic pressures (i.e., coercive, mimetic, and normative) are predictive of IFRS adoption. Consequently, institutional theory with its emphasis on legitimacy-seeking by social actors was relatively well supported by our data. This suggests that the IFRS adoption process is driven more by social legitimization pressures, than it is by economic logic. Practitioner/Policy Implications: For policy makers, our findings suggest that the institutional pressures within an economy are the key drivers of IFRS adoption. Consequently, policy makers should seek to influence institutional pressures that thwart and/or enhance adoption of IFRS. For executives of multinational firms, our findings provide insights that can help to explain and predict future IFRS adoption within economies where their foreign subsidiaries operate. This ability could be useful for creating competitive advantages for foreign subsidiaries where IFRS adoption was resisted, or avoiding competitive disadvantages for foreign subsidiaries unfamiliar with IFRS standards. [source]


    Curriculum-Context Knowledge: Teacher Learning From Successive Enactments of a Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 2 2009
    JEFFREY MARTIN CHOPPIN
    ABSTRACT This study characterizes the teacher learning that stems from successive enactments of innovative curriculum materials. This study conceptualizes and documents the formation of curriculum-context knowledge (CCK) in three experienced users of a Standards-based mathematics curriculum. I define CCK as the knowledge of how a particular set of curriculum materials functions to engage students in a particular context. The notion of CCK provides insight into the development of curricular knowledge and how it relates to other forms of knowledge that are relevant to the practice of teaching, such as content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. I used a combination of video-stimulated and semistructured interviews to examine the ways the teachers adapted the task representations in the units over time and what these adaptations signaled in terms of teacher learning. Each teacher made noticeable adaptations over the course of three or four enactments that demonstrated learning. Each of the teachers developed a greater understanding of the resources in the respective units as a result of repeated enactments, although there was some important variation between the teachers. The learning evidenced by the teachers in relation to the units demonstrated their intricate knowledge of the curriculum and the way it engaged their students. Furthermore, this learning informed their instructional practices and was intertwined with their discussion of content and how best to teach it. The results point to the larger need to account for the knowledge necessary to use Standards-based curricula and to relate the development and existence of well-elaborated knowledge components to evaluations of curricula. [source]


    Writing the "Show,Me" Standards: Teacher Professionalism and Political Control in U.S. State Curriculum Policy

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2002
    Margaret Placier
    This qualitative case study analyzes the process of writing academic standards in one U.S. state, Missouri. The researchers took a critical pragmatic approach, which entailed close examination of the intentions and interactions of various participants in the writing process (teachers, politicians, business leaders, the public), in order to understand the text that was finally produced. School reform legislation delegated responsibility for writing the standards to a teacher work group, but the teachers found that their "professional" status and their intention to write standards that reflected a "constructivist" view of knowledge would meet with opposition. Politicians, who held different assumptions about the audience, organization, and content of the standards, exercised their greater power to control the outcome of the process. As the researchers analyzed public records and documents generated during the writing process, they constructed a chronological narrative detailing points of tension among political actors. From the narrative, they identified four conflicts that significantly influenced the final wording of the standards. They argue that as a consequence of these conflicts, Missouri's standards are characterized by a dichotomous view of content and process; bland, seemingly value,neutral language; and lack of specificity. Such conflicts and outcomes are not limited to this context. A comparative, international perspective shows that they seem to occur when groups in societies marked by political conflicts over education attempt to codify what "all students should know." [source]


    The Creation of Emergency Health Care Standards for Catastrophic Events

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 11 2006
    Robert A. Wise MD
    The creation of health care standards by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) in a defined area with known events follows a predictable process. A problem area (e.g., hand hygiene) is identified from multiple sources. The JCAHO then calls together experts from around the country, and through debate and the comparison of positions of various people within the health care arena, a new standard informed by these views can be developed. Once developed, it is vetted and becomes established as a Joint Commission standard. But what happens when an event has never happened, cannot be reliably predicted, and, one hopes, will never come to pass? How can one create any meaningful standards? This is the situation when considering a number of scenarios related to disasters and mass casualty events. [source]


