Standard Care (standard + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The Utility of a Quality Improvement Bundle in Bridging the Gap between Research and Standard Care in the Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock in the Emergency Department

H. Bryant Nguyen MD
The research in the management of severe sepsis and septic shock has resulted in a number of therapeutic strategies with significant survival benefits. These results also emphasize the primary importance of early hemodynamic resuscitation, or early goal-directed therapy (EGDT), and place the emergency physician in the center of the multidisciplinary team caring for patients with this disease. However, in a busy emergency department, the translation of research into clinical practice is far from ideal. While the benefits are significant, the successful implementation of EGDT is filled with challenges and obstacles. In this article, we will discuss the steps taken at our institution to create, implement, measure, and improve on a six-hour severe sepsis and septic shock treatment bundle incorporating EGDT in the emergency department setting, resulting in significant mortality benefit. [source]

Pediatric primary care to help prevent child maltreatment: the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model

Richard Reading
Pediatric primary care to help prevent child maltreatment: the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model . DubowitzH., FeigelmanS., LaneW. & KimJ. ( 2009 ) Pediatrics , 123 , 858 , 864 . DOI: 10.1542/peds.2008-1376 . Context Effective strategies for preventing child maltreatment are needed. Few primary care-based programmes have been developed, and most have not been well evaluated. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model of pediatric primary care in reducing the occurrence of child maltreatment. Methods A randomized trial was conducted from June 2002 to November 2005 in a university-based resident continuity clinic in Baltimore, Maryland. The study population consisted of English-speaking parents of children (0,5 years) brought in for child health supervision. Of the 1118 participants approached, 729 agreed to participate, and 558 of them completed the study protocol. Resident continuity clinics were cluster randomized by day of the week to the model (intervention) or standard care (control) groups. Model care consisted of (1) residents who received special training; (2) the Parent Screening Questionnaire; and (3) a social worker. Risk factors for child maltreatment were identified and addressed by the resident physician and/or social worker. Standard care involved routine pediatric primary care. A subset of the clinic population was sampled for the evaluation. Child maltreatment was measured in three ways: (1) child protective services reports using state agency data; (2) medical chart documentation of possible abuse or neglect; and (3) parental report of harsh punishment via the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics scale. Results Model care resulted in significantly lower rates of child maltreatment in all the outcome measures: fewer child protective services reports, fewer instances of possible medical neglect documented as treatment non-adherence, fewer children with delayed immunizations and less harsh punishment reported by parents. One-tailed testing was conducted in accordance with the study hypothesis. Conclusions The SEEK model of pediatric primary care seems promising as a practical strategy for helping prevent child maltreatment. Replication and additional evaluation of the model are recommended. [source]

The value of debridement and Vacuum-Assisted Closure (V.A.C.) Therapy in diabetic foot ulcers

Magnus Eneroth
Abstract Background Treatment of diabetic foot ulcers includes a number of different regimes such as glycaemic control, re-vascularization, surgical, local wound treatment, offloading and other non-surgical treatments. Although considered the standard of care, the scientific evidence behind the various debridements used is scarce. This presentation will focus on debridement and V.A.C. Therapy, two treatments widely used in patients with diabetes and foot ulcers. Methods A review of existing literature on these treatments in diabetic foot ulcers, with focus on description of the various types of debridements used, the principles behind negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) using the V.A.C. Therapy system and level of evidence. Results Five randomized controlled trials (RCT) of debridement were identified; three assessed the effectiveness of a hydrogel as a debridement method, one evaluated surgical debridement and one evaluated larval therapy. Pooling the three hydrogel RCTs suggested that hydrogels are significantly more effective than gauze or standard care in healing diabetic foot ulcers. Surgical debridement and larval therapy showed no significant benefit. Other debridement methods such as enzyme preparations or polysaccharide beads have not been evaluated in RCTs of people with diabetes. More than 300 articles have been published on negative pressure wound therapy, including several small RCTs and a larger multi-centre RCT of diabetic foot ulcers. Negative pressure wound therapy seems to be a safe and effective treatment for complex diabetic foot wounds, and could lead to a higher proportion of healed wounds, faster healing rates, and potentially fewer re-amputations than standard care. Conclusions Although debridement of the ulcer is considered a prerequisite for healing of diabetic foot ulcers, the grade of evidence is quite low. This may be due to a lack of studies rather than lack of effect. Negative pressure wound therapy seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of some diabetic foot ulcers, although there is still only one well-performed trial that evaluates the effect. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Motivation and patch treatment for HIV+ smokers: a randomized controlled trial

ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson
ABSTRACT Aims To test the efficacy of two smoking cessation interventions in a HIV positive (HIV+) sample: standard care (SC) treatment plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) versus more intensive motivationally enhanced (ME) treatment plus NRT. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting HIV+ smoker referrals from eight immunology clinics in the northeastern United States. Participants A total of 444 participants enrolled in the study (mean age = 42.07 years; 63.28% male; 51.80% European American; mean cigarettes/day = 18.27). Interventions SC participants received two brief sessions with a health educator. Those setting a quit date received self-help quitting materials and NRT. ME participants received four sessions of motivational counseling and a quit-day counseling call. All ME intervention materials were tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. Measurements Biochemically verified 7-day abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-ups. Findings Intent-to-treat (ITT) abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-ups were 12%, 9% and 9%, respectively, in the ME condition, and 13%, 10% and 10%, respectively, in the SC condition, indicating no between-group differences. Among 412 participants with treatment utilization data, 6-month ITT abstinence rates were associated positively with low nicotine dependence (P = 0.02), high motivation to quit (P = 0.04) and Hispanic American race/ethnicity (P = 0.02). Adjusting for these variables, each additional NRT contact improved the odds of smoking abstinence by a third (odds ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.99,1.75). Conclusions Motivationally enhanced treatment plus NRT did not improve cessation rates over and above standard care treatment plus NRT in this HIV+ sample of smokers. Providers offering brief support and encouraging use of nicotine replacement may be able to help HIV+ patients to quit smoking. [source]

Placebo-corrected efficacy of modern antiepileptic drugs for refractory epilepsy: Systematic review and meta-analysis

EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2010
Stefan Beyenburg
Summary Although adjunctive treatment with modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is standard care in refractory epilepsy, it is unclear how much of the effect can be attributed directly to the AEDs and how much to the beneficial changes seen with placebo. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence to determine the placebo-corrected net efficacy of adjunctive treatment with modern AEDs on the market for refractory epilepsy. Of 317 potentially eligible articles reviewed in full text, 124 (39%) fulfilled eligibility criteria. After excluding 69 publications, 55 publications of 54 studies in 11,106 adults and children with refractory epilepsy form the basis of evidence. The overall weighted pooled-risk difference in favor of AEDs over placebo for seizure-freedom in the total sample of adults and children was 6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4,8, z = 6.47, p < 0.001] and 21% (95% CI 19,24, z = 17.13, p < 0.001) for 50% seizure reduction. Although the presence of moderate heterogeneity may reduce the validity of the results and limit generalizations from the findings, we conclude that the placebo-corrected efficacy of adjunctive treatment with modern AEDs is disappointingly small and suggest that better strategies of finding drugs are needed for refractory epilepsy, which is a major public health problem. [source]

Does stage-based smoking cessation advice in pregnancy result in long-term quitters?

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2005
18-month postpartum follow-up of a randomized controlled trial
ABSTRACT Aims To evaluate the effect on quitting smoking at 18 months postpartum of smoking cessation interventions based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) delivered in pregnancy compared to current standard care. It has been claimed that TTM-based interventions will continue to create quitters after the end of the intervention period. Design Cluster randomized trial. Setting Antenatal clinics in general practices in the West Midlands, UK. Participants A total of 918 pregnant smokers originally enrolled in the trial, of which 393 women were followed-up at 18 months postpartum. Interventions One hundred general practices were randomized into the three trial arms. Midwives in these practices delivered three interventions: A (standard care), B (TTM-based self-help manuals) and C (TTM-based self-help manuals plus sessions with an interactive computer program giving individualized smoking cessation advice). Measurements Self-reported continuous and point prevalence abstinence since pregnancy. Findings When combined together, there was a slight and not significant benefit for both TTM arms compared to the control, with an odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.20 (0.29,4.88) for continuous abstinence. For point prevalence abstinence, the OR (95%CI) was 1.15 (0.66,2.03). Seven of the 54 (13%) women who had quit at the end of pregnancy were still quit 18 months later, and there was no evidence that the TTM-based interventions were superior in preventing relapse. Conclusions The TTM-based interventions may have shown some evidence of a short-term benefit for quitting in pregnancy but no benefit relative to standard care when followed-up in the longer-term. [source]

Quality of life and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer patients

D.U. BOEHM md, resident of breast cancer centre
About two-thirds of all breast cancer patients are treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy. Side effects of tamoxifen and their effects on physical, emotional and social functioning have been shown to impair the quality of life. Aim of this paper was to evaluate the side effects and level of influence on the physical, emotional and social functioning caused by tamoxifen treatment. For assessment of quality of life an own questionnaire was designed. Between January 2001 and December 2003, 136 women with breast cancer and adjuvant tamoxifen therapy were included in this study. Data of side effects, physical and mental health and patients' self-evaluation identified detrimental effects on patients' quality of life. Prevalence and severity of symptoms were not influenced by length of tamoxifen treatment. Patients were damaged in their constitution in respect to previous chemotherapy and pre-existing diseases; no influence was found by age or histopathological tumour characteristics. Our survey determines that breast cancer patients experience significant influence on quality of life by the negative impact on the physical, emotional and social functioning caused by tamoxifen treatment. Explicit attention to changes in quality of life should be considered as part of the standard care for women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. [source]

Aggressive chronic platelet inhibition with prasugrel and increased cancer risks: revising oral antiplatelet regimens?

