Special Needs (special + need)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Special Needs

  • special need education

  • Selected Abstracts


    Testing Students with Special Needs: A Model for Understanding the Interaction Between Assessment and Student Characteristics in a Universally Designed Environment

    EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2008
    Leanne R. Ketterlin-Geller
    This article presents a model of assessment development integrating student characteristics with the conceptualization, design, and implementation of standardized achievement tests. The model extends the assessment triangle proposed by the National Research Council (Pellegrino, Chudowsky, & Glaser, 2001) to consider the needs of students with disabilities and English learners on two dimensions: cognitive interaction and observation interaction. Specific steps in the test development cycle for including students with special needs are proposed following the guidelines provided byDowning (2006). Because this model of test development considers the range of student needs before test development commences, student characteristics are supported by applying the principles of universal design and appropriately aligning accommodations to address student needs. Specific guidelines for test development are presented. [source]


    Addressing the Unproductive Behaviours of Students with Special Needs , By Steve Chinn

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 3 2010
    Ursula Cornish
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Current issues in special needs: Special education in the last twenty years: have things really got better?

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2001
    Peter Farrell Professor
    Peter Farrell, Professor of Special Needs and Educational Psychology in the Faculty of Education, University of Manchester, addresses three key themes related to the education of pupils with special educational needs: the role of categories in special education; the impact of legislation on assessment procedures; and developments in inclusive education. His considered view is that progress towards more inclusive practice and an enhanced role for parents have brought about positive developments. He is more cautious about the impact of the revised Code of Practice, which, he suggests, perpetuates some of the procedural and bureaucratic burdens associated with the past. [source]


    Special needs of children with type 1 diabetes at primary school: perceptions from parents, children, and teachers

    PEDIATRIC DIABETES, Issue 1 2009
    Blanca Amillategui
    Objective:, To identify the special needs of children with type 1 diabetes at primary school taking into account the perceptions reported by parents, children, and teachers. Methods:, This was a cross-sectional survey carried out at nine public hospitals with a cohort of 6- to 13-yr-old children. Parents were personally informed about the objectives of the survey and the necessity to involve their children and the teachers. The self-reporting questionnaire included demographic information as well as some questions that helped to evaluate the general situation of children with type 1 diabetes at primary school, main worries about the disease, and possible improvement measures. Results:, A total of 430 questionnaires were completed and validated of which 39% were filled in by parents, 35% by children, and 26% by teachers. The majority of children were 10,13 yr old and came from public schools. At school, most children required glucose monitoring, but few of them (9,12%) needed insulin administration. Some parents (7%) experienced problems at their schools when they informed them about their children's disease, 2% were finally not accepted, and 1% were forced to change school. Major children's concerns included the ability to recognize hypoglycemia or to self-administer insulin. Parents, teachers, and children demanded better information at school about diabetes and about emergency management. Conclusions:, The three population groups agreed about the necessity of having more available information on diabetes at schools. Although some discriminatory behavior was still occurring, it seemed it has been diminishing in recent years. [source]


    The characterization of fluidization behavior using a novel multichamber microscale fluid bed

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 3 2004
    Eetu Rsnen
    Abstract In the preformulation stage, there is a special need to determine the process behavior of materials with smaller amounts of samples. The purpose of this study was to assemble a novel automated multichamber microscale fluid bed module with a process air control unit for the characterization of fluidization behavior in variable conditions. The results were evaluated on the basis of two common computational methods, the minimum fluidization velocity, and the Geldart classification. The materials studied were different particle sizes of glass beads, microcrystalline cellulose, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose. During processing, the different characteristic fluidization phases (e.g., plugging, bubbling, slugging, and turbulent fluidization) of the materials were observed by the pressure difference over the bed. When the moisture content of the process air was increased, the amount of free charge carriers increased and the fine glass beads fluidized on the limited range of velocity. The silicification was demonstrated to improve the fluidization behavior with two different particle sizes of cellulose powders. Due to the interparticle (e.g., electrostatic) forces of the fine solids, the utilization of the computational predictions was restricted. The presented setup is a novel approach for studying process behavior with only a few grams of materials. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93: 780,791, 2004 [source]


