Stability

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Stability

  • absolute stability
  • aggregate stability
  • air stability
  • asymptotic stability
  • best stability
  • cardiovascular stability
  • chemical stability
  • climatic stability
  • clinical stability
  • closed-loop stability
  • colloidal stability
  • color stability
  • colour stability
  • column stability
  • community stability
  • complex stability
  • configurational stability
  • conformational stability
  • cyclic stability
  • cycling stability
  • decreased stability
  • developmental stability
  • differential stability
  • dimensional stability
  • dough stability
  • duplex stability
  • dynamic stability
  • economic stability
  • ecosystem stability
  • electrical stability
  • electrochemical stability
  • emotional stability
  • emulsion stability
  • energetic stability
  • enhanced stability
  • enhanced thermal stability
  • environmental stability
  • enzymatic stability
  • enzyme stability
  • evolutionary stability
  • excellent stability
  • excellent thermal stability
  • exponential stability
  • film stability
  • financial stability
  • foam stability
  • functional stability
  • genetic stability
  • genome stability
  • genomic stability
  • global asymptotic stability
  • global stability
  • good long-term stability
  • good stability
  • good thermal stability
  • greater stability
  • greatest stability
  • habitat stability
  • haemodynamic stability
  • heat stability
  • hemodynamic stability
  • high stability
  • high thermal stability
  • high-pressure stability
  • highest stability
  • hydrolytic stability
  • implant stability
  • improved stability
  • improved thermal stability
  • increased stability
  • individual stability
  • initial stability
  • input-to-state stability
  • internal stability
  • intrinsic stability
  • job stability
  • joint stability
  • kinetic stability
  • local stability
  • long term stability
  • long-term stability
  • longitudinal stability
  • low stability
  • lower stability
  • lower thermal stability
  • macroeconomic stability
  • marital stability
  • market stability
  • mechanical stability
  • membrane stability
  • metabolic stability
  • microtubule stability
  • moderate stability
  • molecular stability
  • morphological stability
  • mrna stability
  • numerical stability
  • oil stability
  • operational stability
  • output stability
  • oxidative stability
  • ph stability
  • phase stability
  • photochemical stability
  • physical stability
  • pigment stability
  • plaque stability
  • political stability
  • poor stability
  • population stability
  • postural stability
  • practical stability
  • pressure stability
  • price stability
  • primary implant stability
  • primary stability
  • protein stability
  • rate stability
  • ratio stability
  • receptor stability
  • regional stability
  • relative stability
  • remarkable stability
  • residential stability
  • retest stability
  • rna stability
  • robust exponential stability
  • robust stability
  • sample stability
  • secondary stability
  • sensory stability
  • short-term stability
  • significant stability
  • similar stability
  • slope stability
  • social stability
  • solution stability
  • solvent stability
  • spectral stability
  • staff stability
  • static stability
  • stochastic stability
  • storage stability
  • structural stability
  • sufficient stability
  • superior stability
  • symptom stability
  • system stability
  • tear film stability
  • temperature stability
  • temporal stability
  • term stability
  • thaw stability
  • thermal stability
  • thermodynamic stability
  • thermooxidative stability
  • time stability
  • transcript stability
  • transient stability
  • unconditional stability
  • vivo stability
  • water stability
  • yield stability

  • Terms modified by Stability

  • stability analysis
  • stability assessment
  • stability behaviour
  • stability bound
  • stability characteristic
  • stability comparable
  • stability condition
  • stability constant
  • stability constraint
  • stability criterioN
  • stability criterion
  • stability data
  • stability decreased
  • stability diagram
  • stability difference
  • stability estimate
  • stability field
  • stability improvement
  • stability increase
  • stability index
  • stability investigation
  • stability issues
  • stability limit
  • stability margin
  • stability measurement
  • stability order
  • stability problem
  • stability profile
  • stability property
  • stability quotient
  • stability range
  • stability region
  • stability regions
  • stability relationships
  • stability requirement
  • stability result
  • stability studies
  • stability study
  • stability test
  • stability testing
  • stability theory