Victor L. Serebruany
Abstract The TRITON-TIMI 38 was a head-to-head trial to assess the efficacy and safety of the experimental antiplatelet agent prasugrel vs. standard care with clopidogrel on top of aspirin. Besides some ischemic protection at expense of overwhelming bleeding disadvantage, prasugrel treated patients experienced three times higher rate of colonic neoplasms then after clopidogrel, and this difference was significant. Importantly, known gastrointestinal bleeding preceded the diagnosis of colonic neoplasms only in half of the patients. Three potential mechanisms responsible for such harmful association are reviewed, namely: (i) direct hazard of the experimental drug on cancer occurrence and progression; (ii) indirect modulation of tumor growth; and (iii) enhanced metastatic dissemination due to instability of platelet-tumor cell aggregates, or/and inability to keep the disease locally due by much more potent long-term platelet inhibition should be considered. Significant excess of cancer after prasugrel is alarming, and can be reasonably explained, with critical clinical implications not only for prasugrel further development, but also for existing and future chronic antiplatelet strategies. If the hypothesis that oral aggressive platelet inhibition cause higher cancer risks will turn out to be true, then intensity of platelet inhibition, and especially duration of chronic antiplatelet therapy should be reconsidered. More delicate platelet inhibition, and shorter exposure to oral antiplatelet agents will prevail. [source]

A challenging intervention with maternal anxiety: Babies requiring surgical correction of a congenital anomaly after missed prenatal diagnosis

Lucia Aite
The objective of this study is to assess the impact on maternal anxiety of a short-term intervention in a particularly stressful situation, such as a surgical anomaly diagnosed only at birth after repeated negative prenatal ultrasounds. The patients were 30 mothers of babies requiring surgical correction of a congenital anomaly who were randomly assigned to an intervention (N = 16) or control (N = 14) group. The intervention group received standard care plus short-term intervention that included weekly meetings with the psychologist and weekly team meetings. The control group received only standard care available on the Neonatal Surgery Unit. The main outcome measure was maternal anxiety levels, assessed at birth and on discharge with the Spielberger State,Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI,S). Statistical comparisons were made, and no significant differences were found at birth in the STAI,S scores of the two groups. At discharge, the intervention group exhibited a much lower STAI,S score than the group without short-term intervention. The authors concluded that psychological counseling for parents of newborn babies has been shown to be helpful. However, the impact of such assistance was shown to be particularly beneficial for parents facing the emotional stress of their children requiring unexpected surgical corrections of congenital anomalies at birth. Therefore, the presence of a psychologist, as part of the standard care of newborns requiring surgical correction, is recommended. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

Implementation of a community liaison pharmacy service: a randomised controlled trial

Tam Vuong PhD
Objective The aim of this study was to provide a pharmacy service to improve continuity of patient care across the primary-secondary care interface. Setting The study involved patients discharged from two acute-care tertiary teaching hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, returning to independent living. Methods Consecutive patients admitted to both hospitals who met the study criteria and provided consent were recruited. Recruited patients were randomised to receive either standard care (discharge counselling, provision of compliance aids and communication with primary healthcare providers when necessary) or the intervention (standard care and a home visit from a community liaison pharmacist (CLP) within 5 days of discharge). Participant medication was reviewed during the visit according to set protocols and compliance and medication understanding was measured. All participants were telephoned 8,12weeks after discharge to assess the impact of the intervention on adherence and medication knowledge. Key findings The CLP visited 142 patients with a mean time of 4.2 days following hospital discharge (range = 1,14 days). Consultations lasted 15,105 min (mean, 49 min; SD, ± 21 min). The CLPs retrospectively coded 766 activities and interventions that occurred during home visits, subsequently categorised into three groups: counselling and education, therapeutic interventions and other interventions. No statistical difference was detected in the number of medications patients reported taking at follow-up: the mean value was 7.72 (SD, ± 3.27) for intervention patients and 7.55 (SD, ± 3.27) for standard-care patients (P = 0.662). At follow-up self-perceived medication understanding was found to have improved in intervention patients (P < 0.001) and significant improvements from baseline in medication adherence were found in both standard-care (P < 0.022) and intervention (P < 0.005) groups; however, adherence had improved more in intervention patients. Conclusion The community liaison pharmacy service provided critical and useful interventions and support to patients, minimising the risk of medication misadventure when patients were discharged from hospital to home. [source]

