Southern India (southern + india)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A novel host shift and invaded range of a seed predator, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), of an invasive weed, Leucaena leucocephala

Midori TUDA
Abstract An endophagous seed predator, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), utilizes Neotropical Leucaena (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). One of its hosts, Leucaena leucocephala, is a fast-growing nitrogen-fixing tree that serves as a multipurpose beneficial plant but eventually becomes an aggressive invader where it was introduced. Herein, we report A. macrophthalmus invasion of the Far East, South Asian tropics and subtropics (Japanese Pacific Islands, Taiwan, Southern China, Northern Thailand and Southern India). Of other field-collected mimosoid legumes, an introduced tree, Falcataria moluccana, in Taiwan was found to be used by the seed predator. Conversely, our published work review revealed that the seed predator had retained high host specificity to Leucaena species in its native and introduced regions. Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus was able to utilize aphagously postharvest mature seeds for oviposition and larval development, which is a trait of post-dispersal seed predators. We confirmed that A. macrophthalmus that was reared on L. leucocephala was able to utilize F. moluccana as well. Although the relatively high host specificity of the oligophagous beetle is suitable for controlling the weedy L. leucocephala, the potential host range expansion confirmed by this study must be cautioned. [source]

Understanding hydrological processes in a highly stressed granitic aquifer in southern India

D. V. Reddy
Abstract The results of a study evaluating the recharge/discharge conditions of an unconfined stressed granitic aquifer situated in a semi-arid region of Andhra Pradesh, Southern India are presented. Over the last three decades, excessive withdrawal of groundwater has drastically lowered the water table to the bedrock. The watershed studied was divided into four zones based on geomorphology and hydrogeological conditions. Using environmental chloride data pertaining to groundwater, soil depth profiles, and some hydrogeologic and hydrochemical observations, a recharge model for the watershed was developed. The model revealed that the bulk of the vertical recharge in the western elevated land occurs through preferred pathways and that a small fraction occurs through the soil matrix. In addition, the watershed has a poor hydrogeologic fabric, as indicated by the small range of matrix flow recharge (1 to 1·5% of rainfall) among the four zones. The dominating preferential flow was high (,16% of the annual average rainfall) in the valley fills, but decreased to 5,5·5% in the plains. Furthermore, although the bulk of the recharge occurs vertically, considerable lateral movement of groundwater down the slope indicates that sequential hydrochemical changes occur. Distinct geomorphological features that exist in the watershed support the proposed model. Situations similar to those described above may exist in numerous watersheds in the granitic hard rock region; therefore, information obtained from investigations conducted in this watershed can aid in the development of plans enabling the sustainable exploitation of watersheds that have not yet been developed, as well as implementation of appropriate rainwater conservation measures in over-exploited watersheds. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Ratios of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus in a Wetland Coastal Ecosystem of Southern India

Lizen Mathews
Abstract The fertility of the coastal and estuarine waters is of great concern because of its influence on the productivity of these waters. Seasonal variations in the distribution of organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the sediments of Kuttanad Waters, a part of the tropical Cochin Estuary on the south west coast of India, are examined to identify the contribution of sediments to the fertility of the aquatic systems. The adjoining region has considerable agricultural activity. The fresh water zones had higher quantities of silt and clay whereas the estuarine zone was more sandy. Organic carbon, total phosphorus and total nitrogen were higher in the fresh water zones and lower in the estuarine zones. Total phosphorus and organic carbon showed the lowest values during monsoon periods. No significant trends were observed in the seasonal distributions of total nitrogen. Ratios of C/N, C/P and N/P, and the phosphorus and nitrogen content indicate significant modification in the character of the organic matter. Substantial amounts of the organic matter can contribute to reducing conditions and modify diagenetic processes. [source]

Management strategies associating batch-graded and size-graded postlarvae can reduce heterogeneous individual growth in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)

