Specific Guidelines (specific + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Testing Students with Special Needs: A Model for Understanding the Interaction Between Assessment and Student Characteristics in a Universally Designed Environment

Leanne R. Ketterlin-Geller
This article presents a model of assessment development integrating student characteristics with the conceptualization, design, and implementation of standardized achievement tests. The model extends the assessment triangle proposed by the National Research Council (Pellegrino, Chudowsky, & Glaser, 2001) to consider the needs of students with disabilities and English learners on two dimensions: cognitive interaction and observation interaction. Specific steps in the test development cycle for including students with special needs are proposed following the guidelines provided byDowning (2006). Because this model of test development considers the range of student needs before test development commences, student characteristics are supported by applying the principles of universal design and appropriately aligning accommodations to address student needs. Specific guidelines for test development are presented. [source]

Guidelines for using quantitative magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring treatment of multiple sclerosis,

Mark A. Horsfield PhD
Abstract Quantitative evaluation of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans is now an accepted part of the trial of new putative treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, conventional MRI is not pathologically specific, and it does not reveal the details of the pathological processes that underlie the progression of the disease. Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging is a relatively new quantitative technique that appears to offer some pathological specificity, and can be used to monitor the changes over time in both individual lesions and the central nervous system as a whole. This paper considers the case for incorporating MT imaging into new clinical trials, so that the utility of MT for monitoring the modification of MS progression by treatment can be assessed. Specific guidelines for implementing MT imaging as part of a large multicenter clinical trial are given, and practical considerations when planning such a trial are detailed. It is anticipated that MT imaging will be incorporated into many new trials in the near future. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2003;17:389,397. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Beneficial lactobacilli in food and feed: long-term use, biodiversity and proposals for specific and realistic safety assessments

Marion Bernardeau
Abstract Lactobacilli have played a crucial role in the production of fermented products for millennia. Their probiotic effects have recently been studied and used in new products. Isolated cases of lactobacillemia have been reported in at-risk populations, but lactobacilli present an essentially negligible biological risk. We analyzed the current European guidelines for safety assessment in food/feed and conclude that they are not relevant for the Lactobacillus genus. We propose new specific guidelines, beginning by granting a ,long-standing presumption of safety' status to Lactobacillus genus based on its long history of safe use. Then, based on the available body of knowledge and intended use, only such tests as are useful will be necessary before attributing ,qualified presumption of safety' status. [source]

Global Simulation: A Student-Centered, Task-Based Format for Intermediate Foreign Language Courses

Article first published online: 31 DEC 200, Glenn S. Levine PhD
The course format requires students to collaboratively complete a long-term task organized around a single premise or scenario. In the process, they learn about particular aspects of the target culture and language, similarly to a traditional content course. Yet the objective is to make use of the content knowledge in functioning within and completing the simulation. Three example German courses are presented, followed by specific guidelines for designing a global simulation course. [source]

Outline of the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke 2004 and subsequent revision

Yukito Shinohara
During its preparation, 106 stroke specialists from these societies checked and rated more than 110,000 publications from all over the world, including Japan. We thought it important to develop specific guidelines for Japanese patients, because there are race differences, because some of the approved drugs in Japan are different from those in other counties, and because reports published in Japanese have not been taken into consideration in the development of western guidelines. We also added the Japanese guidelines for use of t-PA in this outline, because there are some differences (e.g., in volume of t-PA) from the guidelines of western countries. Here, we present an outline the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke 2004 in response to requests, although some updating is already needed. The first revision of the guidelines is expected to be completed in 2008. [source]


Roy A. Bean
To serve African-American families effectively, marriage and family therapists need to develop a level of cultural competence. This content analysis of the relevant treatment literature was conducted to examine the most common expert recommendations for family therapy with African Americans. Fifteen specific guidelines were generated, including orient the family to therapy, do not assume familiarity, address issue of racism, intervene multi-systemically, do home visits, use problem-solving focus, involve religious leader, incorporate the father, and acknowledge strengths. conceptual and empirical support for each guideline is discussed, and conclusions are made regarding culturally conpetent therapy with African-American families. [source]

Polymorphism and drug-selected mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV-2 from patients living in southeastern France