  • Selected Abstracts


    A NEW METHOD FOR STUDYING THE EXTENT, STABILITY, AND PREDICTORS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIALIZATION IN VIOLENCE,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    D. WAYNE OSGOOD
    Specialization in violence is an important scientific and policy topic, and over the past several decades, many analysis techniques for studying specialization have emerged. Research in this area continues to be hampered, however, by remaining methodological problems. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method for studying specialization in violence based on an item-response theory measurement approach that is implemented through a multilevel regression model. Our approach defines specialization as an individual level latent variable, takes into account the inherent confounds between specialization and overall level of offending, and gauges specialization relative to the population base rates of each offense. Our method also enables researchers to 1) estimate the extent and statistical significance of specialization, 2) assess the stability of specialization over time, and 3) relate specialization to explanatory variables. Using data from three studies, we found substantial levels of specialization in violence, considerable stability in specialization over time, and several significant and relatively consistent relationships of specialization to explanatory variables such as gender, parental education, and risk-seeking. [source]


    INDIVIDUAL STABILITY OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR FROM CHILDHOOD TO ADULTHOOD: TESTING THE STABILITY POSTULATE OF MOFFITT'S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    ANDREA G. DONKER
    This paper presents a test of Moffitt's (1993) prediction on the stability of longitudinal antisocial behavior, using data from the South-Holland Study. Aggressive (overt) and non-aggressive antisocial (covert) behaviors were measured when subjects were 6,11 years old, and at follow-ups when they were 12,17 years old and 20,25 years old. In accordance with the postulate, we did find a higher level of stability of overt behavior from childhood to adulthood, compared with childhood to adolescence, especially in combination with early manifestations of status violations and/or covert behavior in childhood. Results related to the stability of covert behavior were not in accordance with the prediction, but did support the recently proposed adjustment to the starting age of the adult phase. [source]


    UNDERSTANDING THE EVOLUTION AND STABILITY OF THE G-MATRIX

    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2008
    Stevan J. Arnold
    The G -matrix summarizes the inheritance of multiple, phenotypic traits. The stability and evolution of this matrix are important issues because they affect our ability to predict how the phenotypic traits evolve by selection and drift. Despite the centrality of these issues, comparative, experimental, and analytical approaches to understanding the stability and evolution of the G -matrix have met with limited success. Nevertheless, empirical studies often find that certain structural features of the matrix are remarkably constant, suggesting that persistent selection regimes or other factors promote stability. On the theoretical side, no one has been able to derive equations that would relate stability of the G -matrix to selection regimes, population size, migration, or to the details of genetic architecture. Recent simulation studies of evolving G -matrices offer solutions to some of these problems, as well as a deeper, synthetic understanding of both the G -matrix and adaptive radiations. [source]


    EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZES AND TEMPORAL STABILITY OF GENETIC STRUCTURE IN RANA PIPIENS, THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG

    EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2004
    Eric A. Hoffman
    Abstract Although studies of population genetic structure are very common, whether genetic structure is stable over time has been assessed for very few taxa. The question of stability over time is particularly interesting for frogs because it is not clear to what extent frogs exist in dynamic metapopulations with frequent extinction and recolonization, or in stable patches at equilibrium between drift and gene flow. In this study we collected tissue samples from the same five populations of leopard frogs, Rana pipens, over a 22,30 year time interval (11,15 generations). Genetic structure among the populations was very stable, suggesting that these population were not undergoing frequent extinction and colonization. We also estimated the effective size of each population from the change in allele frequencies over time. There exist few estimates of effective size for frog populations, but the data available suggest that ranid frogs may have much larger ratios of effective size (Ne) to census size (Nc) that toads (bufonidae). Our results indicate that R. pipiens populations have effective sizes on the order of hundreds to at most a few thousand frogs, and Nee/Nc ratios in the range of 0.1,1.0. These estimates of Ne/Nc are consistent with those estimated for other Rana species. Finally, we compared the results of three temporal methods for estimating Ne. Moment and pseudolikelihood methods that assume a closed population gave the most similar point estimates, although the moment estimates were consistently two to four times larger. Wang and Whitlock's new method that jointly estimates Ne and the rate of immigration into a population (m) gave much smaller estimates of Ne and implausibly large estimates of m. This method requires knowing allele frequencies in the source of immigrants, but was thought to be insensitive to inexact estimates. In our case the method may have failed because we did not know the true source of immigrants for each population. The method may be more sensitive to choice of source frequencies than was previously appreciated, and so should be used with caution if the most likely source of immigrants cannot be identified clearly. [source]