K Ranjeet
Abstract Two sets of adaptive trials were performed to determine the effects of size grading and batch grading on size heterogeneity in cultured Macrobrachium rosenbergii raised in the Coconut Garden channels of Kuttanad, Southern India. In the first set of trials, postlarvae were batch graded on the basis of their hatching order, segregated and grown separately as first-hatched and second-hatched groups. In the second set of trials, postlarvae were size graded as jumpers and laggards and were grown in separate channels. The average weight attained by prawns after 10 months of culture was highest for jumpers (83.11 g) and lowest for the prawns from the first-hatched group (43.76 g). The percentage of males was highest in the population of jumpers (58.23%). Highest production was recorded in the channel stocked with postlarvae from the second-hatched group (103.4 kg ha,1) and lowest production was obtained from the first-hatched group (63.74 kg ha,1). The proportions of undesirable small males were highest among laggards and the first-hatched group: 24.8% and 15.1% respectively. The level of heterozygosity within morphotypes was also high in these groups. Jumpers attained good growth by the end of culture but, because of their low survival rate, this approach was not economically feasible. However, higher production and survival in the second-hatched group improved economic viability. Thus, for better results, stocking with later-hatched groups would be more appropriate than stocking with the first-hatched group. [source]

Prevalence of idiopathic macular hole in adult rural and urban south Indian population

Parveen Sen MS
Abstract Background:, This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of idiopathic macular hole in a defined community in Southern India. Methods:, In all, 7774 of the 9546 enumerated (81.43%) subjects availed themselves for an ophthalmic assessment which included a detailed ophthalmic examination and fundus photography. All data were entered and stored in a secure computerized database and statistical analysis was performed using spss for Windows. Results:, Thirteen subjects comprising six males and seven females were diagnosed with macular holes equating to a risk of 0.17%. Bilateral macular holes were found in two subjects. The mean age of subjects with a macular hole was 67 years. Increasing age and history of cataract surgery was strongly associated with an increased prevalence of macular holes (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in the prevalence of macular hole between the rural and urban communities. The mean logMAR visual acuity of subjects in the eye with a macular hole was 1.31 ± 0.45 whereas the acuity in the unaffected fellow eye was 0.70 ± 0.51. The mean spherical equivalent in the subjects with macular hole was ,0.56 ± 1.92 (,4.25 to +1.00). Conclusion:, Prevalence rate of idiopathic macular hole in South India appears to be comparable to that seen worldwide. [source]

Resource Accessibility and Vulnerability in Andhra Pradesh: Caste and Non-Caste Influences

Lee Bosher
ABSTRACT Coastal Andhra Pradesh in southern India is prone to tropical cyclones. Access to key resources can reduce the vulnerability of the local population to both large-scale disasters, such as cyclones, and to the sort of small-scale crises that affect their everyday lives. This article uses primary fieldwork to present a resource accessibility vulnerability index for over 300 respondents. The index indicates that caste is the key factor in determining who has assets, who can access public facilities, who has political connections and who has supportive social networks. The ,lower' castes (which tend to be the poorest) are marginalized to the extent that they lack access to assets, public facilities and opportunities to improve their plight. However, the research also indicates that the poor and powerless lower castes are able to utilize informal social networks to bolster their resilience, typically by women's participation with CBOs and NGOs. Nevertheless it is doubtful whether this extra social capital counterbalances the overall results which show that , despite decades of counteractions by government , caste remains a dominant variable affecting the vulnerability of the people of coastal Andhra Pradesh to the hazards that they face. [source]

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-, co-activator-1, (PGC-1,) gene polymorphisms and their relationship to Type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians

K. S. Vimaleswaran
Abstract Aims The objective of the present investigation was to examine the relationship of three polymorphisms, Thr394Thr, Gly482Ser and +A2962G, of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-, co-activator-1 alpha (PGC-1,) gene with Type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians. Methods The study group comprised 515 Type 2 diabetic and 882 normal glucose tolerant subjects chosen from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study, an ongoing population-based study in southern India. The three polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction,restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR,RFLP). Haplotype frequencies were estimated using an expectation,maximization (EM) algorithm. Linkage disequilibrium was estimated from the estimates of haplotypic frequencies. Results The three polymorphisms studied were not in linkage disequilibrium. With respect to the Thr394Thr polymorphism, 20% of the Type 2 diabetic patients (103/515) had the GA genotype compared with 12% of the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects (108/882) (P = 0.0004). The frequency of the A allele was also higher in Type 2 diabetic subjects (0.11) compared with NGT subjects (0.07) (P = 0.002). Regression analysis revealed the odds ratio for Type 2 diabetes for the susceptible genotype (XA) to be 1.683 (95% confidence intervals: 1.264,2.241, P = 0.0004). Age adjusted glycated haemoglobin (P = 0.003), serum cholesterol (P = 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P = 0.001) levels and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.001) were higher in the NGT subjects with the XA genotype compared with GG genotype. There were no differences in genotype or allelic distribution between the Type 2 diabetic and NGT subjects with respect to the Gly482Ser and +A2962G polymorphisms. Conclusions The A allele of Thr394Thr (G , A) polymorphism of the PGC-1 gene is associated with Type 2 diabetes in Asian Indian subjects and the XA genotype confers 1.6 times higher risk for Type 2 diabetes compared with the GG genotype in this population. [source]

Age Differences in the Responses to Adult and Juvenile Alarm Calls by Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata)

ETHOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
Uma Ramakrishnan
This study examined the differential responses to alarm calls from juvenile and adult wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) in two parks in southern India. Field studies of several mammalian species have reported that the alarm vocalizations of immature individuals are often treated by perceivers as less provocative than those of adults. This study documents such differences in response using field-recorded playbacks of juvenile and adult alarm vocalizations. To validate the use of playback vocalizations as proxies of natural calls, we compared the responses of bonnet macaques to playbacks of alarm vocalizations with responses engendered by natural alarm vocalizations. We found that the frequency of flight, latency to flee, and the frequency of scanning to vocalization playbacks and natural vocalizations were comparable, thus supporting the use of playbacks to compare the effects of adult and juvenile calls. Our results showed that adult alarm calls were more provocative than juvenile alarm calls, inducing greater frequencies of flight with faster reaction times. Conversely, juvenile alarm calls were more likely to engender scanning by adults, a result interpreted as reflecting the lack of reliability of juvenile calls. Finally, we found age differences in flight behavior to juvenile alarm calls and to playbacks of motorcycle engine sounds, with juveniles and subadults more likely to flee than adults after hearing such sounds. These findings might reflect an increased vulnerability to predators or a lack of experience in young bonnet macaques. [source]

Essential oil composition of genetically diverse stocks of Murraya koenigii from India

V. K. Raina
Abstract An Erratum for this article has been published in Flavour and Fragrance Journal 17(5) 2002, 404. The essential oil composition of four genetically diverse stocks of Murraya koenigii leaves cultivated at the CIMAP Research Farm, Lucknow, were analysed by GC and GC,MS. The oil from the stock of the northern Indian plains, Lucknow, showed ,-pinene (70.0%), ,-caryophyllene (6.5%) and ,-pinene (5.4%) as the major constituents, while the oil from the stock of the lower Himalayan range, Pant Nagar, showed ,-pinene (65.7%), ,-pinene (13.4%) and ,-phellandrene (7.4%) as the major constituents. In contrast to the above, the oil from the stock of southern India, Kozhikode, showed ,-caryophyllene (53.9%), aromadendrene (10.7%) and ,-selinene (6.3%) as the major constituents. On the other hand, the oil from the stock of eastern India, Bhubaneshwar, showed ,-phellandrene (30.2%), ,-caryophyllene (24.2%), ,-pinene (15.0%), (E)-,-ocimene (5.0%) and aromadendrene (4.5%) as the major constituents. The GC,MS analysis of the stock oil samples from the northern Indian plains, lower Himalayan range, southern and eastern India resulted in the identification of 65, 56, 57 and 66, constituents, representing 99.2%, 98.8%, 87.4% and 98.2% of the oils, respectively. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Understanding hydrological processes in a highly stressed granitic aquifer in southern India