Medical management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

Gabriel J. E. Rinkel
Abstract Treating patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage is taking care of acutely ill patients, and should be performed in centres where a multidisciplinary team is available 24 hours a day 7 days a week, and where enough patients are managed to maintain and improve standards of care. There is no medical management that improves outcome by reducing the risk of rebleeding, therefore occlusion of the aneurysm, nowadays preferably by means of coiling, remains an important goal in treating patients with aneurysms. Because the poor outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage is caused to a large extent by complications other than rebleeding, proper medical management to prevent and treat these complications is therefore essential. On basis of the available evidence, oral (not intravenous) nimodipine should be standard care in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. It is rational to refrain from treating hypertension unless cardiac failure develops and to aim for normovolaemia, even in case of hyponatraemia. There is no evidence for prophylactic hypervolaemia, and the strategy of hypervolaemia and hypertension in patients with secondary cerebral ischaemia is based on case reports and uncontrolled observational series of patients. Magnesium sulphate and statins are promising therapies, and large trials on effectiveness in improving clinical outcome are underway. There is no evidence for prophylactic use of anti epileptic drugs, and routine use of corticosteroids should be avoided. [source]

Decreases in Cortisol Variability Between Treated and Untreated Jaw Pain Patients,

Richard C. Robinson
The study evaluated the impact of treatment on cortisol levels in acute pain patients at high risk for chronic jaw-related pain. Twenty-five patients with jaw pain or facial discomfort (< 6 months) participated in the study. Patients at high risk for chronic pain received biobehavioral intervention, and those at lower risk received standard care. Cortisol levels increased over time in both conditions, F(1, 429) = 6.614, p = .010; however, cortisol variability decreased among those receiving biobehavioral treatment (p < .043), whereas variability increased among those receiving standard treatment. Together, these findings underscore the potential role of cortisol activity in that it may influence the transition from acute pain to chronic pain. [source]

Comparison of plain ice and flavoured ice for preventing oral mucositis associated with the use of 5 fluorouracil

Sue Nikoletti RN
Aims and objectives., The study aimed to compare the use of plain ice, flavoured ice and standard care, to evaluate the effect on mucositis and to determine patients' perceptions of the two forms of oral cryotherapy. Background., Despite evidence that oral cryotherapy is useful in preventing mucositis in patients receiving 5-fluorouracil, concerns have been expressed about its clinical utility, due to potential side effects and negative perceptions. Design., A randomized, controlled, crossover trial was conducted in the outpatient chemotherapy department of an acute care teaching hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Patients were randomized to receive each of three interventions across three cycles of chemotherapy: standard care alone; standard care plus plain ice; and standard care plus flavoured ice. Methods., Oral mucositis was assessed by nurses prior to each of the three chemotherapy cycles and 15 days after each intervention. Two assessment tools were used, the Oral Assessment Guide, and the Western Consortium Cancer Nursing Research Scale. Participants completed a questionnaire to determine their comfort and satisfaction with oral cryotherapy, as well as factors affecting compliance. Results., Findings from 67 patients revealed that when participants used standard care alone, they were significantly more likely to experience symptoms of mucositis than when they used either plain or flavoured ice. Odds ratios were at least threefold higher for standard care alone, varying according to the instrument used. The two main concerns reported were the taste of flavoured ice and the time required to complete the cryotherapy interventions. Side effects such as nausea, sensitivity and headache were reported more frequently for flavoured ice (n = 11) compared with plain ice (n = 5) and standard care (n = 1). Conclusions., Both forms of oral cryotherapy were effective in reducing the severity of oral mucositis after chemotherapy and were more effective than standard care alone. Flavoured ice was associated with the highest frequency of side effects. Relevance to clinical practice., The benefits of cryotherapy appear to outweigh the problems in this sample of patients. The intervention should be tailored to individual patients, based on preferences for plain versus flavoured ice and small chips vs. larger blocks. Unsweetened frozen fruit juices should be evaluated. Time constraints could be addressed by providing transportable containers of ice. [source]

Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with osteopathy: Results of a randomized controlled pilot study

Henry WC Hundscheid
Abstract Background and Aim:, Effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not yet available. Osteopathy is a manual treatment which relies on mobilizing and manipulating procedures in order to relieve complaints. In the present study, a randomized controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of osteopathic treatment for IBS. Methods:, Eligible IBS patients were randomized between osteopathy and standard care. Follow-up was 6 months and validated means of follow-up were used. After 1, 3 and 6 months an overall assessment of symptoms was noted and a symptom score was obtained on a 5-point Likert scale. Quality of life (QOL) was scored with the standardized IBSQOL 2000 questionnaire and the Functional Bowel Disorder Severity Index was used. Results:, Twenty patients were randomized into the osteopathy group (OG) and 19 patients were included in the standard care group (SCG). Sixty-eight percent of patients in the OG noted definite overall improvement in symptoms and 27% showed slight improvement. One patient (5%) was free of symptoms at the end of the study. In the SCG, 18% noted definite improvement, 59% showed slight improvement, and in 17% worsening of symptoms was present. The difference in change in overall symptomatic improvement was statistically significant in favor of the osteopathic treatment (P < 0.006). Mean Functional Bowel Disorder Severity Index (FBDSI) score in the OG decreased from 174 to 74 at 6 months (P < 0.0001). Also, a significant decrease was noted in the SCG from 171 to 119 (P < 0.0001). However, the decrease in the OG was significantly higher compared with the standard treatment (P = 0.02). Mean symptom score in the OG decreased from 9.1 to 6.8 but this did not reach statistical significance. In the SCG, no change in symptom score occurred (8.7 vs 10). At 6 months, the score in the OG was significantly lower (6.8 vs 10; P = 0.02). The QOL score increased in the OG at 111 versus 129 (P < 0.009). In the SCG an increase was also noted, but this was not statistically significant (109 vs 121). Conclusion:, Osteopathic therapy is a promising alternative in the treatment of patients with IBS. Patients treated with osteopathy overall did better, with respect to symptom score and QOL. [source]