    Geriatric Emergency Medicine and the 2006 Institute of Medicine Reports from the Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the U.S. Health System

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 12 2006
    Scott T. Wilber MD
    Abstract Three recently published Institute of Medicine reports, Hospital-Based Emergency Care: At the Breaking Point, Emergency Medical Services: At the Crossroads, and Emergency Care for Children: Growing Pains, examined the current state of emergency care in the United States. They concluded that the emergency medicine system as a whole is overburdened, underfunded, and highly fragmented. These reports did not specifically discuss the effect the aging population has on emergency care now and in the future and did not discuss special needs of older patients. This report focuses on the emergency care of older patients, with the intent to provide information that will help shape discussions on this issue. [source]


    Testing Students with Special Needs: A Model for Understanding the Interaction Between Assessment and Student Characteristics in a Universally Designed Environment

    EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2008
    Leanne R. Ketterlin-Geller
    This article presents a model of assessment development integrating student characteristics with the conceptualization, design, and implementation of standardized achievement tests. The model extends the assessment triangle proposed by the National Research Council (Pellegrino, Chudowsky, & Glaser, 2001) to consider the needs of students with disabilities and English learners on two dimensions: cognitive interaction and observation interaction. Specific steps in the test development cycle for including students with special needs are proposed following the guidelines provided byDowning (2006). Because this model of test development considers the range of student needs before test development commences, student characteristics are supported by applying the principles of universal design and appropriately aligning accommodations to address student needs. Specific guidelines for test development are presented. [source]


    Library services for people with special needs in Northern Ireland

    HEALTH INFORMATION & LIBRARIES JOURNAL, Issue 2004
    Hilary Glenn
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Appropriateness of using a symbol to identify dementia and/or delirium

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EVIDENCE BASED HEALTHCARE, Issue 3 2010
    Sonia Hines RN BN
    Abstract Aim, The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate any published and unpublished evidence regarding the appropriateness of developing a symbol for dementia and/or delirium, which could be used in a variety of settings to indicate that a person has dementia and/or delirium. Methods, Using the methods of the Joanna Briggs Institute, we conducted a systematic search of a wide range of databases, Internet resources and unpublished literature. Papers meeting the inclusion criteria were critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted, using the standardised tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute, from those papers considered to be of sufficient quality. Because of significant methodological heterogeneity, no meta-analysis was possible and results are presented narratively instead. Results, From a total of 37 retrieved papers, 18 were found to be of sufficient relevance and quality to be included in the review. There was general consensus among the literature that a symbol for dementia is appropriate in the acute care setting. It was also clear from the research that an abstract symbol, as opposed to one that explicitly attempts to depict dementia, was most acceptable to staff, people with dementia and their carers. Conclusions, Both staff and health consumers seem to have largely positive perceptions and attitudes towards the use of a symbol for dementia. Families and carers of people with dementia are frequently concerned about their loved one wandering away and becoming lost and unable to identify themselves, and these concerns seem to outweigh any reservations they hold about the use of a symbol or some other identifier. In healthcare settings the use of symbols to indicate special needs seems well established and widely accepted. However, regarding the use of a symbol for dementia in the broader community, there remain concerns about issues such as stigmatisation and the potential for victimisation of this vulnerable population and so further research is indicated. [source]


    Dental treatment of children referred to general anaesthesia , association with country of origin and medical status