D. V. Reddy
Abstract The results of a study evaluating the recharge/discharge conditions of an unconfined stressed granitic aquifer situated in a semi-arid region of Andhra Pradesh, Southern India are presented. Over the last three decades, excessive withdrawal of groundwater has drastically lowered the water table to the bedrock. The watershed studied was divided into four zones based on geomorphology and hydrogeological conditions. Using environmental chloride data pertaining to groundwater, soil depth profiles, and some hydrogeologic and hydrochemical observations, a recharge model for the watershed was developed. The model revealed that the bulk of the vertical recharge in the western elevated land occurs through preferred pathways and that a small fraction occurs through the soil matrix. In addition, the watershed has a poor hydrogeologic fabric, as indicated by the small range of matrix flow recharge (1 to 1·5% of rainfall) among the four zones. The dominating preferential flow was high (,16% of the annual average rainfall) in the valley fills, but decreased to 5,5·5% in the plains. Furthermore, although the bulk of the recharge occurs vertically, considerable lateral movement of groundwater down the slope indicates that sequential hydrochemical changes occur. Distinct geomorphological features that exist in the watershed support the proposed model. Situations similar to those described above may exist in numerous watersheds in the granitic hard rock region; therefore, information obtained from investigations conducted in this watershed can aid in the development of plans enabling the sustainable exploitation of watersheds that have not yet been developed, as well as implementation of appropriate rainwater conservation measures in over-exploited watersheds. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Cutaneous anthrax in a remote tribal area , Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, southern India

G. Raghu Rama Rao MD
First page of article [source]

Urban and industrial water use in the Krishna Basin, India,

Daniel J. Van Rooijen
Bassin Krishna; utilisation urbaine de l'eau; utilisation industrielle de l'eau; modélisation Abstract Regional urbanization and industrial development require water that may put additional pressure on available water resources and threaten water quality in developing countries. In this study we use a combination of census statistics, case studies, and a simple model of demand growth to assess current and future urban and industrial water demand in the Krishna Basin in southern India. Water use in this "closed" basin is dominated by irrigation (61.9 billion cubic metres (BCM) yr,1) compared to a modest domestic and industrial water use (1.6 and 3.2 BCM yr,1). Total water diversion for non-irrigation purposes is estimated at 7,8% of available surface water in the basin in an average year. Thermal power plants use the majority of water used by industries (86% or 2.7 BCM yr,1), though only 6.8% of this is consumed via evaporation. Simple modelling of urban and industrial growth suggests that non-agricultural water demand will range from 10 to 20 BCM by 2030. This is 14,28% of basin water available surface water for an average year and 17,34% for a year with 75% dependable flow. Although water use in the Krishna Basin will continue to be dominated by agriculture, water stress, and the fraction of water supplies at risk of becoming polluted by urban and industrial activity, will become more severe in urbanized regions in dry years. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. L'urbanisation régionale et le développement industriel demandent de l'eau, ce qui peut augmenter la pression sur les ressources en eau disponibles dans les pays en développement. Dans cette étude nous utilisons une combinaison de données de recensement, des études de cas et un modèle simple de croissance de la demande pour évaluer la demande en eau urbaine et industrielle actuelle et future dans le bassin Krishna en Inde du sud. Les usages de l'eau dans ce bassin « fermé » sont dominés par l'irrigation (61.9 milliards de m3/an) alors que les usages domestiques et industriels sont modestes (1.6 et 3.2 milliards de m3/an). L'eau utilisée en dehors de l'irrigation est estimée à 7 ,8% de l'eau de surface disponible dans le bassin en année moyenne. Les centrales thermiques utilisent la plus grosse partie de l'eau allouée aux industries (86% ou 2.7 milliards de m3/an) bien que seulement 6.8% de cette quantité soit consommé par évaporation. Une modélisation simple de la croissance urbaine et industrielle suggère que la demande non-agricole d'eau variera de 10 à 20 milliards de m3/an d'ici à 2030. C'est 14,28% de l'eau de surface disponible du bassin en année moyenne et 17,34% de l'écoulement garanti à 75%. Bien que l'utilisation de l'eau dans le bassin Krishna continue à être dominée par l'agriculture, la tension sur l'eau peut devenir plus sévère en année sèche dans les régions urbanisées avec en outre le risque d'une pollution par l'activité urbaine et industrielle. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Parasitoids of Paratachardina lobata (Hem., Kerriidae): surveys for biological control of the invasive lobate lac scale

