Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Stage

  • action stage
  • active stage
  • acute stage
  • adult stage
  • advanced disease stage
  • advanced stage
  • anagen stage
  • another stage
  • blastocyst stage
  • blastula stage
  • blood stage
  • braak stage
  • breast stage
  • bud stage
  • cancer stage
  • carnegie stage
  • cell cycle stage
  • cell stage
  • center stage
  • centre stage
  • certain stage
  • characteristic stage
  • chronic stage
  • ckd stage
  • cleavage stage
  • clinical stage
  • clinical t stage
  • consecutive stage
  • consolidation stage
  • construction stage
  • contemplation stage
  • cooling stage
  • copepodid stage
  • critical stage
  • crucial stage
  • current stage
  • cycle stage
  • defined stage
  • design stage
  • developing stage
  • development stage
  • developmental stage
  • different development stage
  • different developmental stage
  • different embryonic stage
  • different growth stage
  • different life stage
  • different reproductive stage
  • different stage
  • different successional stage
  • differentiation stage
  • discrete stage
  • disease stage
  • distinct stage
  • dormant stage
  • drying stage
  • duke stage
  • earliest stage
  • early cleavage stage
  • early clinical stage
  • early developmental stage
  • early disease stage
  • early embryonic stage
  • early growth stage
  • early larval stage
  • early life stage
  • early life-history stage
  • early stage
  • early successional stage
  • effector stage
  • egg stage
  • embryo stage
  • embryonic stage
  • end stage
  • equilibrium stage
  • equivalent stage
  • essential stage
  • evolutionary stage
  • experimental stage
  • feeding stage
  • fetal stage
  • fibrosis stage
  • figo stage
  • final stage
  • first feeding stage
  • first stage
  • flowering stage
  • formation stage
  • formative stage
  • four-cell stage
  • four-leaf stage
  • fourth stage
  • fruiting stage
  • gastrula stage
  • germinal vesicle stage
  • glacial stage
  • global stage
  • globular stage
  • gosner stage
  • grain-filling stage
  • green stage
  • grow-out stage
  • growing stage
  • growth stage
  • heating stage
  • hepatic fibrosis stage
  • high stage
  • histological stage
  • history stage
  • host stage
  • immature stage
  • important stage
  • incipient stage
  • increasing stage
  • incubation stage
  • individual stage
  • infective stage
  • inflammatory stage
  • initial growth stage
  • initial stage
  • initiation stage
  • input stage
  • intermediate stage
  • international stage
  • invasive stage
  • isotope stage
  • iss stage
  • juvenile stage
  • key stage
  • larval stage
  • last stage
  • late developmental stage
  • late stage
  • late successional stage
  • latter stage
  • leaf stage
  • life cycle stage
  • life history stage
  • life stage
  • life-cycle stage
  • life-history stage
  • liver stage
  • loading stage
  • low stage
  • lower stage
  • main stage
  • maintenance stage
  • male stage
  • many stage
  • maturation stage
  • maturational stage
  • mature stage
  • maturity stage
  • metamorphic stage
  • mid stage
  • middle stage
  • mii stage
  • morphological stage
  • morula stage
  • multiple stage
  • n stage
  • neonatal stage
  • nestling stage
  • neurula stage
  • new stage
  • next stage
  • nodal stage
  • nucleation stage
  • nymphal stage
  • okuda stage
  • one stage
  • ontogenetic stage
  • other stage
  • oxygen isotope stage
  • particular stage
  • pathologic stage
  • pathological stage
  • pathological t stage
  • phenological stage
  • physiological stage
  • planning stage
  • plant growth stage
  • plant stage
  • postnatal stage
  • preclinical stage
  • precontemplation stage
  • preimplantation stage
  • preliminary stage
  • preparation stage
  • previous stage
  • primary stage
  • processing stage
  • prodromal stage
  • progression stage
  • progressive stage
  • promastigote stage
  • pubertal stage
  • pupal stage
  • rai stage
  • reaction stage
  • recovery stage
  • reproductive stage
  • resting stage
  • rifting stage
  • ripe stage
  • ripening stage
  • river stage
  • same developmental stage
  • same stage
  • screening stage
  • second stage
  • secondary stage
  • seed stage
  • seedling stage
  • sensitive stage
  • several stage
  • severe stage
  • sexual stage
  • similar stage
  • single stage
  • sleep stage
  • specific developmental stage
  • specific stage
  • spermatid stage
  • stream stage
  • subacute stage
  • subsequent stage
  • successional stage
  • successive stage
  • surgical stage
  • tadpole stage
  • tanner breast stage
  • tanner stage
  • tectonic stage
  • terminal stage
  • third stage
  • three-leaf stage
  • transition stage
  • transitional stage
  • tumor stage
  • tumour stage
  • two-cell stage
  • various developmental stage
  • various stage
  • vegetative stage
  • very earliest stage
  • very early stage
  • vesicle stage
  • vulnerable stage
  • world stage
  • yahr stage
  • young stage

