Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Sp.

  • Ochromona sp.
  • Pseudomona sp.
  • Rhodococcu sp.
  • acinetobacter sp.
  • arthrobacter sp.
  • bacillus sp.
  • chlorella sp.
  • fusarium sp.
  • giardia sp.
  • n. sp.
  • pelargonium sp.
  • penicillium sp.
  • streptomyces sp.
  • vibrio sp.

  • Terms modified by Sp.

  • sp. cell
  • sp. isolated
  • sp. n.
  • sp. nov.
  • sp. strain
  • sp. strain pcc

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Naoji Yubuki
    Life cycle and perennation of a colorless chrysophyte, Spumella sp., isolated from an ephemeral ditch were investigated. From a single resting cyst (statospore), only one nonmotile cell germinated. Shortly after germination, the cell generated flagella, started to swim, and formed a gelatinous sphere. The cell itself retained the ability to swim within the sphere. Cells fed on bacteria inhabiting the sphere and grew by longitudinal binary cell division very rapidly. The gelatinous sphere gradually enlarged as the number of cells increased. When it reached maximum size (,500 ,m in diameter), the gelatinous substance of the sphere weakened, and the sphere gradually broke into several pieces, forming cleavages between them. Cells swam away through the cleavages. Five to ,40 swimming cells soon gathered and formed a swarm. In the swarm, some cells cannibalized other sibling cells and enlarged, resulting in giant cells that were two to three times larger in diameter than ordinary cells. The giant cells soon started statospore formation. Statospore formation was independent of any changes of environmental factors, such as increase or decrease in temperature or changes in nutrient or light levels, which are known to induce resting-cyst formation in other groups of algae and protists. Statospore formation started when cells divided 15 to 16 times after germination. This is congruent with the idea that statospore formation in planktonic chrysophytes directly depends on cell density. An extraordinarily high growth rate and cannibalism involved in the initiation of statospore formation are interpreted as adaptations to achieve the perennation in ephemeral aquatic environments. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
    Gunnel Ahlgren
    Food quality for grazers has been related to mineral (nitrogen, phosphorus) and biochemical (amino acids, fatty acids) constituents. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of different nitrogen sources on these constituents in two organisms, the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda Turp. and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp., commonly used in feeding experiments. The two organisms were grown in continuous cultures at different growth rates. Nitrate or ammonium salts were used as nitrogen sources under both replete and limited conditions. Carbon content (mgg,1 dry weight) was stable in both organisms independent of nitrogen source, nitrogen limitation, and growth rate. Nitrogen content decreased with limitation and growth rate in Scenedesmus and to a lesser degree in Synechococcus, whereas changes in phosphorus content were not statistically significant. The relative proportions of amino acids (% of total amino acids) were relatively stable in both organisms, whereas the proportions of fatty acids varied with growth rate and limitation. Fatty acid content was much lower in Synechococcus than in Scenedesmus. At N limitation, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed lower levels in both organisms. The change occurred in the ,3 PUFA (linolenic acid) of the green alga and in the ,6 PUFA (linoleic acid) of the cyanobacterium. The difference in the response of N limitation in the two organisms may be traced to the different composition of the chloroplast membranes (the prokaryotic way) and the microsomal membranes (the eukaryotic way) where the desaturation takes place. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    David Porta
    The complex chemical speciation of Fe in aquatic systems and the uncertainties associated with biological assimilation of Fe species make it difficult to assess the bioavailability of Fe to phytoplankton in relation to total dissolved Fe concentrations in natural waters. We developed a cyanobacterial Fe-responsive bioreporter constructed in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 by fusing the Fe-responsive isiAB promoter to Vibrio harveyi luxAB reporter genes. A comprehensive physiological characterization of the bioreporter has been made in defined Fraquil medium at free ferric ion concentrations ranging from pFe 21.6 to pFe 19.5. Whereas growth and physiological parameters are largely constrained over this range of Fe bioavailability, the bioreporter elicits a luminescent signal that varies in response to Fe deficiency. A dose-response characterization of bioreporter luminescence made over this range of Fe3+ bioavailability demonstrates a sigmoidal response with a dynamic linear range extending between pFe 21.1 and pFe 20.6. The applicability of using this Fe bioreporter to assess Fe availability in the natural environment has been tested using water samples from Lake Huron (Laurentian Great Lakes). Parallel assessment of dissolved Fe and bioreporter response from these samples reinforces the idea that measures of dissolved Fe should not be considered alone when assessing Fe availability to phytoplankton communities. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    Shi-Yan Li
    Although red algae are known to be obligatory photoautotrophs, the red microalga Porphyridium sp. was shown to assimilate and metabolize floridoside. A pulse-chase experiment with [14C]floridoside showed that at the end of a 240-min pulse, 70% of total 14C-uptake by the cells remained in the floridoside fraction. To evaluate the assimilation of floridoside by Porphyridium sp. cells, we exposed Porphyridium sp. not only to [14C]floridoside but also to its constituents, [14C]glycerol and [14C]galactose, as compared with [14C]bicarbonate. The extent of incorporation of [14C] galactose by the Porphyridium sp. cells was insignificant (50,80 dpmmL,1), whereas uptake of 14C from [14C]glycerol into the algal cells was evident (2.4 103 dpmmL,1) after 60 min of the pulse. The pattern of 14C distribution among the major constituent sugars, xylose, glucose and galactose, of the labeled soluble polysaccharide was dependent on the 14C source. The relative content of [14C]galactose in the soluble polysaccharide was highest (28.8%) for [14C]floridoside-labeled culture and lowest (19.8%) for the [14C]glycerol-labeled culture. Upon incubation of [14C]floridoside with a crude extract of a cell-free system prepared from nonlabeled cells of Porphyridium sp., the label was indeed found to be incorporated into the sulfated polysaccharide. Our results suggested that the carbon metabolic pathway in Porphyridium sp. passes through the low molecular weight photoassimilatory product,floridoside,toward sulfated cell-wall polysaccharide production. [source]


