Stage III Disease (stage + iii_disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


The clinical use of staging bone scan in patients with breast carcinoma

CANCER, Issue 3 2005
Reevaluation by the 2003 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system
Abstract BACKGROUND Using the new 2003 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, the authors evaluated the usefulness of the staging bone scan in patients with primary breast carcinoma. METHODS The authors examined 1939 patients with primary breast carcinoma for staging bone scan who were treated at a single institution. Pathologic stage was assigned retrospectively according to the 1988 and the 2003 AJCC staging systems. RESULTS Bone metastasis rates were 0.7% (4 of 586) for patients with Stage I disease, 0.7% (5 of 699) for patients with Stage IIA disease, 2.1% (10 of 479) for patients with Stage IIB disease, 4.5% (7 of 154) for patients with Stage IIIA disease, and 10.5% (2 of 19) for patients with Stage IIIB disease according to the 1988 AJCC staging system. The authors found a significant difference in the bone metastasis rate between patients with Stages IIA and IIB disease in the 1988 staging system (P = 0.039). Reevaluating the patients by the 2003 system resulted in significant upstaging, especially for patients with Stage II/III disease. According to the 2003 staging system, bone metastasis rates were 0.7% (4 of 586) for patients with Stage I disease, 0.6% (4 of 648) for patients with Stage IIA disease, 0.6% (2 of 310) for patients with Stage IIB disease, 4.0% (9 of 225) for patients with Stage IIIA disease, 16.7% (2 of 12) for patients with Stage IIIB disease, and 4.4% (7 of 158) for patients with Stage IIIC disease. It was noteworthy that there was a significant difference between Stages IIB and IIIA in the 2003 staging system (P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS Stage reclassification using the new AJCC staging system resulted in upstaging of high-risk patients, as well as a significant decrease in the bone metastasis rate in patients with Stage IIB breast carcinoma. Considering the cost-effectiveness of staging bone scan, the data suggested that it was of little value for patients with Stage I and II breast carcinoma, but was highly recommended for patients with worse than Stage III disease by the new 2003 staging system. Cancer 2005. 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]


Metastatic melanoma to lymph nodes in patients with unknown primary sites

CANCER, Issue 9 2006
Janice N. Cormier M.D., M.P.H.
Abstract BACKGROUND The natural history of metastatic melanoma in lymph nodes in the absence of a known primary site (MUP) has been defined poorly; thus, treatment guidelines for patients with MUP are not clear-cut. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with melanoma (from 1990 to 2001) who underwent surgical resection for melanoma metastatic to regional lymph nodes. Among those patients, 71 patients with MUP and 466 control patients who had regional lymph node metastases of similar stage with a known primary site were identified. Associations between clinicopathologic factors and survival were estimated by using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS After they underwent lymph node dissection, patients with MUP were classified with N1b disease (47%), N2b disease (14%), or N3 disease (39%). With a median follow-up of 7.7 years, the 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 55% and 44%, respectively, for patients with MUP, compared with 42% and 32%, respectively, for the control group (P = .04). In multivariate analyses, age 50 years or older, male gender, and N2b or N3 disease status were identified as adverse prognostic factors, and MUP was identified as a favorable prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.42,0.86; P = .006) for overall survival. CONCLUSIONS The relatively favorable long-term survival of patients with MUP in the current study suggested that patients with MUP have a natural history that is similar to (if not better than) the survival of many patients with Stage III disease. Therefore, patients with MUP should be treated with an aggressive surgical approach with curative intent and should be considered for Stage III adjuvant therapy protocols. Cancer 2006. 2006 American Cancer Society. [source]


Surgery by consultant gynecologic oncologists improves survival in patients with ovarian carcinoma

CANCER, Issue 3 2006
Mirjam J. A. Engelen M.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND Consultant gynecologic oncologists from the regional Comprehensive Cancer Center assisted community gynecologists in the surgical treatment of patients with ovarian carcinoma when they were invited. For this report, the authors evaluated the effects of primary surgery by a gynecologic oncologist on treatment outcome. METHODS The hospital files from 680 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma who were diagnosed between 1994 and 1997 in the northern part of the Netherlands were abstracted. Treatment results were analyzed according to the operating physician's education by using survival curves and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. RESULTS Primary surgery was performed on 184 patients by gynecologic oncologists, and on 328 patients by general gynecologists. Gynecologic oncologists followed surgical guidelines more strictly compared with general gynecologists (patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] Stage I,II disease, 55% vs. 33% [P = 0.01]; patients with FIGO Stage III disease, 60% vs. 40% [P = 0.003]) and more often removed all macroscopic tumor in patients with FIGO Stage III disease (24% vs. 12%; P = 0.02). When patients were stratified according to FIGO stage, the 5-year overall survival rate was 86% versus 70% (P = 0.03) for patients with Stage I,II disease and 21% versus 13% (P = 0.02) for patients with Stage III,IV disease who underwent surgery by gynecologic oncologists and general gynecologists, respectively. The hazards ratio for patients who underwent surgery by gynecologic oncologists was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.61,1.03; adjusted for patient age, disease stage, type of hospital, and chemotherapy); when patients age 75 years and older were excluded, the hazards ratio fell to 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54,0.94) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS The surgical treatment of patients with ovarian carcinoma by gynecologic oncologists occurred more often according to surgical guidelines, tumor removal more often was complete, and survival was improved. Cancer 2006. 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]


