Stake

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Stake

  • high stake
  • political stake


  • Selected Abstracts


    FINDING THE BALANCE: ETHICAL CHALLENGES AND BEST PRACTICES FOR LAWYERS REPRESENTING PARENTS WHEN THE INTERESTS OF CHILDREN ARE AT STAKE

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2008
    William J. Howe
    This article explores ethical and practical issues facing attorneys in representing parents in a contested custody matter. The article traces the history of the way this matter has been handled historically and presents the latest thinking reflected by the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers in their most recent publication of ethical guidelines for attorneys. The article also presents perspectives from several jurisdictions including Australia and Oregon. [source]


    WHAT IS AT STAKE IN THE DEBATE ON NONCONCEPTUAL CONTENT?

    PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES, Issue 1 2007
    José Luis Bermúdez
    First page of article [source]


    Religion and Science: What Is at Stake?

    DIALOG, Issue 3 2007
    Lynne Lorenzen
    Abstract:, "Religion and Science: What Is at Stake" looks at the latest information available on global warming from the International Panel on Climate Change and puts it in the context of the current culture war between progressives and conservatives. We worry that the science will become captive to ideological concerns that are theological, economic, and therefore political. The ideological domination of science may make a sustainable response to global warming even more difficult. It is vitally important that Christian theologians learn enough about the science to be articulate and support the scientists in their endeavors to promote our care of the creation. [source]


    Teaching & Learning Guide for: The Origins of English Puritanism

    HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2007
    Karl Gunther
    Author's Introduction This essay makes the familiar observation that when one part of an historiography changes, so must other parts. Here the author observes that the phenomenon known as puritanism has dramatically changed meanings over the past quarter century, though the change has focused on the Elizabethan and early Stuart periods. He asks that we consider the impact of that change on the earlier period, when puritanism in England had its origins. Focus Questions 1Why is the author unable to posit an answer to his question? 2If new study of the origins of puritanism were to reveal that it was not a mainstream Calvinist movement, but a radical critique of the Henrician and early Elizabethan church, how would that affect the new orthodoxy in Puritan studies? Author Recommends * A. G. Dickens, The English Reformation (Batsford, 1989). The starting place for all modern discussions of the English Reformation and the origins of both conservative and radical protestantism in England. Dicken's view is that the reformation was a mixture of German ideas, English attitudes, and royal leadership. * Eamon Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England c.1400,1580 (Yale Univeristy Press, 2005). What was it that the Reformation reformed? In order to understand early English protestantism, one needs to see it within the context of Catholicism. Eamon Duffy rejects the narrative of the Catholic church told by Protestant reformers and demonstrates the ruthlessness of the reformation. * Ethan Shagen, Popular Politics and the English Reformation (Cambridge University Press, 2003). Shagan asks the question, how is a conservative population energized to undertake the overthrow of their customs and beliefs? He too is centrally concerned with the issue of how radical was the English Reformation. * Brad Gregory, Salvation at Stake: Christian Martyrdom in Early Modern Europe (Harvard University Press, 1999). Nothing better expressed the radicalism of religious belief than the dual process of martyrdom, the willingness of the established religion to make martyrs of its enemies and of dissendents to be martyrs to their cause. Gregory explores this phenomenon across the confessional divide and comes to surprising conclusions about similarities and differences. Online Materials 1. Puritan Studies on the Web http://puritanism.online.fr A site of resources for studies of Puritanism, this contains a large number of primary sources and links to other source sites. The Link to the English Reformation is particularly useful. 2. The Royal Historical Society Bibliography http://www.rhs.ac.uk/bibl/dataset.asp The bibliography of the Royal Historical Society contains a complete listing of articles and books on all aspects of British history. Subject searches for Puritanism or the English Reformation will yield hundreds of works to choose from. [source]


    Life Course Transitions, the Generational Stake, and Grandparent-Grandchild Relationships