Treatment Completion in a Brief Motivational Intervention in the Emergency Department: The Effect of Multiple Interventions and Therapists' Behavior

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2007
Janette Baird
Background:, The aim of this study was to identify therapist behaviors during a brief motivational intervention (BMI) given to injured emergency department patients that predicted participant return for a second BMI session and 12-month alcohol-related outcomes. Method:, This was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial (n = 539) previously demonstrating that random assignment to a BMI and booster session resulted in a significant reduction of 12-month postintervention alcohol-related injuries and negative consequences relative to standard care. Results:, Participants who actually received 2 BMI sessions had significantly less alcohol-related negative consequences than those who received only 1 BMI session. Therapists who reported a higher focus on emotional support and low focus on participant drinking behaviors during the initial BMI session were more likely to have assigned participants return for the second BMI session. Conclusion:, The results of these secondary analyses show that compliance with a 2-session therapeutic intervention (BIB) predicted fewer negative alcohol-related consequences, and that therapists' supportive emotional emphasis during the first BMI session was important in predicting participants returning for the second MI session. [source]

A cluster randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of Trauma Risk Management (TRiM) in a military population,

Neil Greenberg
Trauma Risk Management is a peer-support program that aims to promote help-seeking in the aftermath of traumatic events. Prior to its implementation, the British military conducted a randomized controlled trial of Trauma Risk Management against standard care in 12 warships; 6 were randomized to use Trauma Risk Management after collecting baseline measurements. Follow up after 12,18 months found no significant change in psychological health or stigma scores in either group; however, the studied vessels only encountered low numbers of critical incidents. Additionally, measurements of organizational functioning were modestly better in the Trauma Risk Management ships. The authors conclude that within organizations using Trauma Risk Management may be beneficial and may, in time, lead to a valuable cultural shift. [source]

Role of Lung Surfactant in Respiratory Disease: Current Knowledge in Large Animal Medicine

U. Christmann
Lung surfactant is produced by type II alveolar cells as a mixture of phospholipids, surfactant proteins, and neutral lipids. Surfactant lowers alveolar surface tension and is crucial for the prevention of alveolar collapse. In addition, surfactant contributes to smaller airway patency and improves mucociliary clearance. Surfactant-specific proteins are part of the innate immune defense mechanisms of the lung. Lung surfactant alterations have been described in a number of respiratory diseases. Surfactant deficiency (quantitative deficit of surfactant) in premature animals causes neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Surfactant dysfunction (qualitative changes in surfactant) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome and asthma. Analysis of surfactant from amniotic fluid allows assessment of fetal lung maturity (FLM) in the human fetus and exogenous surfactant replacement therapy is part of the standard care in premature human infants. In contrast to human medicine, use and success of FLM testing or surfactant replacement therapy remain limited in veterinary medicine. Lung surfactant has been studied in large animal models of human disease. However, only a few reports exist on lung surfactant alterations in naturally occurring respiratory disease in large animals. This article gives a general review on the role of lung surfactant in respiratory disease followed by an overview of our current knowledge on surfactant in large animal veterinary medicine. [source]

Treatment of Premature Calves with Clinically Diagnosed Respiratory Distress Syndrome

T. Karapinar
Background: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has been reported previously in premature calves. However, there have been no published data on the effect of surfactant replacement therapy in the treatment of premature calves with RDS. Hypothesis: Surfactant replacement therapy added to the standard treatment for premature calves clinically diagnosed with RDS would increase the viability of the calves. Animals: Twenty-seven premature calves with clinically diagnosed RDS. Methods: Twenty calves were instilled intratracheally with bovine lung surfactant extract and provided with standard treatment for RDS (surfactant group). Seven calves were given only standard care for RDS without surfactant therapy and placed in the control group. Standard treatment for newborn calves with RDS includes warming, administration of intranasal oxygen, fluid replacement, administration of antibiotics, and immunoglobulin solution. Arterial blood samples were collected from the calves at 3 observation points, the first just before treatment (hour 0) and at 2 hours (hour 2) and 24 hours (hour 24) after treatment was started to determine if ventilation was adequate, improving, or deteriorating. Blood gases, pH, bicarbonate, and lactate concentrations were measured. Results: In the surfactant group, mean partial pressure of oxygen significantly increased at hours 2 and 24. Mean partial pressure of carbon dioxide decreased and mean arterial blood pH increased at hour 24 in the surfactant group compared with the control group (P < .05). Of the 20 calves in the surfactant group, 12 survived and 8 died. All 7 calves in the control group died. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: The results of this study suggest that surfactant replacement therapy may reduce neonatal deaths in premature calves with clinically diagnosed RDS. [source]

