Specific Characterization (specific + characterization)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Electrochemical Biosensors for Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

Jasmin Shah
Abstract This review discusses current development in electrochemical biosensors for detection of biological warfare agents. This could include bacteria, viruses and toxins that are aerosoled deliberately in air, food or water to spread terrorism and cause disease or death to humans, animals or plants. The rapid and unequivocal detection and identification of biological warfare agents is a major challenge for any government including military, health and other government agents. Reliable, specific characterization and identification of the microorganism from sampling location, either air, water, soil or others is required. This review will survey different types of electrochemical biosensors has been developed based on the following: i),Immunosensors ii),PCR (DNA base Sensor) iii),Bacteria or whole cell sensor and iv),Enzyme sensor. This article gives an overview of electrochemical biosensor for detection of biological warfare agents. Electrochemical biosensors have the advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, to operate in turbid media, and amenable to miniaturization. Recent developments in immunofiltration, flow injection, and flow-through electrochemical biosensors for bacteria, viruses, and toxin detection are reviewed. The current research and development in biosensors for biological warfare agents detection is of interest to the public as well as to the defense is also discussed. [source]

Comparative genomics-guided loop-mediated isothermal amplification for characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola

X. Li
Abstract Aims:, To design and evaluate a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) protocol by combining comparative genomics and bioinformatics for characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (PSP), the causal agent of halo blight disease of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Methods and Results:, Genomic sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa were analysed using multiple sequence alignment. A pathovar-specific region encoding pathogenicity-related secondary metabolites in the PSP genome was targeted for developing a LAMP assay. The final assay targeted a polyketide synthase gene, and readily differentiated PSP strains from other Pseudomonas syringae pathovars and other Pseudomonas species, as well as other plant pathogenic bacteria, e.g. species of Pectobacterium, Erwinia and Pantoea. Conclusion:, A LAMP assay has been developed for rapid and specific characterization and identification of PSP from other pathovars of P. syringae and other plant-associated bacteria. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This paper describes an approach combining a bioinformatic data mining strategy and comparative genomics with the LAMP technology for characterization and identification of a plant pathogenic bacterium. The LAMP assay could serve as a rapid protocol for microbial identification and detection with significant applications in agriculture and environmental sciences. [source]

,Green earths': vibrational and elemental characterization of glauconites, celadonites and historical pigments

Francesca Ospitali
Abstract ,Green earths' are employed since antiquity as pigments in the creation of artworks. The minerals responsible for the colour belong to four groups: (1) the clayey micas celadonite and glauconite, undoubtedly the most common; (2) smectites; (3) chlorites; (4) serpentines. Whereas there have been several studies on clayey materials, mineralogical analyses in the field of cultural heritage are mainly limited to the identification of the green earth without specific characterization of the mineralogical species. This work shows a preliminary characterization by the multi-techniques approach of some raw minerals (glauconite, celadonite and ferroceladonite). Vibrational analyses have been correlated with elemental analyses, thanks to the hyphenated instrumentation of scanning electron microscopy with EDS and Raman structural and chemical analyser (SEM-EDS-SCA) probes, which permitted collection of EDS and Raman spectra on the same microscopic area. Micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopies were able to distinguish between celadonite and glauconite. The use of different lasers revealed resonance effects in the Raman spectra. In addition to pure minerals, archaeological samples and commercial green earths were also analysed, thereby enabling a more precise classification of the green pigments in heterogeneous samples such as wall paintings. Some commercially available green earths were found to contain organic dyes. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Diffusion-weighted spectroscopy: A novel approach to determine macromolecule resonances in short-echo time 1H-MRS

N. Kunz
Abstract Quantification of short-echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy results in >18 metabolite concentrations (neurochemical profile). Their quantification accuracy depends on the assessment of the contribution of macromolecule (MM) resonances, previously experimentally achieved by exploiting the several fold difference in T1. To minimize effects of heterogeneities in metabolites T1, the aim of the study was to assess MM signal contributions by combining inversion recovery (IR) and diffusion-weighted proton spectroscopy at high-magnetic field (14.1 T) and short echo time (=8 msec) in the rat brain. IR combined with diffusion weighting experiments (with ,/, = 1.5/200 msec and b -value = 11.8 msec/,m2) showed that the metabolite nulled spectrum (inversion time = 740 msec) was affected by residuals attributed to creatine, inositol, taurine, choline, N -acetylaspartate as well as glutamine and glutamate. While the metabolite residuals were significantly attenuated by 50%, the MM signals were almost not affected (<8%). The combination of metabolite-nulled IR spectra with diffusion weighting allows a specific characterization of MM resonances with minimal metabolite signal contributions and is expected to lead to a more precise quantification of the neurochemical profile. Magn Reson Med, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]