  • Terms modified by Stage

  • stage b
  • stage breast cancer
  • stage c
  • stage cancer
  • stage d
  • stage dementia
  • stage development
  • stage disease
  • stage distribution
  • stage embryo
  • stage endometriosis
  • stage group
  • stage grouping
  • stage i
  • stage i disease
  • stage i pressure ulcer
  • stage ia
  • stage ia disease
  • stage ib
  • stage ii
  • stage ii disease
  • stage iia
  • stage iib
  • stage iii
  • stage iii disease
  • stage iiia
  • stage iiib
  • stage iv
  • stage iv disease
  • stage iv melanoma
  • stage iv tumor
  • stage iva
  • stage larva
  • stage liver disease
  • stage migration
  • stage model
  • stage only
  • stage oocyte
  • stage patient
  • stage production
  • stage questionnaire
  • stage renal disease
  • stage specific
  • stage structure
  • stage theory
  • stage transition
  • stage tumor
  • stage v

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT "Umbu" (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara) is a typical fruit from northeastern Brazil of considerable economic importance to this region, because several products are derived from it and commercialized, especially the pulp, which can be used as a raw material for preserves and juices. The objective of this research was to study the preservation of umbu in the green stage of maturation by combined methods, including heat treatment and the addition of preservatives and sucrose. The pulps were blanched, pasteurized and mixed with the preservatives and sucrose according to a complete factorial design with three variables (ratio pulp/sucrose, potassium sorbate and sodium metabisulfite), two levels and two repetitions. The products were filled into high-density polyethylene packages and exposed to a temperature of 40C for 120 days. Physicochemical, color and chemical (SO2) analyses showed that the concentrations of sodium metabisulfite and potassium sorbate used did not significantly alter product quality. The addition of sucrose significantly decreased the water activity and led to intense browning. The microbiological evaluations showed good product stability for 120 days. The overall results indicated that the heat treatment applied was effective if high levels of hygiene were maintained during the preparatory stages and the packaging materials were well sanitized. The combined preservation methods appear to be an economic way to preserve these high-acid pulps. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Steffi Gaebler-Schwarz
    Few members of the well-studied marine phytoplankton taxa have such a complex and polymorphic life cycle as the genus Phaeocystis. However, despite the ecological and biogeochemical importance of Phaeocystis blooms, the life cycle of the major bloom-forming species of this genus remains illusive and poorly resolved. At least six different life stages and up to 15 different functional components of the life cycle have been proposed. Our culture and field observations indicate that there is a previously unrecognized stage in the life cycle of P. antarctica G. Karst. This stage comprises nonmotile cells that range in size from ,4.2 to 9.8 ,m in diameter and form aggregates in which interstitial spaces between cells are small or absent. The aggregates (hereafter called attached aggregates, AAs) adhere to available surfaces. In field samples, small AAs, surrounded by a colony skin, adopt an epiphytic lifestyle and adhere in most cases to setae or spines of diatoms. These AAs, either directly or via other life stages, produce the colonial life stage. Culture studies indicate that bloom-forming, colonial stages release flagellates (microzoospores) that fuse and form AAs, which can proliferate on the bottom of culture vessels and can eventually reform free-floating colonies. We propose that these AAs are a new stage in the life cycle of P. antarctica, which we believe to be the zygote, thus documenting sexual reproduction in this species for the first time. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Kei Kimura
    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the isogamous brown alga Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngb.) Link is inherited maternally. We used molecular biological and morphological analyses to investigate the fate of male mitochondria. Ultrastructural observations showed that the number of 25 mitochondria in a zygote coincided with the number of mitochondria derived from male and female gametes. This number remained almost constant during the first cell division. Strain-specific PCR in single germlings suggested that mtDNA derived from the female gamete remained in the germling during development, while the male mtDNA gradually and selectively disappeared after the four-cell stage. One week after fertilization, male mtDNA had disappeared in sporophytic cells. Using bisulfite DNA modification and methylation mapping assays, we found that the degree of methylation on three analyzed sites of mtDNA was not different between male and female gametes, suggesting that maternal inheritance of mtDNA is not defined by its methylation. This study indicates that the mechanism of selective elimination of male mtDNA is present in each cell of a four-celled sporophyte and that it does not depend on different degrees of DNA methylation between male and female mtDNA. [source]