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 4 2002
    Robert Crosnoe
    Drawing on past research and prominent theoretical orientations, this research note suggests new approaches to intergenerational dynamics. For 316 grandparent-grandchild pairs, we found that the transition of grandchildren to higher education, controlling for other transitions, improves the quality of the grandparent-grandchild relationship. For grandparent mentoring, however, we see evidence of a generational stake, with grandparents overestimating their mentoring role, compared to grandchildren, during this transition. This generational stake reflects the importance of grandparent education, with increased mentoring for the college-going grandchildren of college-educated grandparents. These findings indicate that the intergenerational literature can be significantly advanced by taking a long-term perspective, incorporating multiple points of view, and examining contextual variation. Moreover, greater understanding of these intergenerational ties will benefit research on families and individual development. [source]


    What's at Stake in Natural Law?

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1023 2008
    Barrister, David McIlroy M.A. (Cantab.), Mtr Dt (Toulouse)
    Abstract Something like natural law is required if Christians are to say that Jesus Christ is as relevant to human beings of every age and in every place that we have ever existed as a race. There must be something stable about the human condition which means that we are all alike in need of a Saviour. That something is the fact that we are created to love God and to love our neighbour. This much is revealed to all humankind. For the Apostle Paul and Thomas Aquinas the natural law was not given as an alternative method of salvation but rather to explain the justice of God's judgment and the utter gratuity of divine grace. Similarly, natural theology is not an assertion that faith in Christ is optional but rather that all human beings are culpable if they do not recognise that there is a god who created them and rewards those who seek God. Natural theology is the minimum content of faith where Christ has not been proclaimed; it is no substitute for explicit faith in Christ when He has been revealed. [source]


    Deal or No Deal, That is the Question: The Impact of Increasing Stakes and Framing Effects on Decision-Making under Risk

    INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF FINANCE, Issue 1-2 2009
    ROBERT BROOKS
    ABSTRACT In this paper, we utilize data from the Australian version of the TV game show, ,Deal or No Deal', to explore risk aversion in a high real stakes setting. An attractive feature of this version of the game is that supplementary rounds may occur which switch the decision frame of players. There are four main findings. First, we observe that the degree of risk aversion generally increases with stakes. Second, we observe considerable heterogeneity in people's willingness to bear risk , even at very high stakes. Third, we find that age and gender are statistically significant determinants of risk aversion, while wealth is not. Fourth, we find that the reversal of framing does have a significant impact on people's willingness to bear risk. [source]


    Processes underlying deception: an empirical analysis of truth and lies when manipulating the stakes

    JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND OFFENDER PROFILING, Issue 3 2005
    Letizia Caso
    Abstract The aim of the present experiment was to examine to what extent participants experience attempted control, cognitive load and arousal when they lie and tell the truth under lower-stakes and higher-stakes conditions. We expected both differences and similarities between truth tellers and liars. We expected that participants would experience these processes to a higher degree when they lied compared to when they told the truth (differences), but we also expected that both liars and truth tellers would be keen to make a convincing impression; and that raising the stakes would affect liars and truth tellers in a similar way (similarities). A total of 128 participants lied and told the truth during an interview (lying and truth telling was counterbalanced). Stakes were manipulated by informing half of the participants that their interviews would be recorded on videotape and would be analysed and evaluated by police officers. The predictions were supported. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Genesis and Structure of ,Djenné as a Work of Art': Stakes and Risks in the Realm of World Heritage1

    MUSEUM INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1-2 2006
    Roberto Christian Gatti
    [source]


    High Stakes: Florida Seminole Gaming and Sovereignty by Jessica Cattelino

    AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST, Issue 4 2009
    LARRY NESPER
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    High Stakes: Florida Seminole Gaming and Sovereignty by Jessica R. Cattelino

    POLAR: POLITICAL AND LEGAL ANTHROPOLOGY REVIEW, Issue 1 2010
    Kathleen Pickering Sherman
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The Effects of Stakes and Threat on Foreign Policy Decision-Making

    POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Allison Astorino-Courtois
    Decision research demonstrates that individuals adapt decision processing strategies according to the characteristics of the decision task. Unfortunately, the literature has neglected task factors specific to foreign policy decisions. This paper presents experimental analyses of the effects of the decisional stakes (i.e., salience of the values at issue) and threat (risk of loss on those issues) on decision-makers' information acquisition patterns and choice rules with respect to one of four hypothetical foreign policy scenarios. Contrary to the notion that normative (rational) decision-making is more likely in less dramatic settings, the results indicate that elevated threat encourages rational decision processing, whereas heuristic processing was more prevalent in less threatening situations. Interestingly, the added presence of high stakes magnified both threat effects. These results, although preliminary, suggest that stakes-threat effects are not direct reflections of stress and/or complexity effects, but should be considered independently in foreign policy analyses. [source]


    SUICIDE, RISK, AND INVESTMENT IN THE HEART OF THE AFRICAN MIRACLE

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    JULIE LIVINGSTON
    ABSTRACT This essay considers new forms of investment, risk, and self-determination, among Botswana's middle and aspirant classes, as well as the loneliness and rage that are at stake when they fail. In it, I use specific instances and more widespread talk of suicides and murder,suicides contemplated, attempted, and accomplished as a vehicle for pondering the social dimensions of investment, and the perils of secrecy and the loneliness that shadow it. Amid a new regime of risk, investment, and self-determination brought by discontinuities of economic boom and widespread AIDS death over the past decade, Batswana are facing new questions about how to invest in relationships, selves, and futures. The essay concludes with a radically different context, a cancer ward, where Batswana seek to exile suicide and nihilism from the beds, minds, and hearts of patients through processes of socialization and paternalism that deny self-determination, while at the same time questing for and demanding investment in high-tech biomedicine. [source]


    The Political Ecology of Transition in Cambodia 1989,1999: War, Peace and Forest Exploitation

    DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 4 2000
    Philippe Le Billon
    Over the last decade, forests have played an important role in the transition from war to peace in Cambodia. Forest exploitation financed the continuation of war beyond the Cold War and regional dynamics, yet it also stimulated co-operation between conflicting parties. Timber represented a key stake in the rapacious transition from the (benign) socialism of the post-Khmer Rouge period to (exclusionary) capitalism, thereby becoming the most politicized resource of a reconstruction process that has failed to be either as green or as democratic as the international community had hoped. This article explores the social networks and power politics shaping forest exploitation, with the aim of casting light on the politics of transition. It also scrutinizes the unintended consequences of the international community's discourse of democracy, good governance, and sustainable development on forest access rights. The commodification of Cambodian forests is interpreted as a process of transforming nature into money through a political ecology of transition that legitimates an exclusionary form of capitalism. [source]


    Are Geographical Indications a Valid Property Right?

    DEVELOPMENT POLICY REVIEW, Issue 5 2009
    Challenges, Global Trends
    This article explores what is at stake in the international conflict on geographical indications (GIs), particularly for developing countries. It first examines how the WTO panel has obliged the European Union to open its registration system to third countries and how the ongoing negotiations on GIs seem to be reaching stalemate. Initiatives showing how GIs are a key political and trade issue are identified in Turkey, India, China, Colombia and Ethiopia. Trade negotiation agendas have to handle this new balance of power, in which the reputation accompanying a good may become common. [source]