    EVOLUTION AND STABILITY OF THE G-MATRIX ON A LANDSCAPE WITH A MOVING OPTIMUM

    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2004
    Adam G. Jones
    Abstract In quantitative genetics, the genetic architecture of traits, described in terms of variances and covariances, plays a major role in determining the trajectory of evolutionary change. Hence, the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G-matrix) is a critical component of modern quantitative genetics theory. Considerable debate has surrounded the issue of G-matrix constancy because unstable G-matrices provide major difficulties for evolutionary inference. Empirical studies and analytical theory have not resolved the debate. Here we present the results of stochastic models of G-matrix evolution in a population responding to an adaptive landscape with an optimum that moves at a constant rate. This study builds on the previous results of stochastic simulations of G-matrix stability under stabilizing selection arising from a stationary optimum. The addition of a moving optimum leads to several important new insights. First, evolution along genetic lines of least resistance increases stability of the orientation of the G-matrix relative to stabilizing selection alone. Evolution across genetic lines of least resistance decreases G-matrix stability. Second, evolution in response to a continuously changing optimum can produce persistent maladaptation for a correlated trait, even if its optimum does not change. Third, the retrospective analysis of selection performs very well when the mean G-matrix (,) is known with certainty, indicating that covariance between G and the directional selection gradient (3 is usually small enough in magnitude that it introduces only a small bias in estimates of the net selection gradient. Our results also show, however, that the contemporary ,-matrix only serves as a rough guide to ,. The most promising approach for the estimation of G is probably through comparative phylogenetic analysis. Overall, our results show that directional selection actually can increase stability of the G-matrix and that retrospective analysis of selection is inherently feasible. One ?riajor remaining challenge is to gain a sufficient understanding of the G-matrix to allow the confident estimation of ,. [source]


    STABILITY AND EVOLUTION OF OVERLAPPING GENES

    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2000
    David C. Krakauer
    Abstract., When the same sequence of nucleotides codes for regions of more than one functional polypeptide, this sequence contains overlapping genes. Overlap is most common in rapidly evolving genomes with high mutation rates such as viruses, bacteria, and mitochondria. Overlap is thought to be important as: (1) a means of compressing a maximum amount of information into short sequences of structural genes; and (2) as a mechanism for regulating gene expression through translational coupling of functionally related polypeptides. The stability of overlapping codes is examined in relation to the information cost of overlap and the mutation rate of the genome. The degree of overlap in a given population will tend to become monomorphic. Evolution toward partial overlap of genes is shown to depend on a convex cost function of overlap. Overlap does not evolve when expression of overlapping genes is mutually exclusive and produced by rare mutations to the wild-type genome. Assuming overlap increases coupling between functionally related genes, the conditions favoring overlap are explored in relation to the kinetics of gene activation and decay. Coupling is most effective for genes in which the gene overlapping at its 5'end (leading gene) decays rapidly, while the gene overlapping at the 3'end (induced gene) decays slowly. If gene expression can feedback on itself (autocatalysis), then high rates of activation favor overlap. [source]


    CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF THE ,-AMYLASE GENE FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS US116 STRAIN ENCODING AN ENZYME CLOSELY IDENTICAL TO THAT FROM BACILLUS AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS BUT DISTINCT IN THERMAL STABILITY

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2010
    EZZEDINE BEN MESSAOUD
    ABSTRACT The gene encoding for the ,-amylase AMYUS116 was cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence of AMYUS116 exhibited an almost perfect homology with the ,-amylase BACAAM, excluding the residues N205 and N217 of AMYUS116 that were changed to H205 and I217 into BACAAM. Three mutant derivatives from AMYUS116 (N205H, N217I and N205H/N217I) were created by site-directed mutagenesis and their physicochemical and kinetic properties were compared with those of the wild-type enzymes. Therefore, the undertaken amylases mainly generated maltohexaose from starch and had radically the same kinetic parameters and optimum pH and temperature. They, however, were significantly distinct in thermal stability; AMYUS116 was more thermosensible as its half-life time at 80C was 13 min, while those of BACAAM and the double mutant were likewise 38 min. The single-mutant amylases exhibited an identically intermediate thermal stability as their half-life times at 80C were roughly 22 min. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Of particular interest to the current search is that the different thermal stability between AMYUS116 and BACAAM can lead to novel findings pertaining to protein stability, which can bring about new strategies for protein engineering. Basically, the comparative study of closely related amylases and the protein engineering of already existing ones are certainly important because they offer opportunities to understand the structure,function relationships of these biocatalysts. [source]