    First page of article [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2003
    Carla R. Hurt
    Abstract Long-term geographic isolation can result in reproductive incompatibilities due to forces such as mutation, genetic drift, and differential selection. In the Sonoran topminnow, molecular genetic studies of mtDNA, microsatellites, and MHC genes have shown that the endangered Gila and Yaqui topminnows are substantially different, suggesting that divergence took place approximately two million years ago. Here we examined hybrid crosses and backcrosses between these two allopatric taxa to evaluate the accumulation of postmating barriers to reproduction. These results are then compared with results from a previous study where male topminnows were shown to mate assortatively with conspecific females. Despite their preference for conspecific mates, both types of interspecific crosses successfully produced offspring. There was evidence of reduced hybrid fitness, including smaller mean brood size and male-biased sex ratio, for some classes of backcrosses. Brood sizes and interbrood intervals varied significantly when hybrids were subdivided into different cross categories. Our results illustrate the importance of distinctly defining hybrid classes in studies of reproductive isolation. To our knowledge, this is the first such detailed evolutionary analysis in endangered fish taxa. [source]


    ABSTRACT An increasing number of studies indicate that regular intake of fruits and vegetables have clear links to reduced risk of chronic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The beneficial effects in many cases have been attributed to the phenolic and antioxidant content of the fruits and vegetables. Apples are a major source of fiber and contain good dietary phenolics with antioxidant function. Previous epidemiological studies have indicated that intake of apples reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Our studies indicate that this reduced risk is potentially because of the modulation of postprandial glucose increase by phenolics present in apples via inhibition of, -glucosidase. Phenolic content was evaluated during 3 months of postharvest storage of four varieties of apples and results indicated positive linkage to enhanced postharvest preservation and, -glucosidase inhibition. These in vitro results along with existing epidemiological studies provide strong biochemical rationale for further animal or human clinical studies. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The understanding of phenolic-linked antioxidant enzyme responses during postharvest storage of apples has implications for using the same phenolic functional ingredients toward health benefits such as ,-glucosidase inhibition linked to glycemic index control associated with type 2 diabetes. Therefore strategies to understand phenolic-linked postharvest preservation and natural treatments to extend this preservation in selected varieties, such as McIntosh and Cortland in this study, can be basis for food ingredient design for health benefits. These strategies can then be extended to prolong postharvest preservation and enhance phenolic linked human health benefits of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. [source]


    ABSTRACT The chemical composition of two traditional varieties of Spanish peppers, "Fresno de la Vega" and "Benavente-Los Valles" harvested in the provinces of León and Zamora, respectively, at different ripening stages (green mature, breaker and red) were evaluated. Herein we report the global composition, mineral and trace element contents, and the most relevant physicochemical parameters of each variety of pepper collected in 2 consecutive years. Both pepper varieties showed a similar chemical composition, except in vitamin C content, which resulted to be about 70% higher in Fresno de la Vega peppers. Red ripe fruits were high in total carbohydrates, fructose, glucose, sucrose, fat (64.5, 29.14, 25.57, 2.94, 1.79/100 g dry weight, respectively) and total soluble solids (6.83°Brix). Ascorbic acid content also increased progressively during ripening, reaching a mean value of 1.81 mg/100 g dry weight for Fresno de la Vega peppers. Potassium was the most abundant of the analyzed elements in the all samples, followed by phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and sodium. The order of the levels of the trace elements was iron > manganese > zinc > copper. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This report underscores the potential value of two traditional varieties of Spanish peppers and provides information on their composition during ripening to decide the proper harvesting time, which can be useful in the food industry. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2007
    ABSTRACT The occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in a frozen vegetable processing factory was investigated. From May to October 2002, four separate visits were made to the plant and during all of these visits, a total of 216 samples were collected at different stages of the cube and strip pepper processing line. Additionally, 28 swabs were taken from equipment and food-related contact surfaces. The cube and strip pepper processing lines include raw materials, washing, conveyor belt, scalding, cutting, sieving (drying), and the interior sieve of individually quick frozen (IQF), IQF and finished products. Swab samples were taken from the scalding tank, cooling tank, conveyor belt to IQF, interior part of IQF, mixing shovel of IQF, transport saddles and packaging materials. No Listeria spp. were isolated from the strip pepper processing stages, however, 26 out of 108 (24.1%) samples taken from the cube pepper processing stages were found to be contaminated with Listeria spp. Among these isolates, L. monocytogenes was not identified; however, Listeria welshimeri, Listeria innocua and Listeria ivanovii species were identified in 15, 6 and 5 of the tested samples, respectively. L. welshimeri and L. ivanovii were also isolated from three swab samples. These indicate that even though L. monocytogenes was not isolated, the presence of other Listeria species, particularly L. innocua, in the processing line would be an important criterion for eventual L. monocytogenes contaminations. Thus, periodic controls and application of general hygiene and sanitation principles are necessary in the prevention of possible contaminations. [source]