    Child-Rearing: On government intervention and the discourse of experts

    EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AND THEORY, Issue 6 2008
    Paul Smeyers
    Abstract For Kant, education was understood as the ,means' to become human,and that is to say, rational. For Rousseau by contrast, and the many child-centred educators that followed him, the adult world, far from representing reason, is essentially corrupt and given over to the superficialities of worldly vanity. On this view, the child, as a product of nature, is essentially good and will learn all she needs to know from experience. Both positions have their own problems, but beyond this ,internal debate', the change in the content of education (i.e. child-rearing and schooling) is now furthermore due to a radical pluralism that has swept the world. Moreover, there may be differences in value between individual parents and between values held within the family and those held in society at large. Among other reasons this has put more generally children's (and parents') ,rights' on the agenda, which differs from thinking of education in terms of a ,practice'. The paper develops this latter concept and the criticisms to which it has been subject and argues that there is no necessary incompatibility between initiation into an existing practice and transforming that practice in some way, if it is emphasized how practices are learned and enacted. It then turns to the tendency in education and child-rearing, as in other spheres of human interaction, for more laws and codes of conduct and to call upon experts for all kind of matters. It argues that performativity rules on the level of the practitioner, of the experts, and even on the level of educational research. It argues that many governments have adopted in matters of schooling the language of output and school effectiveness and that something similar is now bound to happen in the sphere of child-rearing (with talk of parenting skills and courses). This is made credible due to a particular model of educational research, i.e. an empiricist quasi-causal model of explaining human behaviour. The paper then discusses the problems with this stance and argues that we should part company from the entrepreneurial manipulative educator to open up a sphere of responsiveness for the child and that for these reasons, the concept of the ,practice of child-rearing' should be revisited. Insisting on the complexities that have to be taken into account and thus surpassing a discourse of effectiveness and output as well as of codes of conduct and rulings of courts of law, may help us to focus on what is really at stake: to lead a meaningful life, to be initiated into what is ,real for us' and what we value. It concludes that thus restoring a place for child-rearing as a practice will do justice to the responsiveness to which each child is entitled. [source]


    THE SCHOOL AS AN EXCEPTIONAL SPACE: RETHINKING EDUCATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE BIOPEDAGOGICAL

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 2 2006
    Tyson E. LewisArticle first published online: 3 MAY 200
    Agamben's theory of the camp provides a challenging, critical vantage point for looking at the ambiguities that emerge from the complex field of disciplinary procedures now prevalent in inner-city, low-income, minority schools, and helps to clarify what exactly is at stake in the symbolic and sometimes physical violence of schooling. Key to understanding the primary relation between camp and classroom is Agamben's framework of the biopolitical, which paradoxically includes life as a political concern through its exclusion from the political sphere. Here Lewis appropriates Agamben's terminology in order to theorize the biopedagogical, wherein educational life is included in schooling through its abandonment. For Lewis, the theory of the camp is necessary to recognizing how schools function and, in turn, how they could function differently. [source]


    A DIAGNOSTIC READING OF SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH FOR EDUCATION

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2005
    Thomas A. Schwandt
    This essay offers a diagnosis of what may be at stake in the current preoccupation with defining science-based educational research. The diagnosis unfolds in several readings: The first is a charitable and considerate appraisal that draws attention to the fact that advocating experimental methods as important to a science of educational research is not an inherently evil thing to do. Subsequent readings are grimmer, suggesting more deleterious consequences of the science-based research movement for the entire enterprise of educational practice and research. The central thesis of the essay is that making arguments about method and science the focal point in the current quarrel may be largely beside the point. Instead, educational researchers should join the political and public (not just the academic) conversation about the place of educational science in society and about how science is both implicated in and confronts the politics of what counts as knowledge. [source]


    Prosthetic Absence in Ben Jonson's Epicoene, The Alchemist, and Bartholmew Fair

    ENGLISH LITERARY RENAISSANCE, Issue 3 2007
    Mark Albert Johnston
    This essay interrogates the production of gender on the early modern English stage by considering what is at stake in the various (de)constructions of gender that occur in Ben Jonson's Jacobean city comedies Epicoene, or The Silent Woman, The Alchemist, and Bartholmew Fair. After analysing some contemporary medical constructions of hermaphrodism, the essay turns to the curious early modern preoccupation with transvestism and its implications about performances of masculinity and femininity. [source]


    The climate learning ladder.

    ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2010
    A pragmatic procedure to support climate adaptation
    Abstract We introduce a new pragmatic procedure called the ,climate learning ladder' to structure policy analysis, support reflection and identify critical decisions to support climate adaptation. This tool is the result of the reflexive learning process that occurred while developing innovative appraisal methods in the Alxa League of Inner Mongolia, China, and in the Guadiana river basin in the European Union. Building capacities to cope with climate change requires going beyond simply providing ,more knowledge' on climate impacts to policy makers. Instead, climate adaptation can be understood as a multi-step social process in which individuals and organizations need to learn how to (1) manage different framings of the issues at stake while raising awareness of climate risks and opportunities, (2) understand different motives for, and generate adequate incentives or sanctions to ensure, action, (3) develop feasible options and resources for individual and collective transformation and collaboration and (4) institutionalize new rights, responsibilities and feedback learning processes for climate adaptation in the long term. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    National Qualification Frameworks: from policy borrowing to policy learning

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Issue 2 2010
    BORHENE CHAKROUN
    This article takes up the issue of the internationalisation of Vocational Education and Training (VET) reforms, expressed in the way policy instruments such as National Qualifications Frameworks (NQF) are introduced in the European Training Foundation's (ETF) partner countries. There is an international debate and different perspectives regarding NQFs. These perspectives have largely talked past each other. The article brings together these perspectives and highlights the issues at stake in this field. Through the analysis of ETF interventions in different regions, the article makes a case for new approaches of intervention, namely policy learning, that aim at enabling national stakeholders and that are conducive for home-grown VET policies. The discussion is broad in scope, not only because the article reviews developments in qualifications frameworks across-regions, but also because it highlights the complex interaction of the global and local development when introducing NQFs and the impact of such reforms on VET systems. [source]


    In Search of Better Quality of EU Regulations for Prompt Transposition: The Brussels Perspective

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 5 2008
    Michael Kaeding
    The quality of EU regulation is crucial to ensuring that Community law is promptly transposed into national law within the prescribed deadlines. But good quality transposition (clear, simple, and effective) goes beyond pre-legislative consultation processes and more frequent use of impact assessments as agreed in the 2003 Interinstitutional Agreement on Better Lawmaking. Presenting new data that covers the full population of all EU transport directives from 1995 to 2004,including the national implementing instruments of France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK,this study shows that elements of the EU directives delay transposition. The binding time limit for transposition, the EU directive's level of discretion, its level of detail, its nature and further characteristics of the directive's policy-making process are all factors. These determining factors are crucial to explaining why Member States miss deadlines when transposing EU Internal Market directives. Brussels' efforts to simplify and improve the regulatory environment have to go beyond more preventive action to strengthen the enforcement of EU legislation at the member-state level if they want to address the Internal Market constraining effects of Member States' non-compliance. This study argues that far-reaching decisions made in the European Commission's drafting and EU policy-making phase have the greatest effect on the European regulatory framework in which businesses operate and the free movement of goods, persons, services, and capital is at stake. Implementation should be part of the design. [source]


    Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is a marker of skeletal muscle pathological remodelling

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Lydie Laure
    In an attempt to identify potential therapeutic targets for the correction of muscle wasting, the gene expression of several pivotal proteins involved in protein metabolism was investigated in experimental atrophy induced by transient or definitive denervation, as well as in four animal models of muscular dystrophies (deficient for calpain 3, dysferlin, ,-sarcoglycan and dystrophin, respectively). The results showed that: (a) the components of the ubiquitin,proteasome pathway are upregulated during the very early phases of atrophy but do not greatly increase in the muscular dystrophy models; (b) forkhead box protein O1 mRNA expression is augmented in the muscles of a limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A murine model; and (c) the expression of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), a regulator of transcription factors, appears to be persistently upregulated in every condition, suggesting that CARP could be a hub protein participating in common pathological molecular pathway(s). Interestingly, the mRNA level of a cell cycle inhibitor known to be upregulated by CARP in other tissues, p21WAF1/CIP1, is consistently increased whenever CARP is upregulated. CARP overexpression in muscle fibres fails to affect their calibre, indicating that CARP per se cannot initiate atrophy. However, a switch towards fast-twitch fibres is observed, suggesting that CARP plays a role in skeletal muscle plasticity. The observation that p21WAF1/CIP1 is upregulated, put in perspective with the effects of CARP on the fibre type, fits well with the idea that the mechanisms at stake might be required to oppose muscle remodelling in skeletal muscle. [source]