    Quincy Anne Gibson
    First page of article [source]


    Michael Krtzen
    Abstract We examined population substructure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp). in Shark Bay, Western Australia, using 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). For microsatellite analysis, 302 different animals were sampled from seven localities throughout the bay. Analysis of genetic differentiation between sampling localities showed a significant correlation between the number of migrants (Nm) calculated from FST, RST and private alleles, and distance between localities,a pattern of isolation-by-distance. For mtDNA, 220 individuals from all seven localities were sequenced for a 351 base pair fragment of the control region, resulting in eight haplotypes, with two distinct clusters of haplotypes. Values of FST and (,)ST for mtDNA yielded statistically significant differences, mostly between localities that were not adjacent to each other, suggesting female gene flow over a scale larger than the sampled localities. We also observed a significant correlation between the number of female migrants calculated from FST and ,ST and the distance of sampling localities. Our results indicate that dispersal in female dolphins in Shark Bay is more restricted than that of males. [source]

    Atrial Tachyarrhythmias Induced By Acetylcholine In Tilapia (Oreochromis SP.) Isolated Atria

    Tsai-Chu Lin
    SUMMARY 1. Effects of the parasympathetic neuromediator acetylcholine (ACh) on atrial tissues vary greatly depending on the species, the type of atrial cells and experimental conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate, with microelectrode techniques, the arrhythmogenic effects of ACh in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) isolated atria at room (22,25C) and high temperature (37C). 2. Acetylcholine (1,10 ,mol/L) shortened action potential duration (APD), depressed action potential plateau and decreased twitch force in tilapia atria, as it did in human atrial fibres. In addition, ACh induced premature responses and re-entrant tachyarrhythmias (TA; frequency range from 7 to 25 Hz) in five of 19 and 14 of 22 tilapia atria tested at room and high temperature, respectively. The higher incidence of ACh-induced TA at 37C compared with room temperature was statistically significant. 3. The ACh-induced TA consisted of high-frequency and uniform action potentials accompanied by tension oscillation and elevation of diastolic force (flutter). Acetylcholine-induced TA could be readily abolished by atropine (1 ,mol/L) and prevented by treatment with agents with local anaesthetic properties, such as 0.1 ,mol/L tetrodotoxin or 3 ,mol/L quinidine. The antagonistic action of quinidine occurred without significant prolongation of APD. 4. The present findings suggest that pharmacological concentrations of the cholinergic muscarinic agonist ACh readily induce TA (mainly atrial flutter) in tilapia atria, presumably via sodium channel-dependent re-entrant excitation. The poikilothermic tilapia appears to be an appropriate animal model for the study of atrial TA. [source]

    Ultrastructural Description of Breviata anathema, N. Gen., N. Sp., the Organism Previously Studied as "Mastigamoeba invertens"

    ABSTRACT. An understanding of large-scale eukaryotic evolution is beginning to crystallise, as molecular and morphological data demonstrate that eukaryotes fall into six major groups. However, there are several taxa of which the affinities are yet to be resolved, and for which there are only either molecular or morphological data. One of these is the amoeboid flagellate Mastigamoeba invertens. This organism was originally misidentified and studied as a pelobiont using molecular data. We present its first light microscopical and ultrastructural characterisation. We demonstrate that it does not show affinities to the amoebozoan pelobionts, because unlike the pelobionts, it has a double basal body and two flagellar roots, a classical Golgi stack, and a large branching double membrane-bound organelle. Phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA suggest an affinity with the apusomonads, when a covariotide correction for rate heterogeneity is used. We suggest that previous molecular results have been subject to artefacts from an insufficient correction for rate heterogeneity. We propose a new name for the taxon, Breviata anathema; and the unranked, apomorphy-based name "Breviates" for Breviata and its close relatives. [source]