    Democracy and Cultural Rights: Is There a New Stage of Citizenship?

    María Pía Lara
    First page of article [source]

    Sentinel Lymph Node Excision and PET-CT in the Initial Stage of Malignant Melanoma: A Retrospective Analysis of 61 Patients with Malignant Melanoma in American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages I and II

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) for the detection of regional nodal metastases and staging of malignant melanoma has resulted in some controversies in international discussions. Positron emission tomography with computerized tomography (PET-CT), a noninvasive imaging procedure for the detection of regional nodal metastases, has increasingly become of interest. Our study is a direct comparison of SLNE and PET-CT in patients with early-stage malignant melanoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed data from 61 patients with primary malignant melanoma with a Breslow index greater than 1.0 mm. RESULTS Metastatic SLNs were found in 14 patients (23%); 17 metastatic lymph nodes were detected overall, only one of which was identified preoperatively using PET-CT. Thus, PET-CT showed a sensitivity of 5.9% and a negative predictive value of 78%. CONCLUSION SLNE is much more sensitive than PET-CT in discovering small lymph node metastases. We consider PET-CT unsuitable for the evaluation of early regional lymphatic tumor dissemination in this patient population and recommend that it be limited to malignant melanomas of American Joint Committee on Cancer stages III and IV. We therefore recommend the routine use of SLNE for tumor staging and stratification for adjuvant therapy of patients with stage I and II malignant melanoma. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

    Primary Cutis Verticis Gyrata and Scalp Reduction in One Stage with Multiple Pinwheel Flaps (Revisited)

    First page of article [source]

    Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma using current WHO classification,Re-evaluation of cases from 1999,2004 with new proposals

    Jue-Rong Zhang M.D., Ph.D.
    Abstract With the advent of modern therapy, the differences in prognoses and treatment regimens among different subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have largely vanished. Stage and the presence of systemic symptoms are much more important than histologic subtypes as predictive factors. The current (2001) WHO classification markedly de-emphasizes spatial relationships as critical to the diagnosis of lymphoma and emphasizes cell morphology, immunophenotype, genetic features, and clinical information to define the disease states. This classification, thus, greatly enhances the capability of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to accurately diagnose HL. We searched all the FNA cases in our institute in years 1999 through 2004 and found 42 cases, for which 13 were primarily diagnosed (31.0%), 2 were recurrent (4.8%), 5 were highly suspicious (11.9%), and 22 were suspicious (52.3%) for HL. On follow-up tissue biopsy, all the primarily diagnosed, recurrent, and highly suspicious cases were confirmed to be HL (100% agreement). For the 22 suspicious cases, 13 were HL (59.1%), 5 were other lymphomas (22.8%), 1 was lymphoma unclassifiable (4.5%), and 3 were reactive processes (13.6%). The effect of immunostains on the diagnosis of HL was examined, and its importance was emphasized. Analysis of demographic data and the distribution of HL subtypes demonstrate that the study sample is representative of the general HL patient population. On the basis of these results, we propose: (1) If the FNA diagnosis of HL is confirmed both by morphology and immunostains, no further tissue confirmation, subclassification and grading is necessary, and appropriate treatment regimens should follow. (2) The nodular lymphocyte predominant HL and classical HL can be differentiated by adequate immunostaining. (3) If a definitive diagnosis cannot be achieved by FNA, a second FNA or a tissue biopsy should be recommended. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2006;34:397,402. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Ethical Conduct of Resuscitation Research: Setting the Stage for Change