Philippe Colson
Abstract Few data are available about the susceptibility and the genotypic resistance pattern of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The HIV-2 reverse transcriptase (RT) gene from 25 HIV-2-infected patients followed-up in Marseilles and the surrounding area was analyzed. The aims of this study were to characterize the polymorphism of HIV-2 RT in the absence of drug, to determine whether it naturally harbors codons associated with drug-resistance in HIV-1, and to identify mutations emerging under NRTI-selective pressure. Fourteen patients had never undergone antiretroviral therapy and 11 received NRTI. Seventy sequences were analyzed. In untreated patients, 12 spots of high natural polymorphism (at positions 10, 11, 20, 43, 104, 121, 135, 162, 176, 180, 200, and 227) were observed; 4 of them were specific of HIV-2 (10, 176, 180, 227). Moreover, results showed four positions that could be associated with natural resistance to NRTI (75I, 118I, 219E, and perhaps 215S), in addition to those described previously for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (181I, 188L, 190A). In HIV-2-infected patients receiving NRTI-containing therapies, specific genotypic patterns were observed with a high frequency of mutation Q151M (in 45% of patients) often associated with 70R, 115F, 214L, and/or 223R, which might compose an HIV-2 multi-NRTI resistance complex. Four newly or rarely described NRTI-selected mutations were observed: I5V, K35R, F214L, and K223R. As in HIV-1, substitution M184V was found in 3TC-treated patients. In conclusion, these findings highlight the need for specific guidelines for determining genotypic resistance and treatment of HIV-2. J. Med. Virol. 75:381,390, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Systematic objective setting for effective issue management

Tony Jaques
While a great deal of academic and practitioner effort has been devoted to understanding and formalizing objective setting in corporate strategic planning and in strategic communication, far less effort has been committed to objective setting for issue management. Within this context, setting a proper objective is sometimes swept aside in the ,rush for results' and, as a consequence, issue management efforts can be misdirected, misapplied and poorly evaluated. Objective setting for issue management has unique requirements which distinguish it from broader corporate planning processes, and this paper develops a rationale and proposes specific guidelines to help to establish strategic objectives for effective issue management. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Interpreting the significance of drinking by alcohol-dependent liver transplant patients: Fostering candor is the key to recovery

Robert M. Weinrieb
Few studies have examined the value of treating alcohol addiction either before or after liver transplantation. Nevertheless, most liver transplant programs and many insurance companies require 6 months to 1 year of abstinence from alcohol as a condition of eligibility for liver transplantation (the 6-month rule). We believe there are potentially harsh clinical consequences to the implementation of this rule. For example, the natural history of alcohol use disorders often involves brief fallbacks to drinking ("slips"), but when alcoholic liver transplant candidates slip, most are removed from consideration for transplantation or are required to accrue another 6 months of sobriety. Because there is no alternative treatment to liver transplantation for most patients with end-stage liver disease, the 6-month rule could be lethal in some circumstances. In this review, we survey the literature concerning the ability of the 6-month rule to predict drinking by alcoholic patients who undergo liver transplantation and examine its impact on the health consequences of drinking before and after liver transplantation. We believe that fostering candor between the alcoholic patient and the transplant team is the key to recovery from alcoholism. We conclude that it is unethical to force alcoholic liver patients who have resumed alcohol use while waiting for or after transplantation to choose between hiding their drinking to remain suitable candidates for transplantation or risk death by asking for treatment of alcoholism. Consequently, we advocate a flexible approach to clinical decision making for the transplant professional caring for an alcoholic patient who has resumed drinking and provide specific guidelines for patient management. [source]

The Biology and Management of Subglottic Hemangioma: Past, Present, Future,

Reza Rahbar DMD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Objectives were 1) to review the presentation, natural history, and management of subglottic hemangioma; 2) to assess the affect of five variables (age, gender, degree of subglottic narrowing, location and extent of subglottic hemangioma, and lack or presence of other hemangioma) and the outcome of six different treatment modalities (conservative monitoring, corticosteroid, laser surgery, tracheotomy, laryngotracheoplasty, and interferon) in the management of subglottic hemangioma; and 3) to present specific guidelines to help determine the best possible treatment modality at the time of initial presentation. Study Design: Retrospective review in the setting of three tertiary care pediatric medical centers. Methods: Methods included 1) extensive review of the literature; 2) a systematic review with respect to age, gender, presentation, associated medical problems, location and degree of subglottic narrowing, initial treatment, need for subsequent treatments, outcome, complications, and prognosis; and 3) statistical analysis to determine the effect of five variables (age, gender, degree of subglottic narrowing, location and extent of subglottic hemangioma, and lack or presence of other hemangioma) and the outcome of six different treatment modalities (conservative monitoring, corticosteroid, laser surgery, tracheotomy, laryngotracheoplasty, and interferon). Results: In all, 116 patients with a mean age of 4.7 months were treated. The most common location of subglottic hemangioma was the left side. The range of subglottic narrowing was 10% to 99% (mean percentage, 65%). Twenty-six patients (22%) were managed with a single treatment modality, which included conservative monitoring (n = 13), corticosteroid (n = 11), and tracheotomy (n = 2). Ninety patients (78%) required multimodality treatments. Overall, the treatments included conservative monitoring (n = 13), corticosteroid (n = 100), tracheotomy (n = 32), CO2 laser (n = 66), interferon (n = 5), and laryngotracheoplasty (n = 25). Complication rates included the following: conservative monitoring (none), corticosteroid (18%), tracheotomy (none), CO2 laser (12%), interferon (20%), and laryngotracheoplasty (20%). The following variables showed statistical significance in the outcome of different treatment modality: 1) degree of subglottic narrowing (P < .001), 2) location of subglottic hemangioma (P < .01), and 3) presence of hemangioma in other areas (P < .005). Gender (P > .05) and age at the time of presentation (P > .06) did not show any statistical significance on the outcome of the treatments. Conclusion: Each patient should be assessed comprehensively, and treatment should be individualized based on symptoms, clinical findings, and experience of the surgeon. The authors presented treatment guidelines in an attempt to rationalize the management of subglottic hemangioma and to help determine the best possible treatment modality at the time of initial presentation. [source]