The clinical use of staging bone scan in patients with breast carcinoma

CANCER, Issue 3 2005
Reevaluation by the 2003 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system
Abstract BACKGROUND Using the new 2003 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, the authors evaluated the usefulness of the staging bone scan in patients with primary breast carcinoma. METHODS The authors examined 1939 patients with primary breast carcinoma for staging bone scan who were treated at a single institution. Pathologic stage was assigned retrospectively according to the 1988 and the 2003 AJCC staging systems. RESULTS Bone metastasis rates were 0.7% (4 of 586) for patients with Stage I disease, 0.7% (5 of 699) for patients with Stage IIA disease, 2.1% (10 of 479) for patients with Stage IIB disease, 4.5% (7 of 154) for patients with Stage IIIA disease, and 10.5% (2 of 19) for patients with Stage IIIB disease according to the 1988 AJCC staging system. The authors found a significant difference in the bone metastasis rate between patients with Stages IIA and IIB disease in the 1988 staging system (P = 0.039). Reevaluating the patients by the 2003 system resulted in significant upstaging, especially for patients with Stage II/III disease. According to the 2003 staging system, bone metastasis rates were 0.7% (4 of 586) for patients with Stage I disease, 0.6% (4 of 648) for patients with Stage IIA disease, 0.6% (2 of 310) for patients with Stage IIB disease, 4.0% (9 of 225) for patients with Stage IIIA disease, 16.7% (2 of 12) for patients with Stage IIIB disease, and 4.4% (7 of 158) for patients with Stage IIIC disease. It was noteworthy that there was a significant difference between Stages IIB and IIIA in the 2003 staging system (P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS Stage reclassification using the new AJCC staging system resulted in upstaging of high-risk patients, as well as a significant decrease in the bone metastasis rate in patients with Stage IIB breast carcinoma. Considering the cost-effectiveness of staging bone scan, the data suggested that it was of little value for patients with Stage I and II breast carcinoma, but was highly recommended for patients with worse than Stage III disease by the new 2003 staging system. Cancer 2005. 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]


Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

CANCER, Issue 6 2005
The Mayo Clinic experience
Abstract BACKGROUND Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder accounts for 0.35,0.70% of all bladder tumors. There is no standard approach to the management of SCC of the urinary bladder. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective study at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) to characterize the clinical and pathologic features of patients with SCC of the urinary bladder diagnosed between 1975 and 2003 with emphasis on management. RESULTS Forty-four patients were identified who had primary bladder SCC, 61.4% of whom had pure SCC. The male:female ratio was 3:1, the mean age was 66.9 years, and the mean follow-up was 3.2 years. Twelve patients (27.3%) had Stage II disease, 13 patients (29.6%) had Stage III disease, and 19 patients (43.2%) had Stage IV disease. The overall median survival was 1.7 years. The 5-year survival rates for patients with Stage II, III, and IV disease were 63.6%, 15.4%, and 10.5%, respectively. Six of eight patients with Stage II bladder SCC achieved a cure with radical cystectomy. Five patients with Stage IV disease had obvious metastases and received chemotherapy. Fourteen patients underwent radical cystectomy and were diagnosed later with locally advanced disease (T4b) or lymph node metastasis (N1,N3; Stage IV disease). Only 2 of 19 patients with Stage IV disease who received adjuvant chemotherapy were alive at 5 years. CONCLUSIONS Patients with bladder SCC should undergo radical cystectomy except when metastatic disease is present (M1), in which case, systemic chemotherapy is indicated. Adjuvant treatment is not indicated for patients with Stage II disease after radical cystectomy but should be considered for patients with Stage III and IV disease. Chemotherapy should be a platinum-based regimen. Cancer 2005. 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]


Long-term results of high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix

CANCER, Issue 1 2005
Takashi Nakano M.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND The authors performed a long-term follow-up study to evaluate the efficacy and late toxicity of high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for cervical carcinoma. METHODS From 1968 to 1986, 1148 patients with Stage IB to IVB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (staging was performed according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and HDR-ICBT. For patients with early-stage disease, 20 gray (Gy) of EBRT was delivered to the whole pelvis, followed by 24 Gy/4 fractions of HDR-ICBT and 30 Gy of central-shielding EBRT. For patients with advanced-stage disease, 20,40 Gy of whole pelvic EBRT was administered, followed by 24 Gy/4 fractions of ICBT and 30,10 Gy of central-shielding EBRT. The overall treatment time was approximately 6 weeks. Among survivors, the follow-up rate was 98% and the median follow-up duration was 22 years. RESULTS The 10-year pelvic tumor control rates were 93% for patients with Stage IB disease, 82% for patients with Stage II disease, and 75% for patients with Stage III disease. The 10-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 74% and 89% for patients with Stage IB disease, 52% and 74% for patients with Stage II disease, and 42% and 59% for patients with Stage III disease, respectively. The 10-year actuarial rates of major complications were 4.4% in the rectosigmoid colon, 0.9% in the bladder, and 3.3% in the small intestines. CONCLUSIONS The results of the current study suggest that the combination of EBRT and HDR-ICBT according to the authors' protocol provided outcomes that were comparable to those of the conventional low-dose rate brachytherapy with acceptable rates of late complications in the treatment of cervical carcinoma. Cancer 2005. 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]