    Korotnevella hemistylolepis N. Sp. and Korotnevella monacantholepis N. Sp. (Paramoebidae), Two New Scale-covered Mesohaline Amoebae

    ABSTRACT. Two new species of KorotnevellaGoodkov, 1988, Korotnevella hemistylolepis n. sp. and Korotnevella monacantholepis n. sp., are described from mesohaline ecosystems. The amoebae are characterized on the basis of light and electron microscopy with special emphasis on the structure of the basket scales, which have species-specific architecture. The two new species are the second and third ones recovered from environments other than freshwater. In terms of scale morphology they most closely resemble a freshwater species, Korotnevella bulla (Schaeffer, 1926) Goodkov, 1988. Two genus names, DactylamoebaKorotnev, 1880 and KorotnevellaGoodkov, 1988, are in current use. The latter name is preferred, pending rediscovery and characterization of Dactylamoeba elongataKorotnev, 1880, the type species of the genus. Korotnevella species can be divided into three groups on the basis of scale morphology, suggesting that the genus may not be monophyletic. A key to species is provided. [source]

    An enigmatic gnathostome vertebrate skull from the Middle Devonian of Bolivia

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    Alan Pradel
    Abstract A new taxon, Ramirosuarezia boliviana n. gen., n. sp. is erected for a single, articulated jawed fish (gnathostome) skull from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian) Icla Formation of Bolivia. The specimen displays an elasmobranch-like braincase, but lacks unambiguous elasmobranch and even chondrichthyan characters, although its peculiar tooth-bearing ,labial' elements evoke certain stem-holocephalans. Its endoskeletal elements seem lined with either perichondral bone or non-prismatic calcified cartilage, but show no evidence of endochondral bone. Although devoid of large dermal bones and scales, R. boliviana shares with certain ,ostracoderms', placoderms and holocephalans the lack of an otico-occipital fissure, but lacks a hypophysial fenestra. Certain features (elongated braincase, ,labial elements', sharp denticles and teeth) are also suggestive of the equally enigmatic coeval stensioellids, once regarded as either primitive placoderms or stem holocephalans. The jaws are armed with platelets that bear blunt to pointed and sharp teeth, in which synchrotron radiation microtomography yields evidence of a large pulp cavity, a possibly osteichthyan-like character. No character clearly supports affinities of R. boliviana to any of the currently known major gnathostome groups. Tenuous hints suggest a relationship to the enigmatic fossil Zamponiopteron, from the Eifelian of Bolivia, known by peculiar calcified ,fin plates' and isolated shoulder girdles. [source]

    The earliest evidence of host,parasite interactions in vertebrates

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    evics, ns Luk
    Abstract Traces of parasite action have been discovered in the Middle,Upper Devonian fish from Estonia, Latvia and European Russia. Such traces are known in heterostracan Psammolepis venyukovi, antiarchs Asterolepis radiata and Bothriolepis ciecere, sarcopterygians Holoptychius sp., Ventalepis ketleriensis and Eusthenodon sp. nov. The traces include evidence of parasitic fixation and penetration as well as dwelling traces. Pathologies are developed as (1) round fossulae on the external surface of bones and scales; (2) oval fossulae with a slight elevation in the centre of the pit; (3) hollow swellings (possible galls); (4) openings (perforations) that have been repaired to various degrees; (5) variously shaped buttresses on the visceral surface of sarcopterygian scales; and (6) porous spongy formations on the non-overlapped surface of sarcopterygian scales. The round fossulae in sarcopterygian, placoderm and psammosteid skeletal elements could be produced by parasites that are similar to copepod crustaceans. Gall formation in Asterolepis is most likely to be caused by a larva, possibly of a trematode. The perforations of scales (and dermal bones) might arise from the attacks of ectoparasites (copepods?) or different worms. The spongy formations on the Holoptychius scales could be the result of invasion of a unicellular parasite. [source]

    Vectorization of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir. (Hypericaceae) ethanolic leaf extract by using PLG-nanoparticles: antibacterial activity assessment