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria-Induced Parotid Lymphadenitis Successfully Limited With Clarithromycin and Rifabutin

Maulik B. Shah
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Nontuberculous mycobacterial adenitis of the parotid gland is often difficult to diagnose. The rarity of these infections in the parotid region and the lack of specific guidelines pose a treatment challenge to the clinician. Three cases of nontuberculous mycobacterial adenitis are presented, with clinical response to antibiotics before surgery. Study Design: Retrospective chart review was made of children up to 18 years of age presenting with a parotid mass diagnosed as nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. Methods: Three patients (age range, 15 to 30 mo) with nontuberculous mycobacteria-induced parotid lymphadenitis were treated with a combination antibiotic regimen of clarithromycin and rifabutin or with clarithromycin alone. Results: All three patients responded clinically to the antibiotic treatment as evidenced by a smaller mass size and resolution of the overlying discoloration. Subsequent parotidectomy or biopsy appeared to be easier to perform because of decreased inflammation and edema and a more readily dissectible facial nerve. Conclusion: Children with nontuberculous mycobacteria-induced parotid lymphadenitis should be started on a trial of antibiotic treatment before surgery. Although surgery remains the definitive treatment modality, a larger study of preoperative antibiotic use against nontuberculous mycobacterial adenitis of the parotid in children is necessary. [source]

Warming of patients during Caesarean section: a telephone survey,

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 1 2009
M. J. Woolnough
Summary We contacted the duty obstetric anaesthetist in 219 of the 220 consultant-led maternity units in the UK (99.5%) and asked about departmental and individual practice regarding temperature management during Caesarean section. Warming during elective Caesarean section was routine in 35 units (16%). Intravenous fluid warmers were available in 213 units (97%), forced air warmers were available in 211 (96%) and warming mattresses were available in 42 (19%). Only 18 (8%) departments had specific guidelines for temperature management during Caesarean section. Personal intra-operative practice was variable, although all of those contacted would initiate some form of active temperature management after a mean (SD) volume of blood loss of 1282 (404) ml, length of surgery of 78 (24) min, or core body temperature (if measured) of median (IQR [range]), 36 (35.5,36 [34,37.2]) °C. [source]

Antibiotic prophylaxis in elective colorectal surgery

Yunus A. Gul
Background: Antibiotics are often administered in elective colorectal surgery to prevent wound infection. The tendency for surgeons to prolong the administration of prophylactic antibiotic therapy in the postoperative period is a well-known fact. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pattern of prophylactic antibiotic utilization in elective colorectal surgery and to determine if evidence-based medicine is employed in relation to this practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing general surgeons performing elective colorectal surgery was performed. Questionnaires were distributed to 144 surgeons (national, academic and private health care). Questions pertaining to the type, timing and duration of antibiotic administration were asked. The prevalence of wound infection audit rate and whether or not there were specific guidelines related to antibiotic administration were also determined. Results: The response rate obtained was 67% (n = 96). Although evidence from the current medical literature and recommended national guidelines support the use of single-dose prophylactic antibiotics, 72% of the respondents used more than a single dose. Forty surgeons (42%) claimed that their prescribing practice was supported by the medical literature, 31 respondents (32%) based their practice on hospital guidelines and personal preference was cited as a reason by 21 surgeons (22%). The remaining four respondents (4%) used a similar scheduling policy to that practiced by their colleagues in relation to antibiotic administration. There was no significant difference in antibiotic dose scheduling between national, private and university academic institutions (P = 0.85). Conclusions: These results suggest that a significant proportion of surgeons administer excessive and unnecessary doses of antibiotics in elective colorectal surgery. Further studies are required to uncover the reasons but lack of appropriate guidelines and failure to exercise evidence-based medicine are major factors that account for this practice. [source]

Sustainability report in small enterprises: case studies in Italian furniture companies