S. Schroer
Abstract Paratachardina lobata is an invasive pest in southern Florida, threatening a great number of economically important and native plants. The lobate lac scale does not cause problems in its area of origin, India and Sri Lanka, presumably due to various parasitoid wasps. In an attempt to discover promising parasitoids for biological control against the invasive pest in Florida, P. lobata infesting Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae) was collected bimonthly from August 2005 to June 2006 at 14 sites in southern India. Four parasitoids were demonstrably associated with P. lobata: a eulophid Aprostocetus bangaloricus Narendran, an encyrtid Ooencyrtus kerriae Hayat and two aphelinids, Marietta leopardina Motschulsky and an undescribed Coccophagus Westwood sp. These chalcidoid wasps were found regularly at all heavily infested sites with an average emergence number per collection period of 62.8, 31.7, 11.9 and 90.5 respectively. The mean number emerged 20,28 days after the collection date, excluding the Coccophagus sp., which occurred significantly later, on average 41 days after collection. Species emergence was examined and parasitized scales dissected. Parasitoid remains were interpreted to understand the mode of parasitism. The Coccophagus sp. was found to be a secondary parasitoid. Marietta leopardina occurred as a primary parasitoid, but only in low number and this species is also known to be hyperparasitic on chalcidoid wasps. Aprostocetus bangaloricus and O. kerriae are promising candidates for the lobate lac scale control in Florida. They are primary parasitoids of P. lobata and occurred at almost every collection site, especially where P. lobata was very abundant. [source]

Geographical difference in antimicrobial resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates from Indian patients: Multicentric study

Abstract Aim:, To assess the pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori isolates from peptic ulcer disease patients of Chandigarh, Delhi, Lucknow, Hyderabad and Chennai in India, and to recommend an updated anti- H. pylori treatment regimen to be used in these areas. Methods:, Two hundred and fifty-nine H. pylori isolates from patients with peptic ulcer disease reporting for clinical management to the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh; All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow; Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Allied Hospitals, Hyderabad; and hospitals in Chennai in collaboration with the Dr ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences were analyzed for their levels of antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxycillin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. The Epsilometer test (E-test), a quantitative disc diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing method, was adopted in all the centers. The pattern of single and multiple resistance at the respective centers and at the national level were analyzed. Results:, Overall H. pylori resistance rate was 77.9% to metronidazole, 44.7% to clarithromycin and 32.8% to amoxycillin. Multiple resistance was seen in 112/259 isolates (43.2%) and these were two/three and four drug resistance pattern to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxycillin observed (13.2, 32 and 2.56%, respectively). Metronidazole resistance was high in Lucknow, Chennai and Hyderabad (68, 88.2 and 100%, respectively) and moderate in Delhi (37.5%) and Chandigarh (38.2%). Ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance was the least, ranging from 1.0 to 4%. Conclusion:, In the Indian population, the prevalence of resistance of H. pylori is very high to metronidazole, moderate to clarithromycin and amoxycillin and low to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. The rate of resistance was higher in southern India than in northern India. The E-test emerges as a reliable quantitative antibiotic susceptibility test. A change in antibiotic policy to provide scope for rotation of antibiotics in the treatment of H. pylori in India is a public health emergency. [source]

Oral lesions among persons with HIV disease with and without highly active antiretroviral therapy in southern India

K. M. R. Umadevi
Background:, The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the scenario of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV patients in India have now access to generic HAART and this is the first report describing oral lesions in patients on HAART from our country. Methods:, Oral lesions were studied in HIV seropositive patients (n = 50 on HAART and n = 50 not on HAART) attending a tertiary HIV referral care centre in India and patients on HAART were followed up. Results:, There was a difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis (OC) between HAART and non-HAART participants (8%, 24%; P < 0.05). Pseudomembranous candidiasis was 4% and 18% in HAART and non-HAART groups respectively (P < 0.05). In patients with CD4 count ,200, OC was 5.6% in the HAART group and 39.1% in the non-HAART group (P < 0.05). Among patients with CD4 count >200, pigmentation was 43.8% in the HAART group and 14.8% in the non-HAART group (P < 0.05). Conclusion:, The prevalence of OC in patients who had access to HAART was less when compared with those who did not have access to HAART. [source]