    Michelle H. Biros MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Smoking Stage of Change and Interest in an Emergency Department,based Intervention

    Edwin D. Boudreaux PhD
    Abstract Objectives: To examine factors associated with motivation to quit smoking and interest in an emergency department (ED)-based intervention. Methods: Consecutive ED patients 18 years of age and older were interviewed. Severely ill and cognitively disabled patients were excluded. Smoking history, stage of change, self-efficacy, presence of a smoking-related illness, interest in an ED-based smoking intervention, and screening/counseling by the patient's ED provider were assessed. Results: A total of 1,461 of 2,314 patients (64%) were interviewed. A total of 581 (40%) currently smoked, with 21% in precontemplation (no intention to quit), 43% in contemplation (intention to quit but not within the next 30 days), and 36% in preparation (intention to quit within the next 30 days). Approximately 50% indicated a willingness to remain 15 extra minutes in the ED to receive counseling. Only 8% received counseling by their ED provider. A regression analysis showed that greater readiness to change was associated with multiple lifetime quit attempts, presence of a quit attempt in the past 30 days, and higher self-efficacy. Interest in an ED-based intervention was more likely among patients who reported higher self-efficacy. Conclusions: Approximately 50% of smokers reported at least moderate interest in an ED-based intervention and a willingness to stay 15 extra minutes, but only 8% reported receiving counseling during their ED visit. Considering time and resource constraints, counseling/referral may be best suited for patients characterized by a strong desire to quit, multiple previous quit attempts, high self-efficacy, a smoking-related ED visit, and strong interest in ED-based counseling. [source]

    Progressive stage transition does mean getting better: a further test of the Transtheoretical Model in recovery from alcohol problems

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2009
    Nick Heather
    ABSTRACT Aims To test two central assumptions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) regarding recovery from alcohol problems: (i) individuals making a forward transition from pre-action to action stages will show greater drinking improvements than those remaining in pre-action stages; and (ii) individuals remaining in pre-action stages will not demonstrate improvements in drinking outcomes. Design and setting Large, multi-centre, randomized controlled trial of treatment for alcohol problems [United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT)]. Measurements Stage of change, drinks per drinking day and percentage days abstinent at baseline, 3- and 12-month follow-ups. Findings In support of TTM assumption 1, improvements in drinking outcomes were consistently greater among clients who showed a forward stage transition (Cohen's d = 0.68) than among those who did not (d = 0.10). Two tests of assumption 2 showed a significant improvement in drinking outcomes in non-transition groups, inconsistent with the TTM; one test showed a significant deterioration and the other showed equivalent drinking outcomes across time. An explanation is offered as to why, under the relevant assumption of the TTM, clients in non-transition groups showed small changes in drinking outcomes. Conclusions In contrast to a previous study by Callaghan and colleagues, our findings largely support the TTM account of recovery from alcohol problems in treatment. The discrepancy can be explained by the use in our study of a more reliable and valid method for assigning stage of change. [source]

    Do the Transtheoretical Model processes of change, decisional balance and temptation predict stage movement?

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
    Evidence from smoking cessation in adolescents
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine the effects of processes of change (POC) on forward stage movement directly, indirectly through decisional balance and temptation, and total effects as a test of the key hypothesis of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting United Kingdom. Participants A total of 1160 adolescents aged 13,14 years who were current or former smokers at baseline. Measurements Stage was assessed with the standard algorithm three times, once every 3 months. On each occasion the POC, decisional balance and temptation were measured with the standard questionnaires. Path analysis was used to examine the direct, indirectly mediated and total contribution of POC and the other constructs to stage movement 3 months later. Findings Four of the 24 analyses showed evidence that the theoretically appropriate POC predicted stage transition, with statistically significant total effects. Effect sizes were small. When the POC were summarized to experiential and behavioural process means, one transition from pre-contemplation was predicted by experiential processes and, contrary to the TTM, one transition predicted by behavioural processes. There was slightly more evidence that decisional balance (attitudes towards smoking) and temptation (ability to resist the urge to smoke) was associated with stage transition. Conclusions POC use was not associated generally with stage transition and evidence that effects, if missed, must be modest, giving no support to the central tenet of the TTM. [source]