    The physiology of triploid fish: current knowledge and comparisons with diploid fish

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 1 2008
    Valérie Maxime
    Abstract This paper is aimed at underlining the limited knowledge available about the physiology of triploid fishes compared with diploids. Whereas many aspects (induction, detection, growth, resistance to diseases, etc.) in the production and rearing of triploid fishes have widely been developed and described in the literature, other numerous questions of ecophysiology remain in abeyance, and the study of triploid cells physiology is still in its infancy. Triploid fishes can be considered as models worthwhile for physiological investigations not only for the economical stake in relation to the development of triploid fishes rearing, but also for the cytological and molecular features of their tissues and organs. The functional implications of these features have been poorly studied although they are potential areas of applied and/or fundamental studies. [source]


    Ambiguous incorporations: microfinance and global governmentality

    GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 2 2010
    ROB AITKEN
    Abstract In the spring of 2007 an event dramatically reshaped conversations relating to microfinance. This event was the Initial Public Offering (IPO) of Mexico's largest microfinance organization, Compartamos. The IPO, as this article suggests, is indicative or a broader trend through which microfinance is increasingly becoming financialized, increasingly becoming governable as a financial object. This is important at one level because it crystallizes some of the key issues at stake as microfinance becomes increasingly more reliant on global capital markets. At another level, however, the Compatarmos case is significant because of the conceptual issues it raises in relation to global finance. The main argument I put forward in this article is that the Compatarmos case , and the process of financialization it represents , is important because it allows us to glimpse global finance, and the question of global financial governance, as a decentred process in formation. Drawing on a Foucauldian notion of governmentality, I argue that the Compatarmos case orbits around two processes; processes of incorporation and differentiation. In this context, the Compartamos case implies the importance of analyses that can make global finance visible as a diverse and mundane object that is never settled in any final kind of way. [source]


    After the Public Interest Prevails: The Political Sustainability of Policy Reform

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 2 2003
    Eric Patashnik
    The prevailing political science wisdom is that narrow interests regularly triumph over the general public. Yet the stunning passage of broad-based policy reforms in the face of intense clientele opposition suggests that the U.S. political system has a greater capacity to serve diffuse interests than has often been thought. Some of the most provocative policy-oriented political-science research during the 1980s and 1990s examined how these surprising reform victories occurred. Unfortunately, general-interest reforms do not always stick; reforms may be corrupted or reversed after their enactment. The long-term sustainability of any given policy reform hinges on the successful reworking of political institutions and on the generation of positive policy-feedback effects, especially the empowerment of social groups with a stake in the reform&s maintenance. This paper explores the postenactment dynamics of three canonical instances of general-interest reform legislation: tax reform, agricultural subsidy reform, and airline deregulation. Only in the airline-deregulation case has the self-reinforcing dynamic required for political sustainability been unmistakably evident. For analysts and advocates of general-interest reform measures alike, the clear lesson is to attend far more closely to what happens after reforms become law. [source]


    Governance and Democracy in Northern Ireland: The Role of the Voluntary and Community Sector after the Agreement

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2001
    Cathal McCall
    Since 1998, Northern Ireland has been the subject of a unique experiment in governance and democracy. The experiment includes the establishment of a participatory Civic Forum in which the voluntary and community sector has an important stake. Beginning with a discussion of the merits of a participatory aspect to democracy in the contemporary age, this paper identifies factors that might help establish the Civic Forum as a successful participatory institution in Northern Ireland. Key factors include the attitude towards the Forum of political representatives and their willingness to foster a participatory dimension to the new democracy. Other important factors are inclusiveness and the balance of sectoral representation in the Forum. [source]