    CPA assessment , the regional assessors' experience

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2007
    E. Welsh
    Many individuals within Laboratory Medicine will be unaware that CPA conducts assessments to two different sets of CPA Standards. There are the Standards for the Medical Laboratory and the Standards for EQA Schemes in Laboratory Medicine. The style and format of both sets of standards is very similar with each being presented in eight sections A , H. The EQA standards are almost identical to the laboratory standards with the exception of the E.F and G standards which are specific to EQA schemes. There are approximately 40 EQA Schemes registered with CPA compared with almost 2 500 laboratories. These EQA schemes vary from very large national/international schemes with numerous analytes to small interpretive schemes run by one individual with a personal interest in that specific subject. The large schemes usually come under the UKNEQAS consortia banner and due to their size and configuration do not present undue problems in the assessment process. Smaller interpretive EQA schemes present a challenge both for the scheme and CPA in gaining accreditation. These schemes are usually within the discipline of Histopathology and are regarded as educational rather than proficiency testing schemes. Very frequently, the scheme is organized by a single individual with a collection of microscope slides, storage facilities for the slides and a computer. This presents the Scheme Organizer with great difficulty in complying with the Quality Management System requirements of the CPA Standards. There are a number of models which can be applied in order to satisfy the requirement of the Quality Management System, but ultimately it must be recognized that in some circumstances it is not possible to accredit these small schemes. The NHSCSP Gynae Cytology EQA Scheme is probably the largest EQA scheme within the UK, in respect of the number of participants and the number of staff supporting the scheme. Scheme Management decided that all nine regions of England would apply for accreditation under one CPA Reference Number. This process meant that the scheme would be assessed as a Managed Pathology Network. This is unique in terms of EQA schemes and presented a number of problems not previously encountered in EQA scheme accreditation. This decision meant that all nine regions must comply with a single Quality Management System and other CPA standards whilst allowing flexibility within the system for each region to facilitate the assessment process specific to their user's requirements. The process worked in a satisfactory manner and the overall outcome was not dissimilar to that of other large EQA schemes. The assessment to the current EQA Standards only commenced in April 2006 whilst the Standards for Medical Laboratories commenced in 2003, and it is perhaps not surprising to find that the principal non-conformities are related to the Quality Management System. This parallels the findings encountered in laboratory accreditation. There is an ongoing educational process for Scheme Management and the Facilitators in each region in how to comply fully with the standards and a commitment to quality improvement which ultimately is beneficial to the participant's of the scheme and to patient safety. [source]


    Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Effects Involving an Expert System Designed as a Learning Tool for Internal Control Assessment*

    DECISION SCIENCES JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE EDUCATION, Issue 1 2003
    Mary Jane Lenard
    ABSTRACT The assessment of internal control is a consideration in all financial statement audits, as stressed by the Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 78. According to this statement, "the auditor should obtain an understanding of internal control sufficient to plan the audit" (Accounting Standards Board, 1995, p. 1). Therefore, an accounting student will progress through the auditing course with the responsibility of learning how and why internal controls are assessed. Research in expert systems applied to auditing has shown that there is strong support for the constructive dialogue used in expert systems as a means of encouraging their use in decision making (Eining, Jones, & Loebbecke, 1997). The purpose of this study is to provide the student or novice auditor with a method for developing a more comprehensive understanding of internal controls and the use of internal controls in audit planning. The results of the study reinforce previous findings that novices do better when an expert system applies analogies along with declarative explanations, and clarifies the length of time in which the use of active learning in a training system can provide an improvement to declarative knowledge, but procedural knowledge must be acquired over a longer time frame. [source]


    Differences between European birthweight standards: impact on classification of ,small for gestational age'

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 11 2006
    K Hemming PhD
    We describe a quantitative and comparative review of a selection of European birthweight standards for gestational age for singletons, to enable appropriate choices to be made for clinical and research use. Differences between median values at term across standards in 10 regions and misclassification of 'small for gestational age'(SGA), were studied. Sex and parity differences, exclusion criteria, and methods of construction were considered. There was wide variation between countries in exclusion criteria, methods of calculating standards, and median birthweight at term. The lightest standards (e.g. France's medians are 255g lower than Norway's medians) were associated with fewer exclusion criteria. Up to 20% of the population used in the construction of the Scottish standard would be classified as SGA using the Norwegian standard. Substantial misclassification of SGA is possible. Assumptions about variation used in the construction of some standards were not justified. It is not possible to conclude that there are real differences in birthweight standards between European countries. Country-based standards control for some population features but add misclassification due to the differing ways in which standards are derived. Standards should be chosen to reflect clinical or research need. If standards stratified by sex or parity are not available, adjustments should be made. In multinational studies, comparisons should be made between results using both a common standard and country-based standards. [source]