Breast carcinoma in pregnant women

CANCER, Issue 5 2003
Assessment of clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical features
Abstract BACKGROUND Breast carcinoma is one of the most common carcinomas in pregnant women. The incidence of breast carcinoma may increase in the future because of the trend toward delayed childbearing and increased screening. However, very few contemporary studies have attempted to identify the combined histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of breast carcinoma in these patients. METHODS The authors evaluated 39 patients with breast carcinoma occurring coincident with pregnancy. This was comprised of a critical histologic review and immunohistochemical evaluation to determine the status of prognostic and predictive markers including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER-2/neu, Ki-67, and p53. RESULTS The mean age at presentation was 33 years (range, 24,44 years). Densities and/or masses were noted on mammograms in 14 of 16 patients with available radiographic information. The primary tumors were a mean of 4.5 cm in greatest dimension (range, 0.1,13.5 cm). Two of the 39 patients had clinical (American Joint Committee on Cancer) Stage I disease, 19 patients had Stage II disease, 16 had Stage III disease, and 2 patients had Stage IV disease at the time of presentation. Histologically, high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas were found in 32 of 38 patients. The primary tumor was not available for review in one patient. A predominantly solid pattern of growth was observed in nine patients. Lymphovascular invasion was identified in 61% of cases. Ductal carcinoma in situ was identified in 72% of tumors and was high grade in all cases. Of the 25 patients tested, ER positivity was found in 7 patients, PR positivity was found in 6 patients, HER-2/neu positivity was found in 7 patients, and p53 positivity was found in 12 patients. The proliferation rate as shown by Ki-67 staining was high in 60% of the cases. Follow-up information was available for 35 patients and the mean follow-up period was 43 months (range, 2,163 months). Distant metastasis occurred in seven patients. The mean time to disease recurrence was 20.4 months (range, 10,33 months). Of 35 patients, 4 have died, 22 were alive with no evidence of disease, and 9 were alive with disease at the last follow-up. The remaining four patients died of unknown causes. CONCLUSIONS Pregnant women with breast carcinomas generally present with advanced-stage disease and the tumors have poor histologic and prognostic features. The findings from the follow-up indicated that these tumors do not follow a very aggressive clinical course as was proposed in earlier reports. Breast carcinomas occurring during pregnancy share many histologic and prognostic similarities with breast carcinoma occurring in other young women. Cancer 2003;98:1055,60. 2003 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.11614 [source]


Prognostic factors in neuroendocrine small cell cervical carcinoma

CANCER, Issue 3 2003
A multivariate analysis
Abstract BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathologic factors associated with survival in patients with neuroendocrine (NE) cervical carcinoma. METHODS All patients with NE cervical carcinoma diagnosed between 1979,2001 were identified from tumor registry databases at two hospitals. Data were collected from hospital charts, office records, and tumor registry files. The impact of clinical and pathologic risk factors on the survival of patients with small cell NE carcinoma of the cervix was evaluated using Kaplan,Meier life table analyses and log-rank tests. The independent prognostic factors found to be predictive of survival in univariate analysis were evaluated using Cox regression. All tests were two-tailed with P values < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS Thirty-four patients (median age, 42 years) were diagnosed with neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma, which included 21 with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I disease, 6 with FIGO Stage II disease, 5 with FIGO Stage III disease, and 2 with FIGO Stage IV disease. Seventeen patients underwent a radical and 6 patients underwent a simple hysterectomy. Fourteen women received adjuvant therapy with pelvic radiation and/or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Ten women received primary radiotherapy with (n = 5) or without (n = 4) chemotherapy and the remaining patient refused therapy. Women with early-stage (Stage I-IIA) disease had median survival rates of 31 months compared with 10 months in the advanced-stage (Stage IIB-IVB) group (P = 0.002). In univariate analysis, advanced stage (P = 0.002), tumor size >2 cm (P = 0.02), margin involvement (P = 0.016), pure versus a mixed histologic pattern (P = 0.04), margin status (P = 0.016), and smoking (P = 0.04) were considered poor prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, smoking for early-stage patients and stage of disease in the overall population remained as independent prognostic factors of survival. CONCLUSIONS Smoking and advanced stage are reported to be poor prognostic factors for survival in patients with NE small cell carcinoma of the cervix. Only those with early lesions amenable to extirpation are cured. The role of primary or postoperative radiation with or without chemotherapy is unclear and yields uniformly poor results, particularly in patients with advanced lesions. Clinical trials are needed. Cancer 2003;97:568,74. 2003 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.11086 [source]


Weight loss predicts mortality after recurrent oral cavity and oropharyngeal carcinomas,

CANCER, Issue 3 2002
Thao V. Nguyen B.S.E.
Abstract BACKGROUND The prognosis of patients with recurrent tumors of the head and neck generally is considered poor. Better prediction of outcomes can help physicians counsel patients about the merits of additional treatment. The TNM system, which was created for patients with primary tumors, may not provide optimal information. Anatomic staging systems traditionally have ignored symptom-based variables, such as weight loss, despite their known prognostic value. The objectives of this study were 1) to measure the prognostic impact of weight loss, 2) to evaluate the prognostic value of the TNM staging system, and 3) to create a practical staging system capable of predicting survival after patients develop recurrent tumors of the oral cavity and oropharynx. METHODS A retrospective chart review was used to identify an inception cohort of patients seeking treatment for recurrent, persistent, and second primary tumors of the oral cavity and oropharynx at the University of Washington. The primary outcome variable was 1-year survival. RESULTS The 1-year survival rate for the cohort (n = 97 patients) was 38%, with a median survival of 0.7 years. Multivariate analysis (Cox regression) identified weight loss, previous radiation to the head and neck, and TNM stage of the recurrent tumor as factors that had a substantial impact on mortality. A second multivariate technique called conjunctive consolidation was used to determine the relative quantitative impact of each variable on survival and to develop a clinical staging system. Weight loss and previous radiation had the greatest influence, and the use of just these two variables resulted in a three-tiered staging system with 1-year survival rates of 62% (16 of 26 patients), 44% (18 of 41 patients), and 10% (3 of 30 patients). In contrast, the TNM staging system produced survival rates of 60% (patients with Stage I disease), 67% (patients with Stage II disease), 32% (patients with Stage III disease), and 32% (patients with Stage IV disease). CONCLUSIONS The authors found substantial variation in survival after patients developed recurrent tumors of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Two readily available clinical variables,weight loss and previous radiation,were combined to create a clinically practical staging scheme with more prognostic power than the TNM staging system. Until molecular markers can reliably used be to predict outcomes, greater attention needs to be given to the utility of simple, inexpensive, and surprisingly powerful clinical variables. Cancer 2002;95:553,62. 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10711 [source]