An economic evaluation of NIOX MINO airway inflammation monitor in the United Kingdom

ALLERGY, Issue 3 2009
D. Price
Background:, Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, is easily measured by noninvasive means. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of FENO measurement using a hand-held monitor (NIOX MINO), at a reimbursement price of £23, for asthma diagnosis and management in the UK. Methods:, We constructed two decision trees to compare FENO measurement with standard diagnostic testing and guideline recommendations for management. For asthma diagnosis, we compared FENO measurement with lung function and reversibility testing, bronchial provocation and sputum eosinophil count. For asthma management, we evaluated the impact on asthma control, including inhaled corticosteroid use, exacerbations and hospitalizations, of monitoring with FENO measurement vs symptoms and lung function as in standard care. Resource use and health outcomes were evaluated over a 1-year time frame. Direct costs were calculated from a UK health-care payer perspective (2005 £). Results:, An asthma diagnosis using FENO measurement cost £43 less per patient as compared with standard diagnostic tests. Asthma management using FENO measurement instead of lung function testing resulted in annual cost-savings of £341 and 0.06 quality-adjusted life-years gained for patients with mild to severe asthma and cost-savings of £554 and 0.004 quality-adjusted life-years gained for those with moderate to severe asthma. Conclusions:, Asthma diagnosis based on FENO measurement with NIOX MINO alone is less costly and more accurate than standard diagnostic methods. Asthma management based on FENO measurement is less costly than asthma management based on standard guidelines and provides similar health benefits. [source]

Reducing distress for children during invasive procedures: randomized clinical trial of effectiveness of the PediSedate®

Summary Background:, Procedural pain control remains problematic for young children, especially during anxiety-causing procedures for which children should not be deeply sedated. The PediSedate® was designed to address this problem by delivering nitrous oxide in oxygen through a simple nosepiece, combined with an interactive video component, so that children can use attention and distraction with drug delivery. Objectives:, We conducted a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the PediSedate® for reducing children's behavioral distress in comparison with standard care in the emergency department. Secondary objectives were to assess children's acceptance, cooperation, and pain. Methods:, Thirty-six children, aged 3,9 years old, who required invasive procedures associated with high levels of anxiety and low levels of pain such as sutures, IVs, and lumbar punctures were randomized to receive either the standard care or the PediSedate®. The primary outcome was children's distress (observational scale of behavioral distress) that was monitored before and during the procedure. Results:, Children randomized to the PediSedate® group had significantly less distress during invasive procedures (mean = 1.8, sd = 3.2) than children receiving standard care (mean = 9.3, sd = 5.6; anova, P < 0.0001). Also, children in the PediSedate® group were more cooperative [,2(1) = 22.05, P < 0.0001] and fewer children reported pain [,2(1) = 14.45, P < 0.001]. Conclusions:, Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of nitrous oxide sedation alone for minimizing pain and distress during invasive procedures. We have found that delivering nitrous oxide sedation via a system combined with an interactive video component is also effective. Further studies should determine which factors are dominant and determine the specific failure rate for this delivery system in comparison with other systems. [source]

Health Care Costs of Seriously Mentally Ill Patients Enrolled in Enhanced Treatment

Andrea M. Hegedus PhD
Patients with psychosis (N = 866) were recruited into enhanced or standard Veterans Administration (VA) treatment. Enhanced programs, previously shown to be more effective, were less costly than VA standard care. Adjusted costs fell from $32,000,$55,000 (for the 1st year) to $20,000,$36,000 (for the 4th year). Costs were associated positively with schizophrenia, living in the Northeast region of the United States, and poorer baseline functioning. [source]

Direct effects of short-term psychoeducational intervention for relatives of patients with schizophrenia in Japan

Abstract, This study examined the direct effects of short-term psychoeducation on relatives of inpatients with schizophrenia, with the goal of introducing this type of support program into standard care. The subjects were 46 relatives of inpatients with schizophrenia who attended three or four sessions of psychoeducation. Levels of anxiety and subjective burden and distress were measured before and after sessions using self-administered rating scales. In addition, levels of expressed emotion were also measured. Results showed that both state and trait anxiety on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were significantly lower after psychoeducational intervention than before intervention. In addition, subjective burden and distress reported by the family significantly decreased on the subscales for family confusion resulting from a lack of knowledge of the illness and anxiety about the future, subjective burden and depression resulting from the patient's illness, and difficulties in the relatives' relationships with the patient. Comparison of high and low expressed emotion families showed that the intervention was almost equally effective for the two groups. However, its effectiveness with regard to the subjective burden and depression experienced by the families was significantly greater among high expressed emotion families. The present study confirmed that family psychoeducation during hospitalization, even for a short period, is effective for all families, whether high or low expressed emotion. Moreover, the results suggested that the intervention may have a greater effect on emotional factors in high expressed emotion families than in low expressed emotion families. [source]