    EFFECT OF VARIOUS ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF ACID AND ALKALI SOLUBILIZED MUSCLE PROTEIN ISOLATES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2009
    SIVAKUMAR RAGHAVAN
    ABSTRACT Protein isolates prepared from cod (Gadus morhua) myofibrillar proteins using acid or alkali solubilization are susceptible to oxidative rancidity. Oxidation could be delayed by the exogenous addition of antioxidants. The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy of antioxidants such as ,-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl gallate, to inhibit oxidation in acid- and alkali- solubilized cod protein isolates. Oxidation was catalyzed using cod hemolysate. Oxidation of lipids was monitored by the measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and painty odor. Results showed that protein isolates prepared using the acid process was significantly (P < 0.05) more susceptible to lipid oxidation than alkali-solubilized protein isolates. Regardless of pH treatments, the efficacy of various antioxidants decreased in the order propyl gallate > BHA > ,-tocopherol. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Research has shown that seafood available for human consumption is rapidly getting depleted and that many fish species may become extinct in the next half-century or so. Acid and alkali solubilization methods are recent but well-known techniques used for preparing protein isolates from under-utilized aquatic species and the by-products of seafood industry. Although numerous researchers have studied the use of acid and alkali processes on several sources of seafood, almost no research has been done on the use of antioxidants to protect protein isolates from lipid oxidation. In our research, we have studied the effect of various antioxidants on the oxidative stability of acid- and alkali-solubilized fish myofibrillar proteins. The results from this work will enable the seafood industry to properly identify the process and the type of antioxidants required for making muscle food products with increased oxidative stability. [source]


    LOCATION EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CHÉTOUI VIRGIN OLIVE OIL

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2006
    SONIA BEN TEMIME
    ABSTRACT The effect of growing area on the natural antioxidant and oxidative stability of Chétoui virgin olive oil was studied. Total phenolic content, tocopherol composition, fatty acid composition and oxidative stability were analyzed. The results obtained in this study showed that Chétoui virgin olive oil composition is greatly influenced by growing environment, i.e., mainly by the climatic and pedologic factors. The cumulative rainfall appears to have a major influence on phenolic and o -diphenol content. Among studied samples, Amdoun oil had the highest total phenolic content, which exceeded 700 mg/kg. Moreover, it contained the highest amounts of o -diphenols 286.08 ± 6.74 mg/kg and total tocopherols 405.65 ± 4.17 mg/kg. The amounts of total phenols and o -diphenols showed a good correlation (P , 0.001) with stability while tocopherols showed a very low relation to oxidative stability. [source]


    THERMAL AND HIGH-PRESSURE STABILITY OF PURIFIED PECTIN METHYLESTERASE FROM PLUMS (PRUNUS DOMESTICA)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2006
    CLÁUDIA S. NUNES
    ABSTRACT Pectin methylesterase (PME) from greengage plums (Prunus domestica) has been extracted and purified using affinity chromatography. Only one band on sodium dodecyl sulfate,polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was obtained, with an estimated molecular weight of 31 kDa. On isoelectric focusing electrophoresis, two bands with neutral isoelectric points (6.8 and 7.0) were detected. The optimal pH and temperature for plum PME activity were 7.5 and 65C, respectively. A study of purified plum PME thermostability was performed at pH 7.5 and 4.0, indicating a higher thermostability at pH 7.5 than at pH 4.0. A biphasic inactivation behavior was observed for thermal treatments (54,70C), whereas its pressure inactivation could be described by a first-order kinetic model in a pressure range of 650,800 MPa at 25C. Purified plum PME was found to be relatively stable to thermal and pressure (,600 MPa) treatments, compared to PME from other fruits. [source]


    STABILITY AND PROPERTIES OF A THERMOSTABLE ,-GALACTOSIDASE IMMOBILIZED ON CHTTIN

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2000
    JADWIGA MACIU
    ABSTRACT Thermostable ,-galactosidase from an E. coli transformant containing the enzyme gene from P. woesei was immobilized at pH 4.0 and a glutaraldehyde concentration of 10 mM on chitin isolated from shrimp Crangon crangon shells. These preparations had a specific activity of 43,000 U/g of chitin at 85C using ONPG as substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for immobilized ,-galactosidase activity were 5.2 and 93C. Immobilization shifts the optimum pH for the activity of the enzyme by 0.2 units towards the acid side. The immobilized enzyme is stable at temperatures close to the optimal value, and the residual activity for ONPG hydrolysis of the preparations incubated 5 h in 0.1 M phosphate citrate buffer (pH 5.4) at 90C and 100C was 70% and 40% of the initial value, respectively. [source]


    STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS, PHENOLS AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY THROUGH SUGAR ADDITION DURING FROZEN STORAGE OF BLACKBERRIES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 2009
    MIRELA KOPJAR
    ABSTRACT Influence of sugar and mixtures of sugar on color retention of two varieties of blackberries, Thornfree and Cacanska bestrna, were investigated during storage at ,18C for 12 months. After harvest, blackberries were coated with sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) and different sugar (sucrose + fructose + glucose, fructose + glucose, fructose + sucrose) mixtures. Anthocynin content, total phenol content and free radical scavenging activity of prepared samples were evaluated. Ratio of fruit : sugar was 1:1. The highest anthocyanin retention was in blackberry samples with glucose addition and the lowest in samples with sucrose addition, in both cultivars. Blackberry samples with sucrose addition had even lower retention than samples without sugar addition. Samples with an addition of other sugars had higher retention of anthocyanin than samples stored without sugars. PRACTICAL APPLICATION Possibility of phenols retention of blackberries due to sugar addition, during cold storage was investigated. Results showed that glucose had the most positive effect on anthocyanins retention as well as total phenolic compounds content. For that reason, certain amount of sucrose in fruit preserves can be replaced by addition of glucose, and for that reason retention of phenolic compounds can be higher and, as could be expected, more effective against oxidative stress in human body due to intake of product formulation with glucose. [source]


    TEXTURE STABILITY OF HYDROGEL COMPLEX CONTAINING CURDLAN GUM OVER MULTIPLE FREEZE,THAW CYCLES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 1 2009
    PATRICK D. WILLIAMS
    ABSTRACT The texture stability of hydrogel complexes containing curdlan gum over multiple freeze,thaw cycles (FTCs) was investigated. The hydrogels formed by curdlan and xanthan gum, locust bean gum, carrageenan or guar gum at various combinations were stored at 4C for 24 h before subjected to five FTCs alternating between,16 (18 h) and 25C (6 h). Xanthan/curdlan hydrogels showed the highest freeze,thaw stability in terms of syneresis, heat stability and adhesiveness. The viscosity of xanthan/curdlan combination was the lowest among all samples studied yet the most stable over the five FTCs, whereas significant changes were observed with locust bean/curdlan hydrogels. The guar/curdlan combination before freeze,thaw treatments exhibited predominant elasticity; however, as the cycles progressed the elasticity decreased. The most stable gel strength was achieved when curdlan was combined with guar or xanthan at 2% (w/v) total concentration, while carrageenan/curdlan gels were the least stable. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Texture instability remains the most significant challenge for frozen food products, especially with inevitable post-production temperature fluctuations. Loss of moisture and changes in textural attributes often results in significant reduction of product quality. Precise control of hydrogel complexes that provide texture stabilization over multiple freeze,thaw cycles will enhance the quality of existing products while enabling the development of new ones. [source]


    STORAGE STABILITY OF STRAWBERRY JAM COLOR ENHANCED WITH BLACK CARROT JUICE CONCENTRATE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 5 2007
    EGÜL KIRCA
    ABSTRACT Black carrot juice concentrate was added to enhance the color of strawberry jams prepared from two locally grown cultivars, Osmanl, and Kara. Compared to other cultivars processed to jams, these two cultivars are lightly colored but very aromatic. Color and pigment stability of colored and noncolored (control) strawberry jams were studied during storage. The use of black carrot concentrate as a source of natural colorant stabilized the color of strawberry jam. The stabilization was more noticeable for jams prepared from Osmanl, cultivar. Monomeric anthocyanin degradation was fitted to a first-order reaction model. Storage temperature had a strong influence on anthocyanin degradation. As the storage temperature increased, the stability of anthocyanins decreased significantly in both colored and noncolored jams. Parallel to decrease in monomeric anthocyanins, hue (h°) values of all jam samples increased throughout the storage. However, increase in h° values was much smaller in colored samples than in noncolored samples. High correlation was found between h° value and anthocyanin concentration at 22C (r = 0.910,0.978) and 37C (r = 0.931,0.981). [source]