    B. Moulari
    Abstract This study was undertaken to compare the in vitro and ex vivo antibacterial activity of an ethanolic Harungana madagascariensis leaf extract (HLE) incorporated into poly (D,L -lactide-co,glycolide) nanoparticles (HLE -PLG-NP). Two concentrations of HLE (500 and 1,000,g/mL) for the in vitro study and one concentration (500 g/mL) for the ex vivo study were compared using two gram-positive bacterial strains (Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), and one gram-negative bacterial strain (Moraxella sp.). The ex vivo antibacterial activity was evaluated on S. epidermidis CIP 55109 (SE) using an artificial contamination method. SE was inoculated for 12 h onto human skin fragment surfaces treated for 5,min either with HLE loaded, unloaded PLG-NP, or HLE solution. In vitro, the two preparations inhibited completely the growth of all bacterial strains at 1,000,g/mL. However, the HLE -PLG-NP had a significant antibacterial activity against SE (18.41.8,0.40.2 CFU/mL, P<0.05), and a marked antibacterial effect against M. luteus (ML) and Moraxella sp. (Msp) compared to HLE solution at 500 g/mL. Ex vivo, HLE -PLG-NP at 500,g/mL reduced viable bacteria (6.3,4.8 log10), compared to the HLE solution (6.3,5.5 log10) after 4 h artificial contamination (P<0.05). A thin layer chromatography study of both HLE solution and HLE -PLG-NP showed that among the seven components found on the chromatogram of the HLE solution, only two were present on the nanoparticles, one including a flavonoid heteroside fraction responsible for the antibacterial properties. The incorporation of the HLE into a colloidal carrier improved antibacterial performance. Drug Dev. Res. 65:26,33, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The musculature of three species of gastrotrichs surveyed with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2006
    Francesca Leasi
    Abstract The muscular system of gastrotrichs consists of circular, longitudinal and helicoidal bands that when analysed with confocal laser scanning microscopy, provide new insights into their functional organization and phylogenetic importance. We therefore undertook a comparative study of the muscle organization in three species of Gastrotricha from the orders Macrodasyida (Paradasys sp., Lepidodasyidae; Turbanella sp., Turbanellidae) and Chaetonotida (Polymerurus nodicaudus, Chaetonotidae). The general muscle organization of the marine interstitial macrodasyidans, Paradasys and Turbanella, not only confirms earlier observation on other species but also adds new details concerning the organization and number of helicoidal, longitudinal and other muscle bands (e.g. semicircular band). The freshwater, epibenthic,epiphytic chaetonotid, Polymerurus nodicaudus, has a similar muscular organization to other species of Chaetonotidae, especially species of Chaetonotus, Halichaetonotus and Lepidodermella. Perhaps unique to Polymerurus is the combined presence of an unbranched Rckenhautmuskel (also in Halichaetonotus and Lepidodermella) and a specialized dorsoventral caudal muscle, which flank the splanchnic component of the longitudinal muscles (only in Chaetonotus and Lepidodermella). This combination, together with the presence of splanchnic dorsoventral muscles, known only in Xenotrichulidae, implies a unique phylogenetic position for Polymerurus, and indicates a potential basal position of this taxon among the Chaetonotidae studied so far (i.e. Aspidiophorus, Chaetonotus, Halichaetonotus and Lepidodermella). [source]

    Variation in food availability influences prey-capture method in antlion larvae

    Abstract 1.,Larvae of a Myrmecaelurus sp. are unique among antlions because they have two prey-capture methods; they either ambush prey at the surface, or dig pit traps that prey fall in to. It was hypothesised that larvae will use the capture method that maximises their net rate of energy gain, which will be influenced by food availability (encounter rate) and by past energy inputs (body condition). 2.,Costs were estimated by measuring resting and activity metabolic rates and determining the duration of pit maintenance at various encounter rates with ants that served as prey. Benefits were estimated from the energy gained per ant captured at different encounter rates. 3.,Net energy gained was higher with a pit than without one, and was influenced more by the differences in prey capture rate between the two capture methods, and less by the differences in energy costs associated with each method. The proportion of larvae that constructed pits was higher when they were in intermediate body condition than when in good or in poor body condition. 4.,Thus, the use of one capture method or the other depends on a combination of the influences of past net energy gain and the antlion's most recent change in encounter rate with prey. Ambushing without a pit may serve as a default when physiological constraints limit the larvae's ability to invest in pit construction and maintenance, or when larvae are sated, and saving the energy of pit construction and maintenance is worthwhile. [source]

    Separating host-tree and environmental determinants of honeydew production by Ultracoelostoma scale insects in a Nothofagus forest

    Abstract 1.,Sugar-rich honeydew excreted (,produced') by insects feeding on phloem sap is a key energy flow in a range of temperate and tropical ecosystems. The present study measured honeydew produced by Ultracoelostoma sp. (Homoptera: Coelostomidiidae) scale insects feeding on Nothofagus solandri var. solandri (Hook f.) Oerst. trees in a temperate evergreen forest in New Zealand. Simultaneous measurements of environmental variables and canopy photosynthesis were conducted to allow separation of host-tree and environmental determinants of honeydew production. These relationships were further examined in experiments where canopy photosynthesis was manipulated by shading or plant nitrogen levels increased by foliar spray. 2.,Rates of honeydew production varied nine-fold from a maximum ( 1 SE) of 64.4 15.2 mg dry mass m,2 bark h,1 in early summer (December) to a minimum of 7.4 4.2 mg m,2 h,1 in winter (August). Rates of production measured 1.4 m from the base of the trees' stems varied significantly with stem diameter, and were higher on medium-sized (18 cm diameter) than small or large stems. 3.,Rates of production were significantly related to environmental conditions over the hours preceding measurement (air temperature and air saturation deficit averaged over the preceding 24 and 12 h respectively). There was no evidence that rates of production were directly related to short-term changes in the supply of carbohydrates from the canopy (either when compared with measurements of unmanipulated photosynthetic rate, or after sugar levels were manipulated by shading 80% of host-trees' leaf area), or to changes in phloem nitrogen content. 4.,The results show that there is no clear effect of host-tree carbon supply on honeydew production; if production is related to photosynthesis, the effect of this is much less important that the large and significant direct effect of environmental conditions on honeydew production. [source]