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 4 2006
    D. HAUBEK
    Summary., Background., A small proportion of children and adolescents need dental treatment with general anaesthesia (DGA). The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to analyse how country of origin and medical status were related to age at treatment, waiting times in the system, and dental treatment provided in general anaesthesia. Methods., A total of 786 patients received DGA at the University Hospital of Aarhus, Denmark in the period from 1990 to 2001. Information on the date of referral, the date of examination, the date of treatment, country of origin (Danish or non-Danish), medical status (non-special needs or special needs), and dental treatment performed was collected from patient records. Results., Patients with special needs were older when treated than non-special needs patients, whereas patients with a non-Danish origin were younger than those with a Danish origin when treated. There were no differences between non-special needs and special needs patients in waiting times from referral to examination and from examination to dental treatment. In contrast, patients from a non-Danish origin waited longer from examination to treatment than patients of Danish origin, whereas no difference was found in waiting time from referral to examination. Patients with special needs had fewer teeth treated than non-special needs patients, whereas patients with non-Danish origin had more teeth treated than those of a Danish origin. Conclusion., Age at treatment, waiting times in the system, and dental treatment received under general anaesthesia vary according to medical status and country of origin of the patients in Denmark. These findings should be considered in the organization and the funding of this type of service. [source]


    The conceptual structure of transition to motherhood in the neonatal intensive care unit

    JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 1 2007
    Hyunjeong Shin
    Abstract Title. The conceptual structure of transition to motherhood in the neonatal intensive care unit Aim., This paper is a report of a concept analysis of transition to motherhood for mothers with infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. Background., Mothers with infants in a neonatal intensive care unit have more difficulty in their transition to motherhood compared with mothers of healthy infants. The concept of transition to motherhood in the neonatal intensive care unit is not well-understood in nursing, often being confused with mothers' psychological responses in the neonatal intensive care unit. Methods., The concept analysis combined Rodgers' evolutionary method with Schwartz-Barcott & Kim's Hybrid method. Thirty-eight studies were reviewed and a purposive sample of 10 Korean mothers with infants in a neonatal intensive care unit was interviewed. Findings., Three critical attributes of transition to motherhood in the neonatal intensive care unit were identified: (1) time-dependent process, (2) psycho-emotional swirling and (3) hovering around the edge of mothering. These are caused by the antecedents (1) unexpected outcome of pregnancy, (2) awareness of the situation and (3) mother,infant separation. The consequences were: (1) delayed motherhood and (2) developing a sense of meaning concerning family and life. Additionally, five influencing factors to be alleviated were identified: (1) negative meaning attribution, (2) uncertainty, (3) social prejudice, (4) lack of opportunities to make contact with the infant and (5) the neonatal intensive care unit environment. Conclusions., This concept analysis should help nurses to understand the process of becoming a mother in a neonatal intensive care unit and plan appropriate interventions for mothers with special needs. [source]


    School nursing: costs and potential benefits

    JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 5 2000
    Linda Cotton RHV
    School nursing: costs and potential benefits Background. Previous reports that variations in school nursing resources across the UK had no relationship to deprivation; controversy about the changing role of the school nursing service. Objectives. To measure the resources allocated to school nursing, determine whether the variations can be explained by deprivation, and assess whether the allocation of school nursing time to a range of tasks is in line with current evidence and perceptions of changing needs. Study design. Quantitative economic analysis; qualitative descriptive study. Setting. Detailed study of four English districts with diverse characteristics; staffing and service questionnaire and telephone survey of 62 districts. Main measures. Staff resources and their salaries; measures of population and deprivation; activity statistics. Results. There were wide variations in the cost of the school nursing service, but in contrast to previous reports 24% of the variance was explained by deprivation. There were no clear associations with any other social or educational variables. The greatest allocation of time was in routine screening and surveillance tasks. Relatively little time was allocated to other activities such as health promotion, support of special needs or unwell children, or teenage clinics. The expenditure on school nursing is only loosely related to deprivation and the results of this study offer guidance on what districts should spend to achieve equity of provision. Conclusions. The current allocation of resources to school nursing in between districts comparisons is not equitable and the use of school nursing time is out of step with current evidence of need and effectiveness. [source]


