Standard Guidelines (standard + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


NURSES' KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF VASCULAR ACCESS INFECTION CONTROL IN HAEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND

JOURNAL OF RENAL CARE, Issue 2 2008
DipNS, Margaret Higgins RN
SUMMARY Vascular access hygiene is an integral component of haemodialysis care. Ensuring nurses possess sufficient knowledge and utilise recommended guidelines on infection control is essential for safe practice and patient safety. The study aimed to investigate nurses' knowledge and practice of vascular access infection control among adult haemodialysis patients in the Republic of Ireland. A confidential self-completion questionnaire was sent to all 190 qualified nurses employed in nine haemodialysis units in the Republic of Ireland, which assessed knowledge and behaviour in infection control. Although 92% of respondents reported that policies had been developed by their units and 47% had received infection control education in the previous year, knowledge and adherence to best practice demonstrated significant scope for improvement. The study recommended the development of standard guidelines and regular reviews and updates of policies. Systems should also be developed to ensure a high level of compliance. [source]


An economic evaluation of NIOX MINO airway inflammation monitor in the United Kingdom

ALLERGY, Issue 3 2009
D. Price
Background:, Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, is easily measured by noninvasive means. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of FENO measurement using a hand-held monitor (NIOX MINO), at a reimbursement price of 23, for asthma diagnosis and management in the UK. Methods:, We constructed two decision trees to compare FENO measurement with standard diagnostic testing and guideline recommendations for management. For asthma diagnosis, we compared FENO measurement with lung function and reversibility testing, bronchial provocation and sputum eosinophil count. For asthma management, we evaluated the impact on asthma control, including inhaled corticosteroid use, exacerbations and hospitalizations, of monitoring with FENO measurement vs symptoms and lung function as in standard care. Resource use and health outcomes were evaluated over a 1-year time frame. Direct costs were calculated from a UK health-care payer perspective (2005 ). Results:, An asthma diagnosis using FENO measurement cost 43 less per patient as compared with standard diagnostic tests. Asthma management using FENO measurement instead of lung function testing resulted in annual cost-savings of 341 and 0.06 quality-adjusted life-years gained for patients with mild to severe asthma and cost-savings of 554 and 0.004 quality-adjusted life-years gained for those with moderate to severe asthma. Conclusions:, Asthma diagnosis based on FENO measurement with NIOX MINO alone is less costly and more accurate than standard diagnostic methods. Asthma management based on FENO measurement is less costly than asthma management based on standard guidelines and provides similar health benefits. [source]


Recent advances in chemical peeling in Japan

THE JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 10 2006
Fukumi FURUKAWA
ABSTRACT Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or aesthetic improvement. This treatment consists of the application of one or more chemical agents to the skin. Recently in Japan, chemical peeling has been very popular for medical as well as aesthetic treatment. Because the scientific background and an adequate approach have not been completely established, medical and social problems have been reported. To address these issues, the Japanese Dermatological Association has established standard guidelines for chemical peeling, and the scientific background and validity of chemical peeling has been assessed. In this review, a set of guidelines for chemical peeling is introduced, and we will discuss several clinical and histological studies including the effects of glycolic acid, and the application of deer peeling to skin tumors in our department. [source]


Global Expression Profiling in Epileptogenesis: Does It Add to the Confusion?

BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Yi Yuen Wang MBBS
Abstract Since the inception of global gene expression profiling platforms in the mid-1990s, there has been a significant increase in publications of differentially expressed genes in the process of epileptogenesis. In particular for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, the presence of a latency period between the first manifestation of seizures to chronic epilepsy provides the opportunity for therapeutic interventions at the molecular biology level. Using global expression profiling techniques, approximately 2000 genes have been published demonstrating differential expression in mesial temporal epilepsy. The majority of these changes, however, are specific to laboratory or experimental conditions with only 53 genes demonstrating changes in more than two publications. To this end, we review the current status of gene expression profiling in epileptogenesis and suggest standard guidelines to be followed for greater accuracy and reproducibility of results. [source]