Medullary thyroid carcinoma as part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B syndrome

CANCER, Issue 1 2002
Influence of the stage on the clinical course
Abstract BACKGROUND Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) is an exceptional syndrome, for which the optimal age of thyroidectomy is poorly established and the course of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is ill-defined. PATIENTS All the 18 patients with a MEN 2B syndrome examined at the Institut Gustave Roussy were included in a single-center retrospective study. RESULTS There were 9 men and 9 women with a mean age of 13 years (range, 2,27 years) at diagnosis. The diagnosis of MTC was based on the presence of a thyroid nodule or involved neck lymph nodes and on dysmorphic features of MEN 2B in 60% and 40% of the cases, respectively. The classic M918T mutation in exon 16 was found in the 16 patients in whom it was investigated. At diagnosis, 2 patients had Stage I MTC, 15 patients had Stage III, and 1 patient had Stage IV disease. T1 MTC was found in 4 patients aged 2.1,3.7 years. However, two of these patients already had N1 disease. One patient with Stage I MTC, aged 3.4 years and 2 patients with Stage III disease, aged 14 and 25 years, had undetectable basal calcitonin (CT) after initial surgery. During follow-up, basal CT became detectable in one of three patients. Among the 15 other patients with an elevated postoperative CT level, metastases were demonstrated in 5 patients after a mean follow-up of 2 years. Five patients died, three of MTC, one of the MEN 2B syndrome, and one of intercurrent disease. Five- and 10-year overall survival rates were 85% and 75%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms the need for early treatment of MTC in patients with the MEN 2B syndrome, preferably within the first 6 months of life. The phenotype of MTC occurring in the MEN 2B syndrome was not more aggressive than sporadic MTC or MTC occurring in other familial syndromes. Cancer 2002;94:44,50. 2002 American Cancer Society. [source]


Influence of private practice setting and physician characteristics on the use of breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly women,,

CANCER, Issue 17 2009
Dawn L. Hershman MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: Although >70% of younger women with nonmetastatic breast cancer (BC) received adjuvant chemotherapy, only approximately 15% to 20% of elderly women with BC received chemotherapy. The decision to treat may be associated with nonmedical factors, such as patient, physician, or practice characteristics. In the current study, the association between oncologist characteristics and the receipt of chemotherapy in elderly women with BC was evaluated. METHODS: Women aged >65 years who were diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I to III BC between 1991 and 2002 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database. The Physician Unique Identification Number was linked to the American Medical Association Masterfile to obtain information on oncologists. Investigated was the association between demographic, tumor, and oncologist-related factors and the receipt of chemotherapy, using Generalized Estimating Equations to control for clustering. Patients were defined as low risk (estrogen/progesterone receptor positive, stage I/II disease) and high risk (estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative, stage II/III disease). RESULTS: Of 42,544 women identified, 8714 (20%) were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. In a hierarchical analysis, women who underwent chemotherapy were more likely be treated by oncologists primarily employed in a private practice (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.23-1.59) and who graduated after 1975 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26) and were less likely to have an oncologist trained in the United States (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.93). The association between a private practice setting and the receipt of chemotherapy was found to be similar for patients at high risk (OR, 1.55) and low risk (OR, 1.35) for cancer recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly women with BC treated by oncologists who were employed in a private practice were more likely to receive chemotherapy. Efforts to determine whether these associations reflected experience, practice setting, insurance type, or other economic incentives are warranted. Cancer 2009. Published 2009 by the American Cancer Society. [source]


Combined treatment with pegylated interferon,,-2a and dacarbazine in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma

CANCER, Issue 6 2008
A phase 2 study
Abstract BACKGROUND. Dacarbazine (DTIC) and pegylated interferon (IFN),,-2a have both demonstrated some efficacy as single agents in metastatic melanoma. To the authors' knowledge, the current study is the first to test a combination of these 2 agents in a phase 2 trial. METHODS. Twenty,eight patients with stage IV melanoma without brain metastases were treated with DTIC (at a dose of 850 mg/m2 every 3 weeks) combined with weekly pegylated IFN,,-2a at a dose of 180 ,g. The study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the combination. The primary study endpoint was objective response. RESULTS. Twenty,five patients were evaluable for response. Two patients (8.0%) achieved a complete response that continued for >480 days and 746 days, respectively. Four patients (16.0%) demonstrated a partial response, and another patient experienced stable disease. Six of 7 nonprogressive patients had either not received treatment or had not developed disease progression during adjuvant IFN treatment for stage II/III disease. The median duration of response was 236 days, the median progression-free survival was 56 days, and the overall survival time was 403 days. Few grade 3 toxicities and only 1 grade 4 toxicity were observed (according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria). CONCLUSIONS. The combination of DTIC and pegylated IFN,,-2a was found to be well tolerated in patients with metastatic melanoma. The response rate of 24%, including 2 long-lasting complete responses, is encouraging, but must be confirmed in larger trials. Cancer 2008. 2008 American Cancer Society. [source]


Is laparoscopic surgery acceptable for advanced colon cancer?