    Gall size determines the structure of the Rabdophaga strobiloides host,parasitoid community

    Brian H. Van Hezewijk
    Abstract., 1.,The relationship between gall size and mortality of the willow pinecone gall midge Rabdophaga strobiloides (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined by determining the fate of all galls in a 30-ha area in central Alberta, Canada over 4 years. It was found that gall size has a large effect on the type and intensity of mortality experienced by the gall midge, and consequently this factor has the potential to influence the dynamics of the host,parasitoid interaction through the creation of phenotypic refuges. 2.,Total midge mortality ranged from 51% to 78% over the course of the study and was dominated by parasitism by Torymus cecidomyiae (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) and Gastrancistrus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as well as predation by birds. Gall size had a strong, non-linear effect on the attack rates of each of these natural enemies. 3.,Birds attacked the smallest size classes. Torymus cecidomyiae preferentially attacked medium diameter galls and thus avoided predation by birds in smaller galls. Gastrancistrus sp. preferentially attacked the largest galls and consequently suffered lower rates of predation by both T. cecidomyiae and birds. 4.,This study emphasises the importance of understanding the interactions among mortality factors in order to describe adequately the susceptibility of R. strobiloides to parasitism and predation, and ultimately its population dynamics. [source]

    Parasitism and ant protection alter the survival of the lycaenid Hemiargus isola

    Jennifer A. Weeks
    Abstract. 1. Although the majority of lycaenid,ant associations is facultative, few studies have documented the protection benefits provided by ants to lycaenids that are tended facultatively (Pierce & Easteal, 1986; Peterson, 1993). 2. Larvae of Hemiargus isola (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) feeding on Dalea albiflora are tended facultatively by several species of ant. In 1999 and 2000, the levels of parasitism and the identities of attendant ants were determined for larvae of H. isola. In addition, the presence of ants was manipulated experimentally to determine the efficacy of protection provided by attendant ants to H. isola. 3. Lycaenids were parasitised by a braconid wasp, Cotesia cyaniridis (Riley), and a tachinid fly, Aplomya theclarum (Scudder). In 1999 and 2000, 62 and 65% of larvae were parasitised; the percentage of the population parasitised did not differ significantly between years. In both 1999 and 2000, parasitism by the braconid wasp C. cyaniridis accounted for >,99% of all parasitism events. 4. Four species of ant, Crematogaster sp., Dorymyrmex sp., Forelius sp., and Formica sp., were associated with 88,99% of the tended lycaenids collected in both 1999 and 2000. For both years, there was a single, numerically dominant species associated with >80% of the tended larvae collected, but the identity of this numerically dominant ant differed between years. 5. Experimental exclusion of ants from D. albiflora plants resulted in 78% larval mortality as a result of parasitism, nearly twice that of larvae that were tended by ants on unmanipulated plants. [source]

    Females of the European beewolf preserve their honeybee prey against competing fungi

    Erhard Strohm
    Summary 1. Females of the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) provision brood cells with paralysed honeybees as larval food. Because brood cells are located in warm, humid locations there is a high risk of microbial decomposition of the provisions. Low incidence of fungus infestation (Aspergillus sp.) in nests in the field suggested the presence of an anti-fungal adaptation. 2. To test whether the paralysis caused the protection from fungus infestation, the timing of fungus growth on bees that were freeze-killed, paralysed but not provisioned, and provisioned regularly by beewolf females was determined. Fungus growth was first detected on freeze-killed bees, followed by paralysed but not provisioned bees. By contrast, fungus growth on provisioned bees was delayed greatly or even absent. Thus, paralysis alone is much less efficient in delaying fungus growth than is regular provisioning. 3. Observations of beewolves in their nests revealed that females lick the body surface of their prey very thoroughly during the period of excavation of the brood cell. 4. To separate the effect of a possible anti-fungal property of the brood cell and the licking of the bees, a second experiment was conducted. Timing of fungus growth on paralysed bees did not differ between artificial and original brood cells. By contrast, fungus growth on bees that had been provisioned by a female but were transferred to artificial brood cells was delayed significantly. Thus, the treatment of the bees by the female wasp but not the brood cell caused the delay in fungus growth. 5. Beewolf females most probably apply anti-fungal chemicals to the cuticle of their prey. This is the first demonstration of the mechanism involved in the preservation of provisions in a hunting wasp. Some kind of preservation of prey as a component of parental care is probably widespread among hunting wasps and might have been a prerequisite for the evolution of mass provisioning. [source]