    Lithium monitoring before and after the distribution of clinical practice guidelines

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2000
    John M. Eagles
    Objective: To determine whether distribution of clinical practice guidelines improves lithium monitoring and whether standards of monitoring differed between patients in psychiatric contact and those seen only in primary care. Method: Standards of monitoring were assessed for patients on lithium in northeast Scotland throughout 1995 and/or throughout 1996. Guidelines were circulated in January 1996 to all local general practitioners and psychiatrists. Monitoring was compared between 1995 and 1996 and for patients with and without psychiatric contact. Results: Both primary care and psychiatric records were scrutinized for 422 and 403 patients prescribed lithium throughout 1995 and 1996, respectively. While monitoring was poor on several parameters during both years, frequency of measurement of both thyroid and renal function improved in 1996. Standards of monitoring were better for patients in psychiatric care. Conclusion: Standards of lithium monitoring require further improvement. Locally agreed practice guidelines are helpful but patients on lithium should be in continuing contact with an experienced psychiatrist. [source]


    Locating Responsibility: The Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Its Rationale

    DISASTERS, Issue 2 2004
    James Darcy
    Criticised by some as a technical initiative that neglects core principles, Sphere was seen by its originators precisely as an articulation of principle. The Humanitarian Charter was the main vehicle through which this was expressed, but its relationship to the Minimum Standards has remained a matter of uncertainty. Specifically, it was unclear in the original (1999) edition of Sphere how the concept of rights informed the Minimum Standards. The revised (2004) edition goes some way to clarifying this in the way the standards are framed, yet the link between the standards and the charter remains unclear. The concern with the quality and accountability of humanitarian assistance, which motivated the attempt to establish system-wide standards through the Sphere Project, was accompanied by a desire to establish such actions in a wider framework of legal and political responsibility. In part, this reflects the conditional nature of the undertaking that agencies make when they adopt Sphere. This aspect of the charter has been neglected, but it is fundamental to an understanding of the standards and their application. This paper considers the rationale of the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and the conceptual model that underpins it. It discusses the relationship between the charter and the Minimum Standards, and the sense in which the latter are properly called ,rights-based' (explored further in a related paper herein by Young and Taylor). The author was closely involved in the conception and drafting of the charter, and this paper attempts to convey some of the thinking that lay behind it. [source]


    Nutritional Response to the 1998 Bangladesh Flood Disaster: Sphere Minimum Standards in Disaster Response

    DISASTERS, Issue 3 2002
    Max R. O'Donnell
    In this study we use a cross,sectional survey to evaluate the nutritional response to the 1998 Bangladesh Flood Disaster by 15 relief agencies using standards developed by the Sphere Project. The Sphere Project is a recent attempt by agencies around the world to establish universal minimum standards for the purpose of ensuring quality and accountability in disaster response. The main outcomes measured were resources allocated to disaster relief, types of relief activities and percentage of agencies meeting selected Sphere food aid and nutrition indicators. Although the process of nutritional response was measured, specific nutritional and health outcomes were not assessed. This review found that self,reported disaster and nutritional resources varied widely between implementing agencies, ranging from US$58,947 to $15,908,712. The percentage of resources these agencies allocated to food aid and nutritional response also varied, ranging from approximately 6 to 99 per cent of total resources. Agencies met between 8 and 83 per cent of the specific Sphere indicators which were assessed. Areas in which performance was poor included preliminary nutritional analysis; beneficiary participation and feedback; disaster preparedness during non,emergency times; monitoring of local markets and impact assessment. Agencies were generally successful in areas of core humanitarian response, such as targeting the vulnerable (83 per cent) and monitoring and evaluating the process of disaster response (75 per cent). The results here identify both strengths and gaps in the quality of humanitarian response in developing nations such as Bangladesh. However, they also raise the question of implementing a rights,based approach to disaster response in nations without a commitment to meeting positive human rights in non,disaster times. [source]