Piloting a psycho-education program for parents of pediatric cancer patients in Malaysia

Azizah Othman
Abstract Objective: To evaluate a psycho-educational program (PeP) for parents of children with cancer (PoCwC) in Malaysia. Methods: Seventy-nine parents were invited to be either in an intervention (n=41) or a control group (n=38). Baseline assessment took place upon agreement of participation. Short-term effects were measured four weeks after the intervention. Control parents received standard care. Intervention parents received, in addition to standard care, 4×50,min sessions of information on childhood cancer and coping strategies. Results: Repeated measures of ANOVAs revealed increased knowledge about cancer (p=0.01) in the intervention parents compared with standard care. Intervention parents reported reduced anxiety and increased activities with children after the program; however, differences were not significant. Conclusions: This PeP, the first of its kind in Malaysia, has significantly increased levels of knowledge among parents of seriously ill children which may point towards the potential for these services to increase coping in Malaysian PoCwC. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Changes in emotion regulation and psychological adjustment following use of a group psychosocial support program for women recently diagnosed with breast cancer

Linda D. Cameron
Abstract This study assesses the efficacy of a group intervention in altering emotion regulation processes and promoting adjustment in women with breast cancer. Using a design with 10 alternating phases of availability of the intervention versus standard care, we assessed women participating in one of three conditions: a 12-week group intervention (N = 54); a decliner group who refused the intervention (N = 56), and a standard care group who were not offered the intervention (N = 44). The intervention included training in relaxation, guided imagery, meditation, emotional expression, and exercises promoting control beliefs and benefit-finding. Emotion regulation processes and adjustment were assessed at baseline (following diagnosis), 4 months (corresponding with the end of the intervention), 6 months, and 12 months. At 4 months, intervention participants (compared to decliners and standard care participants) reported greater increases in use of relaxation-oriented techniques, perceived control, emotional well-being, and coping efficacy, and, greater decreases in perceived risk of recurrence, cancer worry, and anxiety. Intervention participants also reported relatively greater decreases in emotional suppression from baseline to 12 months, suggesting that the intervention had a delayed impact on these tendencies. The findings suggest an emotion regulation intervention can beneficially influence emotional experiences and regulation over the first year following diagnosis. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Guiding Mothers' Management of Health Problems of Very Low Birth-Weight Infants

F.A.A.N., Karen A. Pridham Ph.D.
ABSTRACT Objective: Explore the feasibility, usefulness, and outcomes of a pilot program to support mothers in developing competencies for managing health problems of their very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants in partnership with the primary care clinician (PCC). Design: In a randomized study, mothers who received guided participation (GP) and printed guidelines for managing VLBW infant health problems were compared with mothers who received only the guidelines and standard care (GL group). Sample: All mothers (GP=20; GL=11) were at least 18 years old and English speaking. Infants were all VLBW (,1,500 g). Intervention: GP began during the infant's neonatal intensive care unit stay and continued with public health nurses (PHNs) and a family service clinician through the infant's first 4 postterm months. Measurements: Intervention feasibility and usefulness were assessed with maternal and clinician feedback. Outcomes included maternal and clinician appraisal of mothers' use of clinical resources and mothers' perceptions of primary-care quality and the family-PCC relationship. Results: Intervention feasibility and usefulness were supported. GP and GL groups did not differ significantly on outcomes. Conclusions: Findings indicate a longer intervention period, GP organized by infant problem episodes, and enhancement of the PHN role in the context of interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration. [source]

The efficacy of a smoking cessation programme in patients undergoing elective surgery , a randomised clinical trial

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 3 2009
O. Sadr Azodi
Summary It is known that smokers constitute an important risk group of patients undergoing surgery. It is unknown how smoking cessation intervention initiated 4 weeks prior to elective surgery affects the probability of permanent cessation. We randomly assigned 117 patients, scheduled to undergo elective orthopaedic and general surgery, to smoking cessation intervention and control group. The intervention group underwent a programme initiated, on average, 4 weeks prior to surgery with weekly meetings or telephone counselling and were provided with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The control group received standard care. As a result, 20/55 (36%) patients the intervention group vs 1/62 (2%) in the control group became completely abstinent throughout the peri-operative period (p < 0.001). After 1 year, those in the intervention group was most likely to be abstinent (18/55 (33%) vs 9/62 (15%) of the controls (p = 0.03). Level of nicotine dependence and obesity seemed to be a predictor of long-term abstinence (p = 0.02). [source]