    Biodiversity and biocontrol: emergent impacts of a multi-enemy assemblage on pest suppression and crop yield in an agroecosystem

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 9 2003
    Bradley J. Cardinale
    Abstract The suppression of agricultural pests has often been proposed as an important service of natural enemy diversity, but few experiments have tested this assertion. In this study we present empirical evidence that increasing the richness of a particular guild of natural enemies can reduce the density of a widespread group of herbivorous pests and, in turn, increase the yield of an economically important crop. We performed an experiment in large field enclosures where we manipulated the presence/absence of three of the most important natural enemies (the coccinellid beetle Harmonia axyridis, the damsel bug Nabis sp., and the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi) of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) that feed on alfalfa (Medicago sativa). When all three enemy species were together, the population density of the pea aphid was suppressed more than could be predicted from the summed impact of each enemy species alone. As crop yield was negatively related to pea aphid density, there was a concomitant non-additive increase in the production of alfalfa in enclosures containing the more diverse enemy guild. This trophic cascade appeared to be influenced by an indirect interaction involving a second herbivore inhabiting the system , the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora. Data suggest that high relative densities of cowpea aphids inhibited parasitism of pea aphids by the specialist parasitoid, A. ervi. Therefore, when natural enemies were together and densities of cowpea aphids were reduced by generalist predators, parasitism of pea aphids increased. This interaction modification is similar to other types of indirect interactions among enemy species (e.g. predator,predator facilitation) that can enhance the suppression of agricultural pests. Results of our study, and those of others performed in agroecosystems, complement the broader debate over how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning by specifically focusing on systems that produce goods of immediate relevance to human society. [source]

    Ontogenetic diet shift in the June sucker Chasmistes liorus (Cypriniformes, Catostomidae) in the early juvenile stage

    J. D. Kreitzer
    Kreitzer JD, Belk MC, Gonzalez DB, Tuckfield RC, Shiozawa DK, Rasmussen JE. Ontogenetic diet shift in the June sucker Chasmistes liorus (Cypriniformes, Catostomidae) in the early juvenile stage. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010: 19: 433,438. 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract,,, Ontogenetic diet shifts are common in fishes and often occur during early life stages. The larval and early juvenile period is critical in the life cycle of the endangered June sucker, Chasmistes liorus (Teleostei: Catostomidae). High larval and juvenile mortality leads to low recruitment to the breeding population and hence a declining natural population. To understand diet composition and dynamics in June sucker at early life stages, diet was quantified and compared to available food items in the natural environment during the early juvenile stage. Rotifers (Brachionus sp.) were the primary diet item at week 10, but by week 12 a small cyclopoid copepod (Microcyclops rubellus) became predominant. Availability of diet items varied little across the experimental period. The increase in size of young suckers may explain this rapid dietary shift, but there are some inconsistencies with the size selection argument. This diet shift represents an important nutritional change that should be considered in development of diets for young June sucker and in assessing suitability of nursery habitats. [source]

    Functional response and size-dependent foraging on aquatic and terrestrial prey by brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    P. Gustafsson
    Gustafsson P, Bergman E, Greenberg LA. Functional response and size-dependent foraging on aquatic and terrestrial prey by brown trout (Salmo trutta L.).Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010: 19: 170,177. 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ,, Terrestrial invertebrate subsidies are believed to be important energy sources for drift-feeding salmonids. Despite this, size-specific use of and efficiency in procuring this resource have not been studied to any great extent. Therefore, we measured the functional responses of three size classes of wild brown trout Salmo trutta (0+, 1+ and ,2+) when fed either benthic- (Gammarus sp.) or surface-drifting prey (Musca domestica) in laboratory experiments. To test for size-specific prey preferences, both benthic and surface prey were presented simultaneously by presenting the fish with a constant density of benthic prey and a variable density of surface prey. The results showed that the functional response of 0+ trout differed significantly from the larger size classes, with 0+ fish having the lowest capture rates. Capture rates did not differ significantly between prey types. In experiments when both prey items were presented simultaneously, capture rate differed significantly between size classes, with larger trout having higher capture rates than smaller trout. However, capture rates within each size class did not change with prey density or prey composition. The two-prey experiments also showed that 1+ trout ate significantly more surface-drifting prey than 0+ trout. In contrast, there was no difference between 0+ and ,2+ trout. Analyses of the vertical position of the fish in the water column corroborated size-specific foraging results: larger trout remained in the upper part of the water column between attacks on surface prey more often than smaller trout, which tended to seek refuge at the bottom between attacks. These size-specific differences in foraging and vertical position suggest that larger trout may be able to use surface-drifting prey to a greater extent than smaller conspecifics. [source]

    Substrate choice of territorial male Topeka shiners (Notropis topeka) in the absence of sunfish (Lepomis sp.)