    EFFECT OF DIRECT APPLICATIONS OF SAGE (SALVIA OFFICINALIS L.) LEAVES ON OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER OIL DURING ACCELERATED STORAGE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 5 2009
    EDA ÇALIKO
    ABSTRACT In this study, various sage applications were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil during accelerated storage. There are three applications: (1) direct sage leaves (S); (2) deodorized sage leaves (DeS); and (3) essential oil of sage leaves. The main compounds of essential oil were identified as, -thujone (35.87%),, -thujone (14.41%), 1,8-cineol (10.59%) and camphor (10.09%). Oxidative stability of these three applications was tested by Schall Oven test at 60C applying peroxide value and conjugated dienes, and Rancimat at 110C. Whereas the highest antioxidants activity was found for 2% S followed by 0.5% S and 2% DeS, all sage treatments statistically retarded the oxidation compared with the control sample. The most appealing result was that the residue can be used as a natural antioxidants. That means the reuse of residue may decrease economic losses and health risk in comparison with synthetic antioxidants and extracts because it is completely natural and contains no residual solvent. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS While almost all of previous studies were concentrated on the use of herb extracts, our study investigates the results of direct application of sage on oxidation. Especially with this study, we have evaluated a possible application area for sage residue leftover after the deodorization process. [source]


    EFFECT OF ANTICAKING AGENT ADDITION AND HEADSPACE REDUCTION IN THE POWDERED-DRINK MIX SENSORY STABILITY

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 3 2006
    INAR A. CASTRO
    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the addition of 0.2% anticaking agent "silicon dioxide" (S) and of 70.0% reduction of the headspace in the package (H) both individually and combined (SH), on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of a powdered-drink mix over a shelf-life period of 120 days. The "difference from control" test was applied to 10 trained panelists in order to assess the four treatments at 30-day intervals throughout the experimental period, according to visual aspect of the powdered mix and drink flavor. The results demonstrated that a reduction of 70% of the headspace was the most effective treatment for product sensory stability. Water activity (Aw) was a more sensitive parameter than moisture content and ascorbic acid degradation. Although Aw has shown a significant difference over time, the sensory properties still seemed to be a better shelf-life indicator for powdered mixes. Based on the sensory alterations of the aspect of the powder, a reduction of headspace and the limiting of shelf life to between 60 and 90 days could be recommended for powdered-drink mixes packaged in polypropylene containers. [source]


    SENSORY ANALYSIS AND STORAGE STABILITY OF FLAVORED SOYBEAN SPREADS PRODUCED FROM HOT-GROUND SOYMILK,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2 2002
    K.A. KHATIB
    Flavored and unflavored soybean spreads were produced from a soybean variety low in beany off-flavors. The stability of the spreads was evaluated by chemical, physical, and microbiological tests over 35 days at 4C and 50% RH. Descriptive, focus group and consumer acceptance analyses were also conducted. Spreads were rated for degrees of beany flavor, aroma, and aftertaste. Total plate and psychrotrophic counts increased during storage, but no syneresis nor coliforms were detected over the storage period for either flavored or unflavored spreads. No significant treatment by day interactions were noted among pH, moisture content, water activity, lightness, and saturation index of spreads. Flavored spreads scored 6.2 on a 9-point hedonic scale and were more accepted by consumers than unflavored spreads. Shelf-life of flavored and unflavored soybean spreads was estimated to be 28 days at 4C. [source]


    QUALITY AND STABILITY OF BLUEBERRY JUICE BLENDED WITH APPLE, GRAPE AND CRANBERRY JUICE,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2 2001
    GARY MAIN
    ABSTRACT Sensory quality and storage stability of blueberry juice blends were investigated with the goal of maintaining dominant blueberry flavor, aroma and color. Apple juice, Concord and Venus grape juices and cranberry juice cocktail were blended at 75, 50 and 25% with blueberry juice. As the percent of blueberry juice decreased, the intensity of blueberry-related sensory attributes decreased. The 25% Concord and Venus blends were the only blends that resulted in blueberry flavor similar to the reference. Apple and cranberry juice cocktail blended with blueberry juice produced several blends with good flavor and aroma, but they were not readily characterized as blueberry juice. All blends at the 25% level produced blueberry color equal to or greater than the reference. The juice samples were evaluated initially and after three months of storage at 37C. After storage, all blends had decreased red color. [source]