    Acting on the Corporate Stage: Playing the Role of Your Career

    Tom Henschel
    First page of article [source]

    Showing the Strategy where to go: possibilities for creative approaches to Key Stage 3 literacy teaching in initial teacher education

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 1 2005
    David Stevens
    Abstract This paper arises from a research project undertaken with six PGCE student teachers of English, based on observation and discussion of English lessons based on the National Strategy's Framework for Teaching English. I draw also on the student teachers' reflections and written commentaries. The central thrust of the research was to enquire whether and how classroom practice could demonstrate an imaginative, meaning-orientated form of English teaching which included the Framework: how exactly learning opportunities might arise in lively, engaging and effective ways. [source]

    Alas, Poor Shakespeare: Teaching and Testing at Key Stage 3

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 3 2003
    Jane Coles
    Abstract In this article I briefly consider the ideological impetus for retaining Shakespeare as a compulsory component of the National Curriculum for English. I take issue with the current Key Stage 3 testing regime. In particular, I question the educational value of tests which ultimately undermine what is generally agreed to be good classroom practice and which force on teachers a narrow theoretical perspective of Shakespeare, where close textual analysis and Bradleyan notions of character predominate. [source]

    Writing Process and Progress: Where Do We Go from Here?

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 1 2001
    Mary Hilton
    Abstract This article examines the rationale behind the government's methods for raising standards in writing at Key Stage 2. Firstly there is a renewed drive to teach discrete units of sentence grammar. Secondly there is a fresh commitment to shared and guided writing. But, because it is envisaged that these teacher-led sessions will take up at least half of the Literacy Hour two or three times a week, both these aims will lead to a diminution of time for written composition by the children themselves. This is in accordance with new criticisms by NLS policy makers of the model of ,process' embedded in the National Curriculum, particularly the idea of creative pre-writing activities and sustained independent writing. The article goes on to argue that these new measures ignore research on the ways children learn to write and will not lead to a rise in standards. [source]

    Advanced Phonics: Teaching Strategies for Poor Readers at Key Stage 2

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 3 2000
    Susan Jennings
    Abstract Poor readers at Key Stage 2 need ongoing support for their reading development. They are frequently weak in the metacognitive skills that enable good readers to make their own progress and they require a repetition of much phonics material from Key Stage 1. Beyond that, they have a need for the further complexities of English to be taught to them as phonics, not as spelling strategies/investigations. Additionally, they have difficulty in tackling polysyllabic words and must be taught appropriate decoding strategies. There is a dearth of teaching materials in this area and little research evidence as to how such material might best be taught. This paper charts the development of a phonics booster programme for poor readers in Year 5. [source]

    A Taxonomic Study of Immature Stage in Three Species of the Genus Protaetia Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea, Cetoniidae) from Korea

    Mi Ae KIM
    ABSTRACT ABSTRACT The third instar larvae of Korean Protaetia spp., P. brevitarsis seulensis (Kolbe), 1886, P. orientalis submarmorea (Burmeister), 1842, and P. mandschuriensis (Schürhoff), 1933, are described. The larva of the second species is the first record in this genus. A taxonomic key, descriptions, and illustrations of the three species are provided. [source]

    Early pubertal maturation in the prediction of early adult substance use: a prospective study

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
    Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine whether self-reporting a later stage of pubertal development in early adolescence predicts young adults' use of illicit drugs. Design Population-based prospective birth cohort study. Setting Follow-up of a cohort of mothers and their children, recruited between 1981 and 1983. Participants Cohort of 2710 young adults who completed a self-report questionnaire about their use of cannabis and amphetamines at the 21-year follow-up. Measurements Young adults' use of cannabis and amphetamines were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Stage of pubertal development was assessed at the 14-year follow-up. Potential confounding and mediating variables were assessed between birth and when the child was 14 years. Findings Of 2710 young adults, 49.9% (47.3 females and 52.7% males) reported that they had used cannabis and 21.0% (18.9% females and 23.3% males) reported that they had used amphetamines and cannabis by 21 years. In multivariate analyses, adolescents with a later stage of puberty were more likely to use cannabis or amphetamines in young adulthood. This association was not confounded by mother's education or child's gender and age. Part of the relationship was explained by the higher frequency of child externalizing behaviour at 14 years. Conclusions The findings warrant further attention to puberty as a sensitive period in an individual's development. With regard to prevention, there is a need to understand more about the pathways between pubertal development, child behaviour problems and substance use. [source]