    C. C. Witte
    Abstract,,, Topeka shiners (Notropis topeka), an endangered minnow species, typically spawn on or around breeding Lepomis sunfish (Centrarchidae) nests. Why spawning Topeka shiners are attracted to these nests is unclear, but having the nesting sunfish provide shiner eggs with improved aeration, a lessening of siltation, and protection from egg predators are possibilities. We tested the substrate utilisation of Topeka shiners in outdoor tanks in the absence of sunfish to determine the shiner's fundamental choice. Shiners were provided with substrate patches of cleaned sand, small gravel, large gravel, and small cobble, and the bare floor of the tank. The substrate above which a male shiner established his territory was used as evidence of choice. A statistically significant choice for sand substrates was demonstrated. This fundamental choice might influence which sunfish nests Topeka shiners use, given that nest substrate characteristics differ both between sunfish species and within species by spawning site location. [source]

    Helminth parasitism of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns 1842) in southwestern Australia

    A. Chapman
    Abstract , One cestode, Ligula sp. [possibly Ligula intestinalis (L.)], one trematode, Diplostomum sp., and two nematode parasitic worms, Eustrongylides sp. [possibly Eustrongylides gadopsis (Royal Society of South Australia, 64, 340)] and Contracaecum sp. are reported from Galaxias maculatus inhabiting a permanent freshwater lake and two intermittently flowing, saline rivers in southwestern Australia. Worms infecting fish are all larval; the definitive hosts are piscivorous waterfowl. Ligula sp. infected 12% of fish in the lake. Effects of infection include reduced lifespan, significant weight reduction of gonads of males and females and body weight of females. Infection reduces the proportion of males that attain spawning gonad stage more severely than it does in females. The prevalence and intensity of Ligula sp. infection were much less in the rivers. The infection of Pseudogobius olorum (Sauvage 1880) by this cestode is reported for the first time in Western Australia. Trematodes were much more benign in their effect on G. maculatus. [source]

    Amperometric Biosensors for Detection of Sugars Based on the Electrical Wiring of Different Pyranose Oxidases and Pyranose Dehydrogenases with Osmium Redox Polymer on Graphite Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 2-3 2007
    Federico Tasca
    Abstract Electrical wiring of different types of pyranose oxidase (P2O) (fungal wild type, recombinant wild type with a hexa-histidine tag, mutant form E542K with a hexa-histidine tag) from Trametes multicolor, and recombinant P2O from Coriolus sp. overexpressed in Escherichia coli as well as of pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) from Agaricus meleagris and Agaricus xanthoderma with an osmium redox polymer (poly(1-vinylimidazole)12 -[Os(4,4,-dimethyl-2,2,-dipyridyl)2Cl2]2+/+) on graphite electrodes was carried out. After optimization studies using glucose as substrate, the biosensors, which showed the best characteristics in terms of linear range, detection limit and sensitivity were selected, viz. wild type P2O from T. multicolor and PDH from A. meleagris. These two enzymes were used and investigated for their selectivity for a number of different sugars. [source]

    White-rot fungi combined with lignite granules and lignitic xylite to decolorize textile industry wastewater

    Ulrike Bhmer
    Abstract The feasibility of using immobilized fungi to decolorize textile industry wastewater containing dyes was examined in experiments with: two species of white-rot fungi (a Marasmius species from Indonesia, which produces copious biomass, and Trametes hirsuta, which produces high levels of laccase); two types of lignite products as adsorbents and solid substrates (lignitic xylite and lignite granules); and four simulated wastewaters, each containing a different kinds of reactive textile azo dye. The growth, extracellular enzyme production, dye degradation and dye absorption parameters afforded by each permutation of fungus, substrate and dye were then measured. Both fungal species grew poorly on xylite, but much better on lignite granules. Marasmius sp. produced up to 67,U/L laccase on lignite granules, but just 10,U/L on xylite, and no other detectable extracellular enzymes. T. hirsuta produced 1343,U/L laccase and up to 12,U/L unspecific peroxidase when immobilized on lignite granules, and 898,U/L laccase with 14,U/L unspecific peroxidase when immobilized on xylite. The amount of color lost from the dye solutions depended on both the type of dye and the enzyme levels in the fermenter. [source]

    Utilization of tannery solid waste for protease production by Synergistes sp. in solid-state fermentation and partial protease characterization