    Health, Equity and Intellectual Disability

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 2 2005
    Stephen R. Leeder
    In this paper, we first describe the current state of health across the world. We then note that despite general good health, it is not everyone's experience and that differences in health among people frequently appear to be unfair. Health promotion is a movement committed to prevention and to creating opportunities for all people to live healthy lives. We examine the application of health promotion to people with intellectual disability. Finally, we bring equity, health promotion and intellectual disability together and ask to what extent people with these problems are victims of inequity. If they are , as seems likely , societies that have built their health services on humane values should assume greater responsibility for meeting their special needs, promoting their opportunities for health as well as managing their illnesses. [source]


    Applying the developmental perspective in the psychiatric assessment and diagnosis of persons with intellectual disability: part II , diagnosis

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 1 2005
    A. Dosen
    Abstract Background The descriptive phenomenological categorical psychiatric diagnostic systems that are currently being used in the field of intellectual disability do not adequately provide for the special needs of persons with intellectual disability. Many relevant diagnostic questions are left unanswered or are only partially accounted for. This is particularly true for persons with low developmental levels. Method A solution to these stumbling blocks is sought in enhancing the contemporary categorical diagnostic systems by also applying methods derived from the developmental perspective. Result By taking the levels of emotional and personality development, in addition to other developmental aspects into account, the clinical picture becomes more comprehensible and explainable. Conclusion The integrative diagnosis that results from this combined approach provides an insight into the processes that have led to the disorder and enriches one's understanding of the presentation form of the disorder. This diagnosis is process- rather than symptom-oriented and is particularly useful with persons who have a low level of psychosocial development. [source]


    Self-assessment of relationships with peers in children with intellectual disability

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 3 2001
    A. Zic
    Abstract Interaction with peers is important for the development of children, but children with special needs may feel rejected by their peers. The present study examines self-assessment of relationships with peers by children with intellectual disability (ID; n = 20) and children from the general population (n = 20). All participants attended a regular primary school and were aged between 7 and 10.5 years; both sexes were represented in the samples. The Behavior Rating Profile was applied. The results of the children with ID on the ,Student Rating Scale: Peers' did not show statistically significant differences from the results of children from general population, with both groups responding similarly to the self-perception scale. However, the sociometric results obtained from their peers clearly show that children with ID are not accepted by their classmates. Peers frequently and more often refuse to study, sit together in class or socialize after classes with children with ID than is the case for children without ID. Despite the high frequency of rejection, it is concluded that children with ID of younger primary school age have average confidence in their own abilities and in the success of their relationships with their peers. Further education among the children who reject them could have a negative impact on their self-esteem. [source]


    Beyond the Dilemma of Difference: The Capability Approach to Disability and Special Educational Needs

    JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, Issue 3 2005
    Lorella Terzi
    In her recent pamphlet Special Educational Needs: a new look (2005) Mary Warnock has called for a radical review of special needs education and a substantial reconsideration of the assumptions upon which the current educational framework is based. The latter, she maintains, is hindered by a contradiction between the intention to treat all learners as the same and that of responding adequately to the needs arising from their individual differences. The tension highlighted by Warnock, which is central to the debate in special and inclusive education, is also referred to as the ,dilemma of difference'. This consists in the seemingly unavoidable choice between, on the one hand, identifying children's differences in order to provide for them differentially, with the risk of labelling and dividing, and, on the other, accentuating the ,sameness' and offering common provision, with the risk of not making available what is relevant to, and needed by, individual children. In this paper, I argue that the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen provides an innovative and important perspective for re-examining the dilemma of difference in significant ways. In particular, I maintain that reconceptualising disability and special needs through the capability approach makes possible the overcoming of the tension at the core of the dilemma of difference, whilst at the same time inscribing the debate within an ethical, normative framework based upon justice and equality. [source]


    Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Two Canadian Provinces

    JOURNAL OF POLICY AND PRACTICE IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 3 2006
    Hlne Ouellette-Kuntz
    Abstract, Although it is generally accepted that the proportion of children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) has increased in the past two decades, there is no consensus on the prevalence of these conditions. The accompanying large rise in demand for services, together with uncertainty regarding the extent to which the observed increases are due to a true change in risk, has made PDDs a major public health concern. As few data exist on the prevalence of PDDs in Canada, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed PDDs in two Canadian provinces (Manitoba and Prince Edward Island (PEI)) and compare characteristics of diagnosed cases between the two regions. To obtain the estimates, children under the age of 15 years with a PDD diagnosis who lived in either province in 2002 were identified by workers at Children's Special Services, a provincial government program that supports children with special needs in Manitoba, and by the PEI provincial early intervention coordinator (Department of Social Services and Seniors) and special education autism coordinator (Department of Education). The findings show that the prevalence among children 1,14 years of age was 28.4 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval: 26.1,30.8) in Manitoba and 35.2 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval: 28.2,43.4) in PEI. In Manitoba, children of aboriginal identity with PDDs (8.3%) were significantly underrepresented compared with the general population of aboriginal children living off native reserves (15.6%). Sex ratio, sibling risk, and age at initial diagnosis were similar in the two provinces. These findings can serve as a baseline from which to monitor the prevalence of these conditions over time, providing valuable data for researchers, planners, and service providers. [source]


    Special needs of children with type 1 diabetes at primary school: perceptions from parents, children, and teachers

    PEDIATRIC DIABETES, Issue 1 2009
    Blanca Amillategui
    Objective:, To identify the special needs of children with type 1 diabetes at primary school taking into account the perceptions reported by parents, children, and teachers. Methods:, This was a cross-sectional survey carried out at nine public hospitals with a cohort of 6- to 13-yr-old children. Parents were personally informed about the objectives of the survey and the necessity to involve their children and the teachers. The self-reporting questionnaire included demographic information as well as some questions that helped to evaluate the general situation of children with type 1 diabetes at primary school, main worries about the disease, and possible improvement measures. Results:, A total of 430 questionnaires were completed and validated of which 39% were filled in by parents, 35% by children, and 26% by teachers. The majority of children were 10,13 yr old and came from public schools. At school, most children required glucose monitoring, but few of them (9,12%) needed insulin administration. Some parents (7%) experienced problems at their schools when they informed them about their children's disease, 2% were finally not accepted, and 1% were forced to change school. Major children's concerns included the ability to recognize hypoglycemia or to self-administer insulin. Parents, teachers, and children demanded better information at school about diabetes and about emergency management. Conclusions:, The three population groups agreed about the necessity of having more available information on diabetes at schools. Although some discriminatory behavior was still occurring, it seemed it has been diminishing in recent years. [source]


    Professionals' perceptions of the role of literacy in early intervention services

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 7 2008
    Karen Thatcher
    The purpose of the current study was to examine therapists' perceptions about literacy in early intervention services. Little effort has been devoted to the incorporation of literacy into therapy services for very young children with special needs. In an attempt to understand how therapy providers view the role of literacy in their services, 168 providers were surveyed. Responses were compared and in general, speech therapists and developmental therapists reported similar rates of use of books and rhymes and similar attitudes about the role of literacy in services. In contrast, occupational and physical therapists were often similar in their responses, yet, in most analyses, their responses were significantly different than the speech and developmental therapists'. This trend mirrors the existing literature that more attention has been devoted to encouraging the incorporation of literacy into speech services than other therapy services. Implications for these different practices and attitudes across disciplines are discussed. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Changes in body fat distribution in relation to parity in American women: A covert form of maternal depletion