    FREE TRADE, ,PAUPER LABOUR' AND PROSPERITY: A REPLY TO PROFESSOR MISHAN

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2006
    John Meadowcroft
    In an Economic Viewpoint published in the September 2005 edition of Economic Affairs, ,Can Globalisation Depress Living Standards in the West?', Professor E. J. Mishan argued that globalisation may reduce living standards in the West by decreasing the labour,capital ratio in developed countries as firms move production to countries where labour is cheaper and/or migrants to the West from the developing world bid down wage rates. In a reply to Professor Mishan's article, Dr John Meadowcroft argues that this view of globalisation is far too pessimistic and explains why free trade, not protection, will secure the prosperity of developed and developing economies. In a final comment, Professor Mishan responds to this critique of his analysis. [source]


    Global Standards, Local Realities: Private Agrifood Governance and the Restructuring of the Kenyan Horticulture Industry

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2010
    Stefan Ouma
    abstract Over the past decade, private food safety and quality standards have become focal points in the supply chain management of large retailers, reshaping governance patterns in global agrifood chains. In this article, I analyze the relationship between private collective standards and the governance of agrifood markets, using the EUREPGAP/GLOBALGAP standard as a vantage point. I discuss the impact of this standard on the organization of supply chains of fresh vegetables in the Kenyan horticulture industry, focusing on the supply chain relationships and practices among exporters and smallholder farmers. In so doing, I seek to highlight the often-contested nature of the implementation of standards in social fields that are marked by different and distributed principles of evaluating quality, production processes, and legitimate actions in the marketplace. I also reconstruct the challenges and opportunities that exporters and farmers are facing with regard to the implementation of and compliance with standards. Finally, I elaborate on the scope for action that producers and policymakers have under these structures to retain sectoral competitiveness in a global economy of qualities. [source]


    Can High School Achievement Tests Serve to Select College Students?

    EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 2 2010
    Adriana D. Cimetta
    Postsecondary schools have traditionally relied on admissions tests such as the SATand ACT to select students. With high school achievement assessments in place in many states, it is important to ascertain whether scores from those exams can either supplement or supplant conventional admissions tests. In this study we examined whether the Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) high school tests could serve as a useful predictor of college performance. Stepwise regression analyses with a predetermined order of variable entry revealed that AIMS generally did not account for additional performance variation when added to high school grade-point average (HSGPA) and SAT. However, in a cohort of students that took the test for graduation purposes, AIMS did account for about the same proportion of variance as SAT when added to a model that included HSGPA. The predictive value of both SAT and AIMS was generally the same for Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian American students. The ramifications of universities using high school achievement exams as predictors of college success, in addition to or in lieu of traditional measures, are discussed. [source]


    Does an Argument-Based Approach to Validity Make a Difference?

    EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2010
    Carol A. Chapelle
    Drawing on experience between 2000 and 2007 in developing a validity argument for the high-stakes Test of English as a Foreign LanguageÔ (TOEFLŪ), this paper evaluates the differences between the argument-based approach to validity as presented byKane (2006)and that described in the 1999 AERA/APA/NCME Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Based on an analysis of four points of comparison,framing the intended score interpretation, outlining the essential research, structuring research results into a validity argument, and challenging the validity argument,we conclude that an argument-based approach to validity introduces some new and useful concepts and practices. [source]


    The Quality of Content Analyses of State Student Achievement Tests and Content Standards

    EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2008
    Andrew C. Porter
    This article examines the reliability of content analyses of state student achievement tests and state content standards. We use data from two states in three grades in mathematics and English language arts and reading to explore differences by state, content area, grade level, and document type. Using a generalizability framework, we find that reliabilities for four coders are generally greater than .80. For the two problematic reliabilities, they are partly explained by an odd rater out. We conclude that the content analysis procedures, when used with at least five raters, provide reliable information to researchers, policymakers, and practitioners about the content of assessments and standards. [source]


    Alignment of Mathematics State-Level Standards and Assessments: The Role of Reviewer Agreement

    EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 2 2007
    Noreen M. Webb
    This article examines the role of reviewer agreement in judgments about alignment between tests and standards. We used case data from three state alignment studies to explore how different approaches to incorporating reviewer agreement changes alignment conclusions. The three case studies showed varying degrees of reviewer agreement about correspondences between objectives and test items. Moreover, taking into account reviewer agreement in the analyses sometimes had a marked effect on alignment conclusions. We discuss reasons for differences across case studies and alignment approaches, as well as implications for future alignment efforts. [source]