    OXIDATIVE STABILITY AND VITAMIN ELEVELS INCREASED IN RESTRUCTURED BEEF ROASTS WITH ADDED RICE BRAN OIL,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 1 2001
    JOO-SHIN KIM
    ABSTRACT Crude rice bran oil 0, 1%, and 2% (w/w), was added to restructured beef roasts that were stored at 4C and analyzed at 0, 7, and 14 days to determine nutritional properties and oxidative stability. The saturated fatty acid to unsaturatedfatty acid (SFA/UFA) ratio and the content of 7-ketocholesterol decreased (p < 0.05) whereas vitamin E vitamers increased (p < 0.05) in the product with 2% rice bran oil. TBARs numbers were lower (p < 0.05) in roasts with rice bran oil after 7 days of storage. The addition of 2% rice bran oil (w/w) was effective in improving both oxidative stability and vitamin E levels. [source]


    EFFECT OF FLAXSEED GUM ON QUALITY AND STABILITY OF A MODEL SALAD DRESSING,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 4 2000
    S. STEWART
    ABSTRACT Flaxseed gum was evaluated for its application as a stabilizer for salad dressing. It was found that for stabilization to occur the concentration of gum had to be higher than 0.45% (w/w). Solvent quality affected the stability of model oil-in-water emulsions. Flaxseed gum stabilized emulsions were stable at pHs greater than 2.8. Lower values caused the polysaccharide to have a compact configuration or caused cleavage of the polymer creating instability. Larger mean droplet size and creaming were observed when the pH was too low or the gum concentration was not sufficient for coverage. Salt addition greatly affected the rheological properties of the polysaccharide; however, the electrolyte improved the emulsifying capabilities of the egg yolk protein. Aging weakened the polymer network structure as shown by a decrease in Newtonian viscosity with a corresponding increase in phase angle confirming the transformation to a more fluid system. [source]


    SENSORY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND STORAGE STABILITY OF HONEY-FLAVORED LOW-FAT EXTRUDED CHIPS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 1 2000
    JAMES F. FALLER
    ABSTRACT Consumer demand for low-fat "healthy" snacks challenges manufacturers to improve the health profile of their products while maintaining their appetizing taste. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate the effect of addition levels of honey on texture and consumer acceptability of extruded, baked low-fat/honey-flavored chips; (2) determine the degree of liking for the product; (3) and evaluate the influence of honey on storage stability. The product, consisting of grade A light amber honey (0, 6, 12, and 18%) in a corn masa/flour blend, was extrusion formed into a ribbon through a slit die. The product was baked, dried, packaged, and stored in an ambient environment. Increased honey level significantly increased flavor liking, sweetness and honey flavor intensity for the fresh and 10 week storage samples, and positively influenced consumer overall acceptability. [source]


    SUCROSE DETECTION AND THE STABILITY OF THE 2-AFC PROCEDURE IN THE PRESENCE OF A CONFOUNDING VARIABLE

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 5 2008
    DANIEL SHEPHERD
    ABSTRACT This study attempted to measure absolute thresholds for sucrose in aqueous solution for 51 experienced judges. Two experiments utilizing the two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) procedure generated 6-point psychometric functions plotting percentage correct as a function of sucrose concentration. In both experiments, the judges were divided into two groups and tested in either purpose-built sensory booths or on open tables situated in a laboratory. In the first experiment, the influence of a confounding variable was apparent, with nonmonotonic psychometric functions being obtained. In experiment II, the confounding variable was eliminated, permitting the estimation of absolute thresholds. In both experiments, there was no main effect of gender or session, though there was an effect of testing locality (P < 0.05). Data are reported to emphasize the importance of controlling extraneous variables and to demonstrate the robustness of the 2-AFC procedure. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This research contributes to an otherwise impoverished database on the detection of sucrose in a solution. The uses of the research include estimates of sucrose detection thresholds for comparative purposes; confirmation of the stability of the two-alternative forced-choice procedure; the utility of using formal testing areas as opposed to ad hoc testing stations; and the dangers of utilizing substandard experimental equipment while conducting research of this nature. [source]


    PLACES OF WORSHIP AND NEIGHBORHOOD STABILITY

    JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2006
    NANCY T. KINNEY
    ABSTRACT:,Despite ongoing interest in religious group involvement in community development, only limited research has considered whether the mere existence of a place of worship can be linked to neighborhood well-being. This exploratory study uses a cross-sectional design to examine the relationships between the presence of churches in high-poverty neighborhoods and specific measures of neighborhood stability. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and geographic information system (GIS) software were employed to compare measures of structural permanence, residential tenure, and property valuation from a sample of two types of church (freestanding and storefront) and non-church areas or "clusters." The findings provide limited support for the conclusion that storefront churches, while modest and often regarded as less architecturally significant, may be overlooked contributors to the sort of stable urban space where residential population is preserved and investment maintained. [source]