    Successful non-T-cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical 3-loci mismatched bone marrow transplantation

    Shigeki Yagyu
    Abstract:, A 17-year-old boy with therapy-related acute myelocytic leukemia (FAB classification-M0) successfully received allogeneic non-T-cell depleted (non-TCD) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from his 3-loci HLA-mismatch mother, although pre-BMT detection of feto-maternal microchimerism was negative. The BMT was performed with reduced intensity conditioning (total body irradiation; 4 Gy, fludarabine; 20 mg/m2 × 6, and melphalan; 70 mg/m2 × 2) and short-course methotrexate and tacrolimus for GVHD prophylaxis. Complete donor chimera was obtained on day 19, associated with Grade 3 acute GVHD (skin: Stage 1, liver: Stage 0, gut: Stage 3) that was well controlled with immunosuppressive therapies. At day 200 of transplantation, he was in complete remission with no signs of chronic GVHD. Our case suggests that non-TCD HLA-haploidentical 3-loci mismatched BMT can be safely performed from mother to offspring even when feto-maternal microchimerism is barely detectable with the current detection procedure. [source]

    Impaired fear conditioning but enhanced seizure sensitivity in rats given repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol

    D. N. Stephens
    Abstract Repeated experience of withdrawal from chronic alcohol treatment increases sensitivity to seizures. It has been argued by analogy that negative affective consequences of withdrawal also sensitize, but repeated experience of withdrawal from another sedative-hypnotic drug, diazepam, results in amelioration of withdrawal anxiety and aversiveness. We tested whether giving rats repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol altered their ability to acquire a conditioned emotional response (CER). Male Hooded Lister rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet as their only food source. Different groups received control diet, or diet containing 7% ethanol. Rats receiving ethanol diet were fed for either 24 days (Single withdrawal, SWD), or 30 days, with two periods of 3 days, starting at day 11, and 21, in which they received control diet (Repeated withdrawal, RWD). All rats were fed lab chow at the end of their liquid diet feeding period. Starting 12 days after the final withdrawal, groups of Control, SWD and RWD rats were given pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 30 mg/kg, i.p.) three times a week, and scored for seizures. The occurrence of two successive Stage 5 seizures was taken as the criterion for full PTZ kindling. Other groups of control, SWD and RWD rats were trained to operate levers to obtain food, and were then exposed, in a fully counterbalanced design, to light and tone stimuli which predicted unavoidable footshock (CS+), or which had no consequences (CS,). Rats consumed approximately 17.5 g/kg/day of ethanol, resulting in blood alcohol levels of approximately 100 mg/dL. Repeated administration of PTZ resulted in increasing seizure scores. RWD rats achieved kindling criterion faster than either Control or SWD rats. No differences were seen in the groups in flinch threshold to footshock (0.3 mA). At a shock intensity of 0.35 mA, Control, but not RWD or SWD rats showed significant suppression to the CS+ CS, presentation did not affect response rates. The three groups differed in their response to pairing the CS+ with increasing shock levels, the Controls remaining more sensitive to the CS+. SWD rats showed significant suppression of lever pressing during CS+ presentations only at 0.45 and 0.5 mA, and RWD rats only at 0.5 mA. Giving rats repeated experience of withdrawal from chronic ethanol results in increased sensitivity to PTZ kindling, but reduces their ability to acquire a CER. Withdrawal kindling of sensitivity to anxiogenic events does not seem to occur under circumstances which give rise to kindling of seizure sensitivity. [source]

    Strain Hardening Behavior of Ultrafine- Grained Cu by Analyzing the Tensile Stress-Strain Curve,

    C.-X. Huang
    UFG Cu was found to experience two stages of strain hardening processes under uniaxial tensile stress, which was similar to the Stage,IV and V of CG Cu after large plastic deformation. The storage of dislocations in small grains and dynamic recovery caused by annihilation of dislocations and GB-mediated processes were responsible for the different stages of strain hardening behavior. Improvement of strain hardening capability for UFG metals should be based on the mechanisms of strain hardening. [source]

    Operational Risk Measurement in Banking Institutions and Investment Firms: New European Evidences