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2009
Seigo Kitano
Laparoscopic surgery is widespread in the treatment of colorectal cancer. In Japan, a nationwide survey has shown that the rate of advanced colorectal cancer has increased gradually to 65% of total laparoscopic surgeries in 2007. Many randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that in the short term, laparoscopic surgery is feasible, safe, and has many benefits, including reduction of peri-operative mortality. In terms of long-term outcomes, four randomized controlled trials suggest that there are no differences in laparosupic and open surgery for colon cancer. However, important issues, including long-term oncological outcome, cost effectiveness, and the impact on the quality of life of patients, should be addressed in well-designed large-scale trials. In Japan, a retrospective multicenter study has demonstrated that the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery are beneficial, and the long-term outcomes are the same as for open surgery. In 2004, a prospective large-scale randomized controlled trial (JCOG0404) to compare laparoscopic surgery with open surgery was started to evaluate oncological outcomes for advanced colon cancer. This trial is supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Cancer Research from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. In the present study, laparoscopic surgery is found to be acceptable for stage I disease of colon cancer, whereas it is controversial for stage II/III disease because of inadequate clinical evidence. Whether laparoscopic surgery is acceptable for advanced colon cancer or not should be confirmed by the Japanese large-scale prospective randomized controlled trial (JCOG0404) in the near future. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 567,571) [source]


The effect of preoperative weight loss and body mass index on postoperative outcome in patients with esophagogastric carcinoma

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 7 2009
J. Skipworth
SUMMARY Studies have shown that weight loss is associated with adverse outcomes in all treatment modalities for esophagogastric carcinoma. Because of the increased prevalence of obesity and the effectiveness of perioperative nutrition, a number of patients are now obese or have normal body mass index (BMI) at the time of treatment. We investigated the relationship between weight loss, BMI, and outcome of surgery for patients with esophagogastric carcinoma. Data were collected over a 38-month period for all patients diagnosed with operable esophagogastric cancer at two UK centers. All patients underwent resection by a single Consultant Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeon and the use of perioperative jejunal feeding was universal. Ninety-three patients (57 male) underwent esophagogastric resection; 48 had no preoperative weight loss (34 with a BMI > 25 and 14 with a BMI < 25). Forty-five patients had preoperative weight loss (20 with BMI > 25 and 25 with BMI < 25). There was no significant difference in complication rates, median hospital stay, or mortality between the four groups. A significantly higher number of patients displaying preoperative weight loss were found to have stage III disease, but difference in survival of up to 3 years did not reach statistical significance on multivariate analysis. Preoperative weight loss and low BMI did not significantly influence the complication rate, perioperative mortality rate, length of hospital stay, or short-term prognosis. We conclude that preoperative weight loss can not be reliably used as an independent predictor of poor outcome in patients undergoing surgery for esophagogastric carcinoma. However, patients with preoperative weight loss and low BMI are more likely to have advanced disease. [source]


Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses,

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 9 2002
Teri S. Katz MD
Abstract Purpose To evaluate the role of radiation therapy in patients with nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors. Materials and Methods Between October 1964 and July 1998, 78 patients with malignant tumors of the nasal cavity (48 patients), ethmoid sinus (24 patients), sphenoid sinus (5 patients), or frontal sinus (1 patient) were treated with curative intent by radiation therapy alone or in the adjuvant setting. There were 25 squamous cell carcinomas, 14 undifferentiated carcinomas, 31 minor salivary gland tumors (adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma), 8 esthesioneuroblastomas, and 1 transitional cell carcinoma. Forty-seven patients were treated with irradiation alone, 25 with surgery and postoperative irradiation, 2 with preoperative irradiation and surgery, and 4 with chemotherapy in combination with irradiation with or without surgery. Results The 5-year actuarial local control rate for stage I (limited to the site of origin; 22 patients) was 86%; for stage II (extension to adjacent sites (eg, adjacent sinuses, orbit, pterygomaxillary fossa, nasopharynx; 21 patients) was 65%; and for stage III (destruction of skull base or pterygoid plates, or intracranial extension; 35 patients) was 34%. The 5-year actuarial local control rate for patients receiving postoperative irradiation was 79% and for patients receiving irradiation alone was 49% (p = .05). The 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year ultimate local control rates for all 78 patients were 60%, 56%, 48%, and 48%, respectively. The 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year cause-specific survival rates for all 78 patients were 56%, 45%, 39%, and 39%, respectively. The 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year absolute survival rates for all 78 patients were 50%, 31%, 21%, and 16%, respectively. Of the 67 (86%) patients who were initially seen with node-negative disease, 39 (58%) received no elective neck treatment, and 28 (42%) received elective neck irradiation. Of the 39 patients who received no elective neck treatment, 33 (85%) did not experience recurrence in the neck compared with 25 (89%) of 28 patients who received elective neck irradiation. Most patients who received elective neck irradiation (57%) had stage III disease. Twenty-one (27%) of 78 patients had unilateral blindness develop secondary to radiation retinopathy or optic neuropathy; the complication was anticipated in most of these patients, because the ipsilateral eye was irradiated to a high dose. Four patients (5%) unexpectedly had bilateral blindness develop because of optic neuropathy. All four of these patients received irradiation alone. Conclusion Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy may result in improved local control, absolute survival, and complications when compared with radiation therapy alone. Elective neck irradiation is probably unnecessary for patients with early-stage disease. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 821,829, 2002 [source]