Diversity of Glanzmann thrombasthenia in southern India: 10 novel mutations identified among 15 unrelated patients

Summary.,Background: Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is a congenital bleeding disorder caused by either a lack or dysfunction of the platelet integrin ,IIb,3. Objectives: To determine the molecular basis of GT in patients from southern India. Patients: Fifteen unrelated patients whose diagnosis was consistent with GT were evaluated. Results: Platelet surface expression of ,IIb,3 was < 10%, 10%,50%, and > 50% of controls in five, nine, and one patient(s), respectively. Immunoblotting of the platelet lysates showed no ,IIb in 14 patients, and no ,3 in 10 patients, although severely reduced in four patients. Platelet fibrinogen was undetectable in 13 patients, and severely reduced in one patient. One patient showed normal surface ,IIb,3 expression, and normal ,IIb, ,3 and fibrinogen levels in the lysate. Ten novel candidate disease-causing mutations were identified in 11 patients. The missense mutations included Gly128Ser, Ser287Leu, Gly357Ser, Arg520Trp, Leu799Arg in ,IIb, and Cys575Gly in ,3. We have already shown that Gly128Ser, Ser287Leu, and Gly357Ser mutations variably affect ,IIb,3 surface expression. The Cys575Gly mutation may disrupt the disulphide link with Cys586 to cause the GT phenotype. The molecular pathology of the other missense mutations is not clear. Two nonsense mutations, Trp-16Stop and Glu715Stop in ,IIb, and a 7-bp deletion (330-336TCCCCAG) in ,3 are predicted to result in truncated proteins. An IVS15(,1)G , A mutation in ,IIb induced a cryptic splice site as confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Thirteen polymorphisms were also identified (five in ,IIb and eight in ,3), among which five were novel. Conclusions: While identifying a significant number of novel mutations causing GT, this study confirms the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder in southern India. [source]

A mark,recapture study of the caecilian amphibian Gegeneophis ramaswamii (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae) in southern India

G. John Measey
Abstract The potentially important ecology of subterranean predators of soil ecosystem engineers is poorly understood. This is especially true of caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) for which there are virtually no quantitative data. Results of the first field trials of permanent marking in caecilians are presented. A preliminary assessment is made of the efficacy of mark,recapture studies for estimating population size of Gegeneophis ramaswamii Taylor in 100 m2 of low intensity agriculture in Kerala, India. Over three sampling occasions spanning 58 days of the monsoon season, 114 individuals were captured, 104 marked and released, and 21 recaptured. Models estimate an open population of 60 individuals (95% confidence interval of 45.2 to 151.3), and a closed population of 236 (95% confidence interval of 174 to 351). A census interpretation of the raw capture data gives densities of about 0.31 to 0.48 m,2. Results suggest large movement in and out of the sampled area during the study. Despite caveats associated with these data, progress is made in identifying potential limitations and improvements in the methods used. This study highlights the paucity of knowledge of caecilian ecology, and the need for long-term studies to elucidate further ecological information and to monitor populations. [source]

Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Nothapodytes nimmoniana, a medicinally important tree from the Western Ghats, India

Abstract Nothapodytes nimmoniana is a medicinally important tree species that occur in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity hotspot in southern India. Inner stem bark of the tree contains an important anti-cancer alkaloid, camptothecin for which the natural population of the tree is heavily harvested. In this paper, we report the isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci using enrichment hybridization protocol. Analysis of 36 individuals representing two populations revealed three to 12 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.21 to 0.94 for the two populations. None of the loci tested showed linkage disequilibrium. These markers are invaluable for evaluating the genetic structure and assessing the genetic impacts of harvesting of N. nimmoniana in the Western Ghats to formulate strategies for conservation of the species. [source]

Context-dependency of a complex fruit,frugivore mutualism: temporal variation in crop size and neighborhood effects