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    William D. Lassek
    Abstract Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted from 1988,1994, we investigated the effect of reproduction on the distribution of body fat in well-nourished American women. While women tend to gain weight and fat with succeeding pregnancies, if age and body mass index are controlled, increasing parity is associated with a decrease in hip and thigh circumferences, suprailiac and thigh skinfolds, and body fat estimated from skinfolds, while waist circumference increases, resulting in a relative decrease in lower-body fat. The mobilization of fat stores in the lower body during late pregnancy and lactation may help to meet the special needs of the developing brain for essential fatty acids and energy during the time of peak growth. When fat is regained after the postpartum period, relatively more is stored in central vs. peripheral depots, resulting in a patterned change in body shape with parity. Am J Phys Anthropol 131:295,302, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Identification of children with the same level of impairment as children on the autistic spectrum, and analysis of their service use

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 6 2010
    Ginny Russell
    Background:, Data from epidemiology have consistently highlighted a disparity between the true prevalence of childhood psychiatric disorders and their recognition as defined by receiving a clinical diagnosis. Few studies have looked specifically at the level of unidentified autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in the population. Method:, Logistic regression was used to determine the behavioural traits associated with receiving a diagnosis of ASD using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A composite score was derived to measure levels of autistic traits; undiagnosed children with scores matching those diagnosed with ASD were identified. Levels of educational provision beyond that provided by standard schooling were examined. Results:, Fifty-five percent of children with autistic traits at the same levels as those who had an autism diagnosis had not been identified as needing extra support from education or specialised health services. Of those who were identified as having special needs, 37.5% had been formally diagnosed with an ASD. For children with impairment at the same level as that associated with Asperger's syndrome, 57% had no special provision at school, and were not accessing specialised health services. Twenty-six percent of those who did have special provision at school had an ASD diagnosis. Conclusions:, The results suggest that there may be a substantial proportion of children on the autistic spectrum who are never identified by services. [source]


    Do Children in Rural Areas Still Have Different Access to Health Care?

    THE JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2009
    Results from a Statewide Survey of Oregon's Food Stamp Population
    ABSTRACT:,Purpose: To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. Methods: We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon's food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a raking ratio estimation process to weight results back to the overall food stamp population. We examined associations between rural residence and access to health care (adjusting for child's age, child's race/ethnicity, household income, parental employment, and parental and child's insurance type). A second logistic regression model controlled for child's special health care needs. Findings: Compared with urban children (reference = 1.00), rural children were more likely to have unmet medical care needs (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-2.04), problems getting dental care (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.79), and at least one emergency department visit in the past year (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10-1.81). After adjusting for special health care needs (more prevalent among rural children), there was no rural-urban difference in unmet medical needs, but physician visits were more likely among rural children. There were no statistically significant differences in unmet prescription needs, delayed urgent care, or having a usual source of care. Conclusions: These findings suggest that access disparities between rural and urban low-income children persist, even after adjusting for health insurance. Coupled with continued expansions in children's health insurance coverage, targeted policy interventions are needed to ensure the availability of health care services for children in rural areas, especially those with special needs. [source]


    Elders in the justice system: how the system treats elders in trials, during imprisonment, and on death row

    BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 5 2007
    L. Beth Gaydon B.A.
    As the average lifespan increases, it becomes increasingly likely that elders will be involved in the justice system. Elders may be witnesses, victims, plaintiffs, or defendants in a trial. They are also prisoners and, in some cases, death row inmates. Because there are special needs and costs associated with elders, it is important to consider how they are treated in each of these areas of the justice system. For instance, jurors may have age biases; some prisons are unable to address elders' health problems; and critics have questioned the constitutionality of executing frail elders. In order to determine whether the court system is treating elders fairly, this analysis reviews current policies, research, and anecdotal evidence from recent high-profile cases. Recommendations for future research and policy changes are offered to ensure that elders are treated fairly in the justice system. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Outcome of term breech births: 10-year experience at a district general hospital