An ethical hierarchy for decision making during medical emergencies

Patrick D. Lyden MD
Evidence from well-designed clinical trials may guide clinicians, reduce regional variation, and lead to improved outcomes. Many physicians choose to ignore evidence-based practice guidelines. Using unproven therapies outside of a randomized trial slows recruitment in clinical trials that could yield information on clinical and economic efficacy. Using acute stroke therapy as an illustration, we present an ethical hierarchy for therapeutic decision making during medical emergencies. First, physicians should offer standard care. If no standard care option exists, the physician should consider enrollment in a randomized clinical trial. If no trial is appropriate, the physician should consider a nonrandomized registry, or consensus-based guidelines. Finally, only after considering the first 3 options, the physician should use best judgment based on previous personal experience and any published case series or anecdotes. Given the paucity of quality randomized clinical trial data for most medical decisions, the "best judgment" option will be used most frequently. Nevertheless, such a hierarchy is needed because of the limited time during medical emergencies for consideration of general principles of clinical decision making. There should be general agreement in advance as to the hierarchy to follow in selecting treatment for critically ill patients. Were more clinicians to follow this hierarchy, and choose to participate in clinical trials, the generation of new knowledge would accelerate, yielding rigorous data supporting or refuting the efficacy and safety of new interventions more quickly, thus benefiting far more patients over time. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:434-440 [source]

Intervention Effects on Cognitive Antecedents of Physical Exercise: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

Wiebke Göhner
We developed and evaluated a theory-based intervention programme (MoVo-LISA) that encompasses motivational and volitional strategies aiming to prepare orthopaedic rehabilitation patients to perform physical exercise on a regular basis after discharge. The intervention consists of six units: two group sessions, one one-to-one interview, and three after-care contacts. Two hundred and twenty inactive patients were subsequently assigned to an intervention group (standard care plus MoVo-LISA) and a control group (standard care). Participants filled out questionnaires assessing cognitive antecedents of physical exercise. Measurement took place before and after rehabilitation, 6 weeks and 6 months after discharge, and 1 year after discharge. A 2 × 5 repeated measurement design was applied. Results revealed significant main and interaction effects with regard to cognitive variables; the intervention group reported enhanced self-efficacy and more positive balance of outcome expectations at 6 months as well as stronger goal intentions, more elaborated implementation intentions, and optimised strategies of intention shielding at 12 months after discharge compared to patients of the control group. Our findings demonstrate that a short and inexpensive cognitive-behavioural training programme is an effective tool to enable rehabilitation patients to follow treatment recommendations after discharge. The standardised intervention can be conducted by personnel other than psychologists. [source]

Semiparametric Models of Time-Dependent Predictive Values of Prognostic Biomarkers

BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2010
Yingye Zheng
Summary Rigorous statistical evaluation of the predictive values of novel biomarkers is critical prior to applying novel biomarkers into routine standard care. It is important to identify factors that influence the performance of a biomarker in order to determine the optimal conditions for test performance. We propose a covariate-specific time-dependent positive predictive values curve to quantify the predictive accuracy of a prognostic marker measured on a continuous scale and with censored failure time outcome. The covariate effect is accommodated with a semiparametric regression model framework. In particular, we adopt a smoothed survival time regression technique (Dabrowska, 1997,,The Annals of Statistics,25, 1510,1540) to account for the situation where risk for the disease occurrence and progression is likely to change over time. In addition, we provide asymptotic distribution theory and resampling-based procedures for making statistical inference on the covariate-specific positive predictive values. We illustrate our approach with numerical studies and a dataset from a prostate cancer study. [source]

Does Team Midwife Care Increase Satisfaction with Antenatal, Intrapartum, and Postpartum Care?

BIRTH, Issue 3 2000
A Randomized Controlled Trial
Background:Although policymakers have suggested that improving continuity of midwifery can increase women's satisfaction with care in childbirth, evidence based on randomized controlled trials is lacking. New models of care, such as birth centers and team midwife care, try to increase the continuity of care and caregiver. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new team midwife care program in the standard clinic and hospital environment on satisfaction with antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care in low-risk women in early pregnancy.Methods:Women at Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, were randomly allocated to team midwife care (n = 495) or standard care (n = 505) at booking in early pregnancy. Doctors attended most women in standard care, and continuity of the caregiver was lacking. Satisfaction was measured by means of a postal questionnaire 2 months after the birth.Results:Team midwife care was associated with increased satisfaction, and the differences between the groups were most noticeable for antenatal care, less noticeable for intrapartum care, and least noticeable for postpartum care. The study found no differences between team midwife care and standard care in medical interventions or in women's emotional well-being 2 months after the birth.Conclusion:Conclusions about which components of team midwife care were most important to increased satisfaction with antenatal care were difficult to draw, but data suggest that satisfaction with intrapartum care was related to continuity of the caregiver. [source]