    Enrique Bonsón
    The banking/investment sector must deal with a new variable, Operational Risk, for explaining various recent crises and bankruptcies. Operational Risk, which can be defined briefly as the risk generated by possible failures of a entity's Information Systems (IS), must be measured, covered, mitigated and managed by applying a series of methodologies, each of which assumes that the IS of the bank operates at a certain Stage of Sophistication. The present study proposes a scheme of evolution that details the stages of enhancement in the sophistication of their IS that banking entities may implement, so as to be capable of capturing, mitigating and managing Operational Risk. Using econometric methods, we create a proxy variable to capture the IS Sophistication of each entity. Then, the factor of entity size has been analyzed, and the country effect is explored. Additionally, the importance of intangible assets is weighted, among others entity aspects. The entity size has been revealed as the variable with most influence on the plans formulated in this respect by European entities, against other variables also considered in the present study, such as the country effect or the importance of intangible assets. The work shows how IS decisions referring to Operational Risk management are very influenced by size. It could introduce competition differences in the European banking system. [source]

    Mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related,checkpoint kinase 1 DNA damage response axis in colon cancers

    Kriste A. Lewis
    In response to certain types of DNA damage, ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) phosphorylates checkpoint kinase 1 (CHEK1) resulting in cell cycle arrest and subsequent DNA repair. ATR and CHEK1 contain mononucleotide microsatellite repeat regions, which are mutational targets in tumors with defective mismatch repair (MMR). This study examined the frequency of such mutations in colon cancers and their impact on biologic behavior. Screening for ATR mutations in 48 tumors was performed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and confirmed with sequencing analysis. The CHEK1 exon 7 A(9) region was sequenced in 20 of the 27 (74%) tumors with high frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine associations with clinical outcomes. Frequent mutations in MSI-H colon cancers were identified within the ATR (37%)/CHEK1(5%) damage response pathway. Stage and MSI status both independently predicted overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). ATR status was not associated with stage, but was associated with a trend toward improved DFS: 0/9 cancers recurred in MSI-H cases harboring ATR mutations vs. 4/18 recurrences in MSI-H cases without ATR mutations. This suggests that ATR mutations may affect clinical behavior and response to therapy in MSI-H colon cancers. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Stratigraphy and formation processes of the Upper Pleistocene deposit at Gruta da Oliveira, Almonda karstic system, Torres Novas, Portugal

    Diego E. Angelucci
    Gruta da Oliveira is a cave located in the Almonda karstic system in central Portugal. Its Upper Pleistocene fill is made up of gravitational sediments with varied biogenic and anthropogenic inputs. The archaeological sequence (35,70 ka) is fairly homogeneous, reflecting a predominantly moist climatic context modulated by millennial-scale variations. Human occupation was almost continuous throughout. In the richer archaeological layers (8,14), the anthropogenic components are in primary position, and post-depositional processes are restricted, although penecontemporaneous biological activity,such as hyena scavenging,overprinted the record. In layers 15,19, the excavated area corresponds to the footslope of a talus, where accumulation proceeded mainly through runoff and where the lithics and bones derive from occupations situated ca. 5m outward. The base of the deposit is >2m from the current base of the excavation, suggesting that Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS)-4 and OIS-5 sediments underlay the deposit already exposed. This study confirms the archaeological integrity of the Mousterian assemblages found in the different layers, and, given the dates for layer 8, supports the hypothesis that Neanderthals survived in western Iberia until at least 35,000,38,000 calendar years ago. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    An eastern Tethyan (Tibetan) record of the Early Jurassic (Toarcian) mass extinction event

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    ABSTRACT A record of the Early Jurassic mass extinction event is reported from eastern Tethyan (Tibetan) locations for the first time. In the Mount Everest region a thick Lower Jurassic carbonate formation, here named the Yungjia Formation, is developed within the predominantly clastic Triassic,Jurassic succession. Within the formation a sharp transition from peloidal packstones/grainstones to thin-bedded, pyritic micrite-shales interbeds records a sharp pulse of deepening and development of dysoxic bottom waters. Both the lithiotid bivalves and the lituolid foraminifera are important constituents of the lower Yungjia Formation but they disappear at this flooding surface or a short distance below it. This extinction event is comparable to that seen at the base of the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary in western Tethyan platform carbonates but the Tibetan events occurred late in the Toarcian Stage as indicated by nannofossil biostratigraphy and C isotope chemostratigraphy. The Early Jurassic extinction event (and the associated spread of oxygen-poor waters) was therefore not synchronous throughout the Tethyan region. [source]