OIKOS, Issue 3 2010
Soumya Prasad
The quantity of fruit consumed by dispersers is highly variable among individuals within plant populations. The outcome of such selection operated by frugivores has been examined mostly with respect to changing spatial contexts. The influence of varying temporal contexts on frugivore choice, and their possible demographic and evolutionary consequences is poorly understood. We examined if temporal variation in fruit availability across a hierarchy of nested temporal levels (interannual, intraseasonal, 120 h, 24 h) altered frugivore choice for a complex seed dispersal system in dry tropical forests of southern India. The interactions between Phyllanthus emblica and its primary disperser (ruminants) was mediated by another frugivore (a primate), which made large quantities of fruit available on the ground to ruminants. The direction and strength of crop size and neighborhood effects on this interaction varied with changing temporal contexts. Fruit availability was higher in the first of the two study years, and at the start of the season in both years. Fruit persistence on trees, determined by primate foraging, was influenced by crop size and conspecific neighborhood densities only in the high fruit availability year. Fruit removal by ruminants was influenced by crop size in both years and neighborhood densities only in the high availability year. In both years, these effects were stronger at the start of the season. Intraseasonal reduction in fruit availability diminished inequalities in fruit removal by ruminants and the influence of crop size and fruiting neighborhoods. All trees were not equally attractive to frugivores in a P. emblica population at all points of time. Temporal asymmetry in frugivore-mediated selection could reduce potential for co-evolution between frugivores and plants by diluting selective pressures. Inter-dependencies formed between disparate animal consumers can add additional levels of complexity to plant,frugivore mutualistic networks and have potential reproductive consequences for specific individuals within populations. [source]

Antioxidant and DNA protecting properties of anti-fatigue herb Trichopus zeylanicus

Binu Tharakan
Abstract Chronic fatigue is considered a complex symptom for which currently there is no curative treatment available. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of fatigue and antioxidant treatment might be a valuable therapeutic approach. The Kani, a tribal high altitude living population in southern India, traditionally use the seeds of Trichopus zeylanicus to combat fatigue. In this study, the antioxidant properties of Trichopus zeylanicus were established on free radicals (DPPH and ABTS), its ability to reduce iron, lipoxygenase activity and hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. The effects of Trichopus zeylanicus on reactive oxygen species induced plasmid DNA (pBR322) cleavage were also investigated. Trichopus zeylanicus significantly scavenged free radicals, reduced lipid peroxidation and inhibited lipoxygenase activity. Trichopus zeylanicus also exhibited iron-chelating activity and inhibited reactive oxygen species induced DNA damage. Trichopus zeylanicus contains NADH, polyphenols and sulfhydryl compounds, which have the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species suggesting that the antioxidant activity may be an important mechanism of action of Trichopus zeylanicus to combat fatigue. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Redescription of Lagenophrys cochinensis Santhakumari & Gopalan, 1980 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Lagenophryidae), an Ectosymbiont of Marine Isopods, Including New Information on Morphology, Geographic Distribution, and Intraspecific Variation

ABSTRACT. Lagenophrys cochinensis is a peritrich ciliate originally reported as an ectocommensal of the wood-boring isopods Sphaeroma terebrans, Sphaeroma triste, and Sphaeroma annandalei and the tanaidacean Apseudes chilkensis in estuaries of southern India. In the present study, it was found to occur also on Sphaeroma quoyanum, Sphaeroma walkeri, and Exosphaeroma planulum. New material was used to make permanent preparations, allowing a comprehensive description of the morphology of L. cochinensis for the first time. The macronucleus of L. cochinensis was found to have an elongate shape that spans the width of the cell body, unlike the compact macronucleus originally described. In addition, the loricae of all samples examined were subcircular or shorter than wide, not longer than wide as originally described. Polykinetid 3 of the infundibular infraciliature consisted of three rows of kinetosomes, only the third species of Lagenophrys found to have more than two rows in polykinetid 3 so far. Samples of L. cochinensis on S. quoyanum from New Zealand and California appeared to represent a population distinct from others. The species has a cosmopolitan distribution, probably owing to the ease with which its hosts are transported from one estuary to another in drifting wood or on hulls of ships. [source]

Population genetic structure and conservation of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) across India