    Arumugam Ganesh Kumar
    Abstract Synergistes sp. DQ560074 produced a protease in submerged fermentation (SmF) at 400,420,U/mL and in solid-state fermentation (SSF) at 745,755,U/g. The protease, which belongs to the aspartic protease class, was active over a wide range of pH (5,7) and at high temperatures (25,45C). The protease is stable and active in various polar protic solvents (50%,v/v) like ethanol, isopropanol, n,butanol, in polar aprotic solvents (50%,v/v) like acetonitrile, and in non-polar solvents (50%,v/v) such as ethylacetate and toluene, but not in hydrophilic organic solvents (methyl alcohol and acetone). As far as we know, this is the first contribution to the production of a mesophilic protease with solvent stability in SSF using a proteinaceous solid waste. [source]

    Application of Exchangeable Biochemical Reactors with Oxidase-Catalase-Co-immobilizates and Immobilized Microorganisms in a Microfluidic Chip-Calorimeter

    M. Leifheit
    Abstract Several methods for the quantitative detection of different compounds, e.g., L -amino acids, sugars or alcohols in liquid media were developed by application of an automatic measuring unit including a fluid chip-calorimeter FCC-21. For this purpose, enzymes were immobilized covalently on the inner and outer surface of CPG (controlled porous glass)-spherules with an outer diameter of 100,,m and filled into a micro flow-through reaction chamber (VR = 20,,L). The design of the measuring cell allows for easy insertion into the calorimeter device of a stored series of comfortably pre-fabricated measuring cells. These cells can be filled with different enzyme immobilizates. Different oxidases were used and co-immobilized with catalase for the improvement of the detection sensitivity. A signal amplification could be achieved up to a factor of 3.5 with this configuration. ,- D -glucose, ethanol and L -lysine could be detected in a range of 0.25,1.75,mM using glucose oxidase, alcohol oxidase and lysine oxidase. The group of oxidases in combination with the enzymatic catalysis of the intermediate H2O2 allows the quantitative detection of a large number of analytes. A good measurement and storage stability could be achieved for several weeks by this immobilization method. In addition to enzyme-based detection reactions, it was shown that living microorganisms can be immobilized in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system can be used as a whole-cell biosensor. The quantitative detection of phenol in the range of 10,100,,M could be performed using the actinomycete Rhodococcus sp. immobilized on glass beads by means of embedding into polymers. [source]

    Towards Higher Laccase Activities Produced by Aquatic Ascomycetous Fungi Through Combination of Elicitors and an Alternative Substrate

    C. Junghanns
    Abstract Laccases are versatile biocatalysts with various potential biotechnological applications, e.g. the treatment of industrial waste waters, the detoxification of environmental pollutants, or the functionalization of renewable polymeric materials. Central composition experimental design and response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of laccase by the aquatic ascomycetous fungi, Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 and Coniothyrium sp.,Kl-S5, in shake flasks. A complex plant-based medium (tomato juice) and two elicitors (Remazol Brilliant Blue R [RBBR] and CuSO4) were tested in combination at three concentrations. The highest laccase activity of 6322,,403,U/L was achieved on day,9 for Phoma sp. Coniothyrium sp. exerted a maximum laccase activity of 3035,,111 U/L on day,4. Optimal conditions were 30,% tomato juice and 450,mg/L RBBR for both strains. A concentration of 250,,M CuSO4 led to highest laccase activities in cultures of Coniothyrium sp., and 50,,M CuSO4 was most effective for Phoma sp. A remarkable synergistic effect of tomato juice and RBBR on laccase production was observed for both strains. The upscaling potential of the optimal induction conditions was demonstrated in a lab-scale fermenter which resulted in maximum activities of 11030,,177,U/L on day,6 for Phoma sp. and 11530,,161,U/L on day,9 for Coniothyrium sp. This study therefore presents a promising alternative for laccase production in ascomycetes based on a cheap complex substrate in combination with two elicitors. [source]

    Search of Microorganisms that Degrade PAHs under Alkaline Conditions

    A. Gerbeth
    Abstract Bacterial strains were enriched from building rubble contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These strains were studied as an inoculum in bioremediation processes with contaminated building rubble. The selection criteria for the bacteria were broad profiles in PAH degradation, stable expression of the traits and tolerance to alkaline conditions. Various strains of Micrococcus sp., Dietzia sp., Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. met the selection criteria. In general, degradative activity was limited at higher pH values. Strains of Micrococcus were suitable for practical use as complete degradation of various PAHs was observed at pH values exceeding 10. Strains of Dietzia sp. showed broad PAH degradation profile, but in some cases degradation came to a halt leaving some of the PAHs unutilized. With Dietzia sp. this could be due to inhibitory effects from the accumulation of toxic PAH metabolic products and/or growth-limiting media conditions. [source]

    Production of ,-Amylase and Glucoamylase by a New Isolate of Trichoderma sp.

    Using Sorghum Starch as a Carbon Source
    The performance of a new Trichoderma sp. isolate to produce extracellular ,-amylase and glucoamylase from raw sorghum starch was evalutated. To reduce the costs of starch saccharification and the consumption of amylolytic enzymes, this microorganism has been used for the first time in cultivations using such a carbon source without any prior gelatinization. [source]