Analysis of risk factors for recurrence and effective adjuvant therapy in patients with endometrial cancer

JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2002
Tomoko Goto
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore risk factors for recurrence and effective adjuvant therapy in endometrial cancer. Methods: Between 1985 and 1999, 170 patients with uterine endometrial cancer received initial therapy at the National Defense Medical College Hospital. We retrospectively analyzed risk factors including; histopathological features, operative procedures, adjuvant therapies and surgical staging. Results: Although the prognosis in stage I and II patients was fairly good, recurrences were observed in patients with stage Ib or worse. Vagina walls were the frequent site of recurrence. About a half of relapses which occurred within seven months after surgery were observed during adjuvant chemotherapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that myometrial invasion (P = 0.0231) was the only risk factor for recurrence. Although the prognosis in stage III and IV patients was generally poor, serosal invasion in stage III disease seemed to be an im-portant risk factor. With regard to adjuvant therapy in stage I,III patients who could receive optimal cytoreductive surgery; the risk of recurrence was significantly (P = 0.0127) lower in patients receiving radiation therapy than in those receiving chemotherapy including platinum agents. Conclusion: The data suggested that in stage I,III patients with optimal cytoreductive surgery, myometrial invasion is an independent risk factor for recurrence and radiation therapy is more effective than chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy. [source]


The Effect of treatment on survival in patients with advanced laryngeal carcinoma,

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 7 2009
Christine G. Gourin MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Over the last 2 decades, survival from laryngeal cancer has decreased. We sought to identify factors associated with decreased survival in laryngeal cancer. Methods: Patients diagnosed with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma from 1985 to 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 451 patients met study criteria. Five-year survival rates were 85% for stage I, 77% for stage II, 51% for stage III, and 35% for stage IV disease. Survival for patients with stage I,III disease was similar for patients treated operatively or nonoperatively (P = .4). However, patients with stage III disease treated nonoperatively had worse survival with radiation alone (XRT) compared to chemoradiation (CR) (P = .006). Patients with stage IV disease had significantly better survival with surgery (49%) than CR (21%) or XRT alone (14%) (P < .0001). Analysis by primary tumor stage demonstrated that survival for T1,T3 disease was independent of treatment modality (P = .2); however, for T4 patients, operative treatment was associated with significantly better survival (55%) than CR (25%) or XRT (0%) (P < .0001). Proportional hazards models confirmed significantly worse survival for stage IV, T4, N2 or N3 disease, and nonoperative treatment. For T4 disease, after controlling for nodal status, nonoperative treatment was the only significant predictor of worse survival. Conclusions: Primary surgical treatment is associated with improved survival for patients with stage IV disease and specifically T4 primary tumors. These data suggest that the observed national decrease in survival from laryngeal cancer may be due to a shift toward nonoperative treatment in that subset of patients with advanced primary disease. Laryngoscope, 2009 [source]


Staging of Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome: A Guide to Appropriate Treatment,

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 3 2004
Michael Friedman MD
Abstract Objective Early studies by Friedman et al. have demonstrated the value of staging obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients for the prediction of success for uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on the basis of short-term follow up. The goal of this study is to test the value of this staging system in a prospective study. Study Design This is a prospective study of two cohorts of patients: one was treated with the benefit of a clinical staging system and the other without. Methods Patients with symptoms of OSAHS were assessed by polysomnography and were staged according to a previously described staging system. The staging system is based on palate position, tonsil size, and body mass index (BMI). The control group was treated without the benefit of staging. All patients in the control group were treated with UPPP only. Patients in the experimental group were treated based on their clinical stage. Patients with stage I disease, regardless of the severity of disease, were treated with UPPP only. Selected patients with stage II and stage III disease were treated with UPPP in addition to a staged tongue-base reduction using a radiofrequency technique (TBRF). Results Follow-up at 6 months showed significant improvement compared with a group of patients treated without the benefit of a staging system. Successful treatment of patients with stage II disease improved from 37.9% to 74.0%. The overall success rate improved from 40% to 59.1%. Conclusion Clearly, patients with stage I disease had the best success rate, but a selective protocol based on clinical staging improves the overall success rate. In addition, it can eliminate as surgical candidates those patients with whom the procedure is likely to fail. [source]


Evidence supports adjuvant radiotherapy in selected patients with rectal cancer

ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 3 2004
Peter Gibbs
Background: Much recent data have been published on the risk of local recurrence (LR) following curative surgery for rectal cancer and the impact of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). With improvements in surgical technique apparently reducing the risk of LR, the relevance of older data upon which the current recommendations for adjuvant RT are based has been questioned. Methods: A focused review was undertaken of the published literature on the risk of LR following surgery for rectal cancer and the impact of adjuvant radiation. In particular the authors attempt to define how accurately the risk for an individual patient can be predicted, trends in reported LR rates over the time period of randomized trials, and the relevance of changing surgical and RT techniques. Results: Many of the perceived differences in published results can be explained by variations in study entry criteria, length of follow up and data recording. Comparisons between studies are most accurate when defined subsets of patients, such as those with stage III disease, followed for the same period of time, are considered. In parallel with improvements in surgical technique, which may have reduced the risk of LR, modifications to RT delivery have resulted in recent series not reporting an increased mortality in those patients treated with modern RT techniques. Conclusion: All of the available evidence supports the use of adjuvant RT in selected patients with rectal cancer. Ongoing studies will better define individual patient risk and the risk,benefit ratio of adjuvant RT. [source]


Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and its prognostic significance in colorectal cancer

APMIS, Issue 2 2010
KYRIAKOS ZAFIRELLIS
Zafirellis K, Zachaki A, Agrogiannis G, Gravani K. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and its prognostic significance in colorectal cancer. APMIS 2010; 118: 115,24. Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are expressed in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the inducible NOS (iNOS) expression in colorectal cancer and to investigate its prognostic relevance. Tissue sections of primary tumors from 132 patients undergoing curative resection for colorectal cancer were immunohistochemically examined for iNOS expression. The expression pattern of iNOS was correlated with various clinicopathological characteristics and survival. iNOS immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of tumor epithelial cells in 60 patients (45.5%) and positively correlated with lymph node involvement (p = 0.019). No significant correlation was found between iNOS expression and various clinicopathological characteristics, including age, gender, tumor location, tumor size, tumor grade, T stage, and Union International Contra la Cancrum (UICC) stage. Survival analysis showed a significant correlation between iNOS-positive tumors and poor disease-specific survival (p < 0.0001), with independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis (HR = 4.42; p < 0.0001). Patients with stage II disease and iNOS-positive tumors had significantly worse disease-specific survival than those with iNOS-negative tumors (p < 0.0001). In addition, patients with stage III disease and iNOS-positive tumors had significantly worse disease-specific survival than those with iNOS-negative tumors (p = 0.001). The ability of iNOS to predict outcome in colorectal cancer patients may be independent of other known prognostic factors, providing a new molecular marker with significant potential for clinical utility. [source]


Either interleukin-12 or interferon-, can correct the dendritic cell defect induced by transforming growth factor ,1 in patients with myeloma

BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
Ross Brown
Summary The poor response to immunotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) indicates that a better understanding of any defects in the immune response in these patients is required before effective therapeutic strategies can be developed. Recently we reported that high potency (CMRF44+) dendritic cells (DC) in the peripheral blood of patients with MM failed to significantly up-regulate the expression of the B7 co-stimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86, in response to an appropriate signal from soluble trimeric human CD40 ligand. This defect was caused by transforming growth factor ,1 (TGF,1) and interleukin (IL)-10, produced by malignant plasma cells, and the defect was neutralized in vitro with anti-TGF,1. As this defect could impact on immunotherapeutic strategies and may be a major cause of the failure of recent trials, it was important to identify a more clinically useful agent that could correct the defect in vivo. In this study of 59 MM patients, the relative and absolute numbers of blood DC were only significantly decreased in patients with stage III disease and CD80 up-regulation was reduced in both stage I and stage III. It was demonstrated that both IL-12 and interferon- , neutralized the failure to stimulate CD80 up-regulation by huCD40LT in vitro. IL-12 did not cause a change in the distribution of DC subsets that were predominantly myeloid (CD11c+ and CDw123,) suggesting that there would be a predominantly T-helper cell type response. The addition of IL-12 or interferon- , to future immunotherapy trials involving these patients should be considered. [source]


Influence of surgical and postoperative treatment on survival in differentiated thyroid cancer

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 5 2007
C. I. Lundgren
Background: The extent of thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to identify how surgical technique and postoperative treatments influence survival and locoregional recurrence in DTC. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 5123 patients diagnosed with DTC in Sweden between 1958 and 1987. One matched control subject was selected randomly for each patient who died from DTC. Details regarding surgery and postoperative treatments were obtained from medical records. The effect of treatment on survival was estimated by conditional logistic regression. Results: Patients not treated surgically had a poorer prognosis, but the risk of death from DTC was not affected by the choice of surgical technique. The extent of surgery influenced survival only in patients with TNM stage III disease. Locoregional recurrence resulted in a fivefold increased risk of death. Postoperative treatment was not associated with improved survival. Conclusion: In operated patients, the most important prognostic factor was complete removal of the tumour. The extent of removal of remaining thyroid tissue was of prognostic importance in stage III disease only. Adjuvant postoperative treatment did not influence the prognosis favourably. Copyright 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Surgical management of primary anorectal melanoma,

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 9 2004
P. Pessaux
Background: This aim of this study was to analyse outcome after surgery for primary anorectal melanoma and to determine factors predictive of survival. Methods: Records of 40 patients treated between 1977 and 2002 were reviewed. Results: Twelve men and 28 women of mean age 581 (range 37,83) years were included in the analysis. Overall and disease-free survival rates were 17 and 14 per cent at 5 years. Median overall survival was 17 months and disease-free survival was 10 months. The 5-year survival rate was 24 per cent for patients with stage I tumours, and zero for those with stage II or stage III disease. There was no significant difference in overall survival after wide local excision (49 and 16 per cent at 2 and 5 years respectively) and abdominoperineal resection (33 per cent at both time points). In patients with stage I and stage II disease, there was a significant association between poor survival and duration of symptoms (more than 3 months), inguinal lymph node involvement, tumour stage and presence of amelanotic melanoma. Conclusion: Anorectal melanoma is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. Wide local excision is recommended as primary therapy if negative resection margins can be achieved. Copyright 2004 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Lateral pelvic lymph node dissection for advanced lower rectal cancer