    FROM IDEAS TO CONCEPTS TO METAPHORS: THE GERMAN TRADITION OF INTELLECTUAL HISTORY AND THE COMPLEX FABRIC OF LANGUAGE

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 2 2010
    ELÍAS JOSÉ PALTI
    ABSTRACT Recently, the diffusion of the so-called "new intellectual history" led to the dismissal of the old school of the "history of ideas" on the basis of its ahistorical nature (the view of ideas as eternal entities). This formulation is actually misleading, missing the core of the transformation produced in the field. It is not true that the history of ideas simply ignored the fact that the meaning of ideas changes over time. The issue at stake here is really not how ideas changed (the mere description of the semantic transformation they underwent historically), but rather why they do. The study of the German tradition of intellectual history serves in this essay as a basis to illustrate the meaning and significance of the recent turn from ideas as its object. In the process of trying to account for the source of contingency of conceptual formations, it will open our horizon to the complex nature of the ways by which we invest the world with meaning. That is, it will disclose the presence of different layers of symbolic reality lying beneath the surface level of "ideas," and analyze their differential nature and functions. It will also show the reasons for the ultimate failure of the "history of ideas" approach, why discourses can never achieve their vocation to constitute themselves as self-enclosed, rationally integrated systems, thereby expelling contingency from their realm. In sum, it will show why historicity is not merely something that comes to intellectual history from without (as a by-product of social history or as the result of the action of an external agent), as the history of ideas assumed, but is a constitutive dimension of it. [source]


    Groupwise registration based on hierarchical image clustering and atlas synthesis

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 8 2010
    Qian Wang
    Abstract Groupwise registration has recently been proposed for simultaneous and consistent registration of all images in a group. Since many deformation parameters need to be optimized for each image under registration, the number of images that can be effectively handled by conventional groupwise registration methods is limited. Moreover, the robustness of registration is at stake due to significant intersubject variability. To overcome these problems, we present a groupwise registration framework, which is based on a hierarchical image clustering and atlas synthesis strategy. The basic idea is to decompose a large-scale groupwise registration problem into a series of small-scale problems, each of which is relatively easy to solve using a general computer. In particular, we employ a method called affinity propagation, which is designed for fast and robust clustering, to hierarchically cluster images into a pyramid of classes. Intraclass registration is then performed to register all images within individual classes, resulting in a representative center image for each class. These center images of different classes are further registered, from the bottom to the top in the pyramid. Once the registration reaches the summit of the pyramid, a single center image, or an atlas, is synthesized. Utilizing this strategy, we can efficiently and effectively register a large image group, construct their atlas, and, at the same time, establish shape correspondences between each image and the atlas. We have evaluated our framework using real and simulated data, and the results indicate that our framework achieves better robustness and registration accuracy compared to conventional methods. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The Life and Death of the Canadian Contingent Gains and Losses Accounting Standards Project,

    ACCOUNTING PERSPECTIVES, Issue 1 2004
    BROCK DYKEMAN
    ABSTRACT In April 1994, the Canadian Accounting Standards Board formally approved a new accounting standard for contingent gains and losses. The new standard would have increased the frequency of recording contingent losses, enabled the accrual of some contingent gains, and enhanced disclosures for all contingencies. The changes would primarily have been achieved by requiring management, and their legal advisers, to make predictions, estimates, and disclosures that the existing accounting standard enabled them to avoid. Over two years later, and following numerous changes to the implementation date, the board ultimately decided not to release the new standard, and in July 1999, formally abandoned the contingencies project. This study provides a telling of the standard's genesis, development, and ultimate demise, which should prove instructive to those parties with an interest and a stake in accounting standard setting. [source]