    MARKET SELECTION OF FINANCIAL TRADING STRATEGIES: GLOBAL STABILITY

    MATHEMATICAL FINANCE, Issue 4 2002
    Igor V. Evstigneev
    In this paper we analyze the long-run dynamics of the market selection process among simple trading strategies in an incomplete asset market with endogenous prices. We identify a unique surviving financial trading strategy. Investors following this strategy asymptotically gather total market wealth. This result generalizes findings by Blume and Easlcy (1992) to any complete or incomplete asset market. [source]


    ENDOGENOUS GROWTH, PRICE STABILITY AND MARKET DISEQUILIBRIA

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 1 2010
    Orlando Gomes
    ABSTRACT Resorting to an endogenous growth framework, the paper studies the implications of taking market clearing as a long-term possibility rather than an every period implicit assumption, as in conventional growth analysis. The underlying main assumption respects to an adjustment mechanism in which: (1) transitional dynamics are characterized by the persistence of an accumulated market imbalance, and (2) monetary authorities are able to guarantee price stability. The implications of this modeling structure are the following: (1) a market-clearing equilibrium may co-exist with other equilibrium points, (2) several types of stability outcomes are obtainable, and (3) monetary policy becomes relevant for growth. [source]


    COMMENT ON ,THE STABILITY OF GENERAL INTERTEMPORAL EQUILIBRIUM: A NOTE ON SCHEFOLD' BY SERGIO PARRINELLO

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 2 2008
    Duncan K. FoleyArticle first published online: 25 FEB 200
    First page of article [source]


    ARE LONG-RUN PRICE STABILITY AND SHORT-RUN OUTPUT STABILIZATION ALL THAT MONETARY POLICY CAN AIM FOR?

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 2 2007
    Giuseppe Fontana
    ABSTRACT A central tenet of the so-called new consensus view in macroeconomics is that there is no long-run trade-off between inflation and unemployment. The main policy implication of this principle is that all monetary policy can aim for is (modest) short-run output stabilization and long-run price stability, i.e. monetary policy is neutral with respect to output and employment in the long run. However, research on the different sources of path dependency in the economy suggests that persistent but nevertheless transitory changes in aggregate demand may have a permanent effect on output and employment. If this is the case, then, the way monetary policy is run does have long-run effects on real variables. This paper provides an overview of this research and explores conceptually how monetary policy should be implemented once these long-run effects are acknowledged. [source]


    INTERACTION AND INTERSECTION: THE CONSTELLATION OF EMOTIONAL STABILITY AND EXTRAVERSION IN PREDICTING PERFORMANCE

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    TIMOTHY A. JUDGE
    This study investigated the constellation of 2 Big 5 traits,Emotional Stability and Extraversion,in predicting job performance. Two forms of the constellation, one indirect (a statistical interaction) and the other direct (a measure of the intersection between the traits from the Big 5 circumplex), were used to predict job performance. Data were collected from employees and their supervisors at a regional health and fitness center. Results indicated that both measures predicted performance, even when controlling for the "main effects" of Emotional Stability and Extraversion, as well as 2 other relevant Big 5 traits (Agreeableness and Conscientiousness). These results suggest that the combination of Emotional Stability and Extraversion,reflecting a "happy" or "buoyant" personality,may be more important to performance than either trait in isolation. [source]


    SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND THE NEW PRESIDENT: SECURITY, PROSPERITY AND STABILITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    POLITICS & POLICY, Issue 6 2008
    Robert McCreight
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    MULTIPLE FACILITIES, STRATEGIC SPLITTING AND VERTICAL STRUCTURES: STABILITY, GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION RECONSIDERED,

    THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL, Issue 5 2006
    DAN COFFEY
    This paper explores comparative cost structures when large firms split operations between separate production facilities in a way that puts pressure on wage rates and worker effort levels: one example of a ,divide and rule' strategy. It differentiates horizontal structures of this kind based on requirements for stability in a context of growing aggregate production vis-à-vis wages and effort. The analysis is formulated within a more general perspective that also considers vertical structures. It considers the implications for contemporary policy debates on desirable industrial forms, and concludes with a discussion of factors that might limit the scope for policies intended to promote industrial stability and redistribution via existing production networks. [source]