T. N. C. Vidya
This study examines the population genetic structure of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) across India, which harbours over half the world's population of this endangered species. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and allele frequencies at six nuclear DNA microsatellite markers obtained from the dung of free-ranging elephants reveal low mtDNA and typical microsatellite diversity. Both known divergent clades of mtDNA haplotypes in the Asian elephant are present in India, with southern and central India exhibiting exclusively the , clade of Fernando et al. (2000), northern India exhibiting exclusively the , clade and northeastern India exhibiting both, but predominantly the , clade. A nested clade analysis revealed isolation by distance as the principal mechanism responsible for the observed haplotype distributions within the , and , clades. Analyses of molecular variance and pairwise population FST tests based on both mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA suggest that northern-northeastern India, central India, Nilgiris (in southern India) and Anamalai-Periyar (in southern India) are four demographically autonomous population units and should be managed separately. In addition, evidence for female philopatry, male-mediated gene flow and two possible historical biogeographical barriers is described. [source]

Host range, vector relationships and sequence comparison of a begomovirus infecting hibiscus in India

R. Rajeshwari
Abstract Hibiscus leaf curl disease (HLCuD) occurs widely in India. Infected hibiscus plants show vein thickening, upward curling of leaves and enations on the abaxial leaf surface, reduction in leaf size and stunting. The commonly-occurring weeds (Ageratum conyzoides, Croton bonplandianum and Euphorbia geniculata), Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa and Nicotiana tabacum (var. Samsun, Xanthi), cotton and tomato were shown to be susceptible to HLCuD. One of the four species of hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) and 75 of the 101 commercial hybrids/varieties grown in the Bangalore area of southern India were also susceptible. Two virus isolates associated with HLCuD from Bangalore, South India (Ban), and Bhubaneswar, North India (Bhu), were detected serologically and by PCR-mediated amplification of virus genomes. The isolates were characterised by sequencing a fragment of DNA-A component (1288 nucleotides) and an associated satellite DNA molecule of 682 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses of these DNA-A sequences clustered them with Old World cotton-infecting begomoviruses and closest to Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV) at 95,97% DNA-A nucleotide identities. The 682-nucleotide satellite DNA molecules associated with the HLCuD samples Ban and Bhu shared 96.9% sequence identity with each other and maximum identity (93.1,93.9% over positions 158,682) with ,1350-nucleotide DNA-, satellite molecules associated with cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan and India (accession nos AJ298903, AJ316038). HLCuD in India, therefore, appears to be associated with strains of CLCuMV, a cotton-infecting begomovirus from Pakistan, which is transmitted in a persistent manner by Bemisia tabaci. [source]

Integrons and multidrug resistance among Escherichia coli causing community-acquired urinary tract infection in southern India

APMIS, Issue 3 2004
Antimicrobial resistance genes are often clustered in integrons, genetic elements capable of recombination. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence and role of integrons from community-acquired infections in developing countries where resistance to co-trimoxazole is high. We determined the prevalence of integrons among Escherichia coli causing community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI). Consecutive isolates of E. coli obtained from UTI of pregnant women at the Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India, during 2002 were included. All isolates were tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials using the disc diffusion method and for integrons of classes 1 and 2 by PCR. Of the 58 isolates tested, 28 (48.3%) were resistant to co-trimoxazole and trimethoprim. All these isolates carried integrons. Three additional isolates were sulfonamide resistant but integron negative. Class 1 integrons were present in 21 (36.2%) isolates. Resistance to ampicillin (p=0.000), nalidixic acid (p=0.001), chloramphenicol (p=0.02), tetracycline (p=0.004) and gentamicin (p=0.02) was significantly more common in isolates with integrons. DNA sequencing of two isolates with integrons showed the presence of aadA, dfr1 and dfr7 genes. This study demonstrated that integrons are widely prevalent in India and that they might play a role in multidrug resistance in E. coli from community-aquired UTI. [source]

Auroville: An Architectural Laboratory

Anupama Kundoo
Abstract Architect Anupama Kundoo describes how ,the dream of building a new city' from scratch for an international spiritual community in southern India has created a magnet for architects around the world. As the city now approaches its 50th anniversary, she