    BJOG : AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    Poonam Pradhan
    Objective To review the short and long term outcomes among singleton infants with breech presentation at term delivered in a geographically defined population over a 10-year period. Design Retrospective, cohort study. Setting District General Hospital. Population 1433 term breech infants alive at the onset of labour and born between January 1991 and December 2000. Methods Data abstracted from birth registers, neonatal discharge summaries and the child health database system were used to compare the short and long term outcomes of singleton term breech infants born by two different modes of delivery (prelabour caesarean section and vaginal or caesarean section in labour). Fisher's exact test was used to compare the categorical variables. Main outcome measures Short term outcomes: perinatal mortality, Apgar scores, admission to the neonatal unit, birth trauma and neonatal convulsions. Long term outcomes: deaths during infancy, cerebral palsy, long term morbidity (development of special needs and special educational needs). Results Of 1433 singleton term infants in breech presentation at onset of labour, 881 (61.5%) were delivered vaginally or by caesarean section in labour and 552 (38.5%) were born by prelabour caesarean section. There were three (0.3%) non-malformed perinatal deaths among infants born by vaginal delivery or caesarean section in labour compared with none in the prelabour caesarean section cohort. Compared with infants born by prelabour caesarean section, those delivered vaginally or by caesarean section in labour were significantly more likely to have low 5-minute Apgar scores (0.9%vs 5.9%, P < 0.0001) and require admission to the neonatal unit (1.6%vs 4%, P= 0.0119). However, there was no significant difference in the long term morbidity between the two groups (5.3% in the vaginal/caesarean section in labour group vs 3.8% in the prelabour caesarean group, P= 0.26); no difference in rates of cerebral palsy; and none of the eight infant deaths were related to the mode of delivery. Conclusions Vaginal breech delivery or caesarean section in labour was associated with a small but unequivocal increase in the short term mortality and morbidity. However, the long term outcome was not influenced by the mode of delivery. [source]


    Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new, distance-learning course at Keele University

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    John Hegarty
    Whilst information technology has much to offer people with special needs, the availability of staff training in the use of special-needs IT in the UK and Europe is sparse. Keele University, with over a decade of experience in research and in supporting and training staff in the use of information technology, has launched a new, distance-learning course. This article describes the course background, its structure, and feedback from the first cohort of students. Results suggest that the course strikes an effective balance between the need of distance-learning students for face-to-face contact with peers and tutors, and the difficulties faced by students wishing to attend training whilst in full-time employment who are geographically distant. The course structure appears appropriate for a wide range of special-needs settings and the curriculum seems to have an appropriate mix of background theory and practical application. Difficulties faced with computer conferencing became apparent, which need to be addressed in future. The course could be a model for further staff development opportunities in IT for special-needs professionals. [source]


    THE GULLIFORD LECTURE: Bullying or befriending?

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2010
    Children's responses to classmates with special needs
    Children with special educational needs are generally less accepted, more rejected and more likely to be victims of bullying than their typically developing classmates. However, they are sometimes treated more favourably than classmates, more like friends than acquaintances. In this article, based on her contribution to the Gulliford Lecture series, Norah Frederickson of University College London argues that attributional processes which appear central to the establishment of peer acceptance and supportive relationships are more likely to be triggered when a child's difficulties are severe or obvious, classmates are older and explanatory information is given to them. Schools are sometimes reluctant to discuss the special needs of a pupil with their classmates due to concerns about labelling. However, the literature on labelling suggests that such concerns have been exaggerated and that labels can sometimes serve a protective function. Norah Frederickson suggests that respectful, helping relationships between typically developing classmates and pupils with special needs are valued by young people, their parents and teachers, and can build to friendships within a context of positive opportunities for interaction. [source]