Francesca Borga
Abstract The recent evolution of the economic and social context has led enterprises to consider and assess corporate environmental and social impacts integrated with the traditionally measured economic and operating performances. ,,From this point of view, the international debate on the advantages given by the firms' adoption of socially responsible behaviour has been developed; the increasing consciousness of the social character in enterprises' activities has enlarged the interest in communication. For this reason, several different standards have been developed in order to transmit, to the stakeholders, data, information and approaches about environmental, social and sustainability topics related to the firm's activities. In this dynamic context, the features of SMEs require specific guidelines, which address the contents of an SME-oriented sustainability report. ,,In this perspective the aim is to design guidelines able to meet with these SMEs' requirements; seven case studies, on Italian furniture small enterprises, complete the study. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Introducing the PCMC Model: An Investigative Framework for Young People's Processing of Commercialized Media Content

Moniek Buijzen
There is a vital need for an updated evaluation of children's and adolescents' changing commercial media environment. In this article, we introduce an investigative framework for young people's processing of commercial media content (PCMC) that can deal with current and future developments in the media landscape. To develop this framework, we (a) introduce an integrated model of young people's persuasion processing, adopting a developmental perspective on adult persuasion models; (b) theorize how communication can predict persuasion processing, based on a limited capacity information processing approach; (c) identify specific message characteristics that affect persuasion processing (e.g., prominence, interactivity, integration). Thus, the PCMC model provides a theoretical framework as well as specific guidelines for future research investigating young people's commercialized media environment. Une présentation du modèle TCMC : un cadre d'étude pour le traitement des contenus médiatiques commerciaux chez les jeunes Il faut remettre à jour l'évaluation de l'environnement médiatique commercial changeant des enfants et des adolescents. Dans cet article, nous présentons un cadre d'étude pour le traitement des contenus médiatiques commerciaux chez les jeunes (TCMC). Ce cadre peut gérer les développements actuels et futurs dans le paysage médiatique. Pour développer ce cadre, (1) nous présentons un modèle intégré du traitement de la persuasion chez les jeunes, en adoptant une perspective développementale des modèles de persuasion des adultes; (2) nous théorisons sur les manières dont la communication peut prédire le traitement de la persuasion, à partir d'une approche du traitement de l'information à capacité limitée; (3) nous identifions des caractéristiques spécifiques des messages qui influencent le traitement de la persuasion (p. ex., la saillance, l'interactivité et l'intégration). Ainsi, le modèle TCMC offre un cadre théorique ainsi que des directives spécifiques pour la recherche future sur l'environnement médiatique commercialisé des jeunes. Das PCMC-Modell: Ein investigatives Bezugssystem für die Verarbeitung von werblichen Medieninhalten durch Jugendliche Es gibt einen Bedarf für eine aktualisierte Bewertung der sich veränderten werblichen Medienumgebung von Kindern und Jugendlichen. In diesem Aufsatz diskutieren wir ein investigatives Bezugssystem für die Verarbeitung von werblichen Medieninhalten durch Jugendliche (PCMC-Modell), welches sich aktuellen und zukünftigen Entwicklungen der Medienlandschaft anpasst. Um dieses Bezugsystem zu entwickeln, stellen wir (1) ein integratives Modell der Verarbeitung von Persuasion durch Jugendliche vor, welches eine Entwicklungsperspektive in die Auseinandersetzung mit Persuasionsmodellen für Erwachsene einbringt; (2) theoretisieren basierend auf einem Ansatz der Informationsverarbeitung mit begrenzten Kapazitäten (limited capacity approach), wie Kommunikation persuasive Prozesse vorhersagen kann und (3) identifizieren spezifische Botschaftseigenschaften, die die Verarbeitung von Persuasion beeinflussen (z.B. Prominenz, Interaktivität, Integration). Damit bietet das PCMC-Modell einen theoretischen Rahmen sowie spezifischen Anweisungen für zukünftige Forschungsarbeiten, die die kommerziellen Medienumgebungen Jugendlicher untersuchen. Un Modelo de Procesamiento para el Contenido Comercial de los Medios Resumen Hay una necesidad vital de actualizar la evaluación del cambiante ambiente comercial de los medios para niños y adolescentes. En este ensayo, introducimos un marco investigativo para el procesamiento del contenido comercial de los medios por parte de las personas jóvenes (PCMC) que permita abordar los desarrollos corrientes y futuros del paisaje de los medios. Para desarrollar este marco, (1) introducimos un modelo integrado del procesamiento persuasivo de las personas jóvenes, adoptando una perspectiva de desarrollo de los modelos persuasivos adultos; (2) teorizamos cómo la comunicación puede predecir el procesamiento persuasivo, basado en un enfoque de la capacidad limitada de procesamiento de la información; (3) identificamos las características específicas de los mensajes que afectan el procesamiento persuasivo (a saber, prominencia, interactividad, integración). Así, el modelo PCMC provee de un marco teórico así como también de guías para la investigación futura sobre el ambiente de comercialización de los medios para la gente joven. [source]