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 12 2003
S. Fujita
Background: The oncological outcome of patients who underwent curative surgery for lower rectal cancer was investigated to clarify whether lateral pelvic lymph node dissection (LPLD) conferred any benefit. Methods: A total of 246 patients who underwent curative surgery for stage II and III lower rectal cancer (below the peritoneal reflection) between 1985 and 1998 was reviewed. Forty-two of these patients did not undergo LPLD. Results: Patients who did not undergo LPLD were older, more likely to have anterior resection and pelvic nerve preservation, and had smaller tumours and lymph node metastasis at an earlier stage than those who underwent LPLD. There was no difference in survival among patients with stage II and III disease between the two groups. However, in patients with pathological N1 lymph node metastasis, the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 733 per cent in patients who had LPLD compared with 353 per cent among those who did not (P = 0013). Multivariate analysis showed that LPLD was a significant prognostic factor. Conclusion: LPLD improved the prognosis of patients with stage III disease and a small number of lymph node metastases. A randomized clinical trial is needed to verify the benefit of LPLD. Copyright 2003 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


High response rate after intratumoral treatment with interleukin-2

CANCER, Issue 17 2010
Results from a phase 2 study in 51 patients with metastasized melanoma
Abstract BACKGROUND: Systemic high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) achieved long-term survival in a subset of patients with advanced melanoma. The authors reported previously that intratumorally applied IL-2 induced complete local responses of all metastases in >60% of patients. The objectives of the current study were to confirm those results in a larger cohort and to identify patient or regimen characteristics associated with response. METHODS: Patients with melanoma who had a median of 12 injectable metastases received intratumoral IL-2 treatments 3 times weekly until they achieved clinical remission. The initial dose of 3 million international units was escalated, depending on the individual patient's tolerance. RESULTS: Forty-eight of 51 patients were evaluable. Only grade 1/2 toxicity was recorded. A complete response that lasted ,6 months was documented in 70% of all injected metastases. A complete local response of all treated metastases was achieved in 33 patients (69%), including 11 patients who had between 20 and 100 metastases. Response rates were higher for patients who had stage III disease compared with patients who had stage IV disease. No objective responses of distant untreated metastases were observed. The 2-year survival rate was 77% for patients with stage IIIB/IIIC disease and 53% for patients with stage IV disease. Efficacy and survival did not differ between patients who had ,20 lesions and patients who had <20 lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Intratumoral IL-2 treatment elicited complete local responses in a high percentage of patients. Further studies will be required to investigate the mode of action of this treatment and its impact on survival. Cancer 2010. 2010 American Cancer Society. [source]


Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast

CANCER, Issue 5 2010
Gordon F. Schwartz MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: The timing and accuracy of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients who are receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer are controversial. To examine the accuracy of SLNB after NACT, the authors performed SLNB after chemotherapy on all of patients who received NACT at their institution starting in January 1997. METHODS: Seventy-nine women who underwent NACT between 1997 and 2008 comprised this study and were divided as follows: 4 women had stage I disease, 60 women had stage II disease, and 15 women had stage III disease, including 10 women who had multicentric disease. Thirty-nine women (49.4%) had clinical evidence of axillary metastasis (N1-N2) at the time of diagnosis. The regimen, the duration of treatment, and the number of cycles of NACT depended on clinical response. The choice of breast conservation therapy or mastectomy was based on the patient's response to treatment and patient preference. All patients underwent SLNB after NACT. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients underwent breast conservation therapy, and 6 patients underwent mastectomy. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 98.7% of patients (in 1 patient, SLNB failed to capture 1 proven axillary metastasis), and 29 patients underwent full axillary lymph node dissection. Fourteen patients (17.7%) had no residual carcinoma (invasive or ductal carcinoma in situ) in their breast, 5 patients (6.3%) had residual ductal carcinoma in situ (only), and 60 patients (75.9%) had residual invasive carcinoma. One false-negative SLNB was reported in the group of 23 patients who underwent full axillary dissection after a negative SLNB. No patient had a subsequent axillary recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: SLNB after NACT was feasible in virtually all patients and accurately selected patients who required complete level I and II axillary dissection. NACT frequently downstaged the axilla, converting patients with N1-N2 lymph node status to N0 status and also avoiding full axillary dissection in these patients. Cancer 2010. 2010 American Cancer Society. [source]


Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

CANCER, Issue 21 2009
Clinical characterization, prognosis of Waldeyer ring versus lymph node presentation
Abstract BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features and prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of Waldeyer ring (WR-DLBCL) and patients with lymph node DLBCL (N-DLBCL). METHODS: One hundred eighty-one patients with WR-DLBCL and N-DLBCL were reviewed. There were 57 patients with stage I disease, 83 patients with stage II disease, 26 patients with stage III disease, and 15 patients with stage IV disease. Among them, 101 patients had primary N-DLBCL, and 80 patients had primary WR-DLBCL. RESULTS: Patients with WR-DLBCL and N-DLBCL usually presented at an older age and had localized disease, a low frequency of B symptoms, a good performance status, and a low-risk International Prognostic Index (IPI) score. Compared with patients who had N-DLBCL, patients who had WR-DLBCL presented with more stage II disease and lower tumor burdens. The overall response rate after treatment was similar in both groups. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 76% and 61% in patients with WR-DLBCL, respectively, and 56% and 50% in patients with N-DLBCL, respectively (P = .119 for OS; P = .052 for PFS). IPI scores and elevated ,2-microglobulin and LDH levels were associated with a poor prognosis for patients who had WR-DLBCL; whereas bulky tumor, elevated ,2-microglobulin levels, and IPI scores were associated with poor OS for patients who had N-DLBCL. CONCLUSIONS: The current results supported the continued inclusion of WR-DLBCL as a lymph node group in the staging of DLBCL. Patients with WR-DLBCL had clinical features and prognosis similar to those of patients with N-DLBCL. Cancer 2009. 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]