    The experiences of disabled pupils and their families

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 4 2007
    Ann Lewis
    In this article, Ann Lewis, Professor of Education at the University of Birmingham, and Ian Davison, Jean Ellins, Louise Niblett, Sarah Parsons, Christopher Robertson and Jeremy Sharpe from the research team provide a summary of discussions and selected recommendations arising from four linked projects run between 2004 and 2006. The projects were funded by the Disability Rights Commission (DRC) and looked into the experiences of disabled pupils and their families across England, Scotland and Wales. A central aim of the research was to identify the key concerns and priorities in relation to their experiences of education for children and young people with special educational needs (SEN) or disabilities and their families in the UK. The research encompassed a UK-wide parent survey (N=1776); in-depth case studies of individual children and young people (N=36); group case studies (of, for example, school councils) (N=3); and a series of project advisory groups involving disabled people. Underlying these aspects was an emphasis on the importance and validity of hearing directly from (potentially all) children and young people themselves. Thus the work meshes closely with initiatives worldwide concerning the recognition of children's,voice'in matters that concern them. The authors are not aware of any comparable evidence which focuses in-depth on a wide cross-section of pupils with disabilities or special needs and their families in the UK-wide educational context and which is located alongside concurrent authoritative data concerning the views of parents and carers. [source]


    Inclusion , the heart of the matter: trainee teachers' perceptions of a parent's journey

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2006
    Chris Forlin
    The importance of parental choice, and parents' participation in educational processes, continue to be highlighted in strategies, acts and policies around the world. Partnership with parents is given an even higher profile in relation to educational opportunities for children with special needs. Yet many trainee teachers have only limited understandings of the impact on family life of a child with special needs; are uncertain how best to work with parents; and are not confident about the choices that parents may wish to make for their children. In this article, Chris Forlin, Visiting Professor at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, and Treena Hopewell, MEd student at Edith Cowan University, Western Australia, report the responses of a group of fourth year trainee teachers after listening to the story of a mother of a child with high support needs. Their discussion focuses on three themes emerging from the reflective comments written by the trainee teachers after the session: empathy, understanding and personal growth. Chris Forlin and Treena Hopewell review the value of this approach as a means of establishing in trainee teachers a greater desire to work more collaboratively with parents and family members. They also provide excerpts from the mother's story to enable readers to experience the passionate spirit of the storyteller; to further appreciate the needs of parents; and to understand their desire for greater participation in decisions regarding their children. [source]


    Productive pedagogies and the challenge of inclusion

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 4 2003
    Julie Allan
    Julie Allan is Professor of Education at the Institute of Education, University of Stirling, where she also directs the Participation, Inclusion and Equity Research Network. In this article, she explores the challenges involved in achieving an inclusive education system. Her argument draws on recommendations from two separate studies, undertaken in Queensland, Australia and Scotland, which are attempting to shape inclusion policy and practice. The Queensland School Reform Longitudinal Study identified a set of productive pedagogies in which issues of social justice, equity and inclusion are foregrounded. The Scottish Parliamentary Inquiry into special needs, to which Professor Allan was adviser, recommended a number of changes aimed at establishing an inclusive education system for all pupils. Comparisons of the two sets of recommendations, which formed the basis of a series of workshops with teachers, school leaders and administrators within Education Queensland, have prompted two major questions which are addressed in this paper: what gets in the way of inclusive practice and what will it take to be inclusive? Julie Allan's responses to these questions take account of the ways in which we think about ,special education' teacher training and professional development; and educational policies and practices. She represents a fascinating set of ,double-edged responsibilities' that will challenge practitioners, policy makers and teacher educators to refocus and reframe their thinking about special educational needs and inclusion. [source]


    Social relationships and friendships among young people with Down's syndrome in secondary schools

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2002
    Pat Cuckle
    More young people with Down's syndrome are being taught in mainstream schools and interest in the educational aspect of inclusion has grown over the last few years. In this article Pat Cuckle, Senior Research Fellow at the University of Leeds, and June Wilson, a support teacher working for Education Leeds, explore patterns of friendship and social relationships among teenagers with Down's syndrome. The young people who took part in the study either attend mainstream schools or resourced provision in mainstream schools. The enquiry provides fascinating insights into the participants' views of friendship and into the range of their social experiences. Pat Cuckle and June Wilson conclude their report with a set of recommendations focusing on the need to create more opportunity for social interaction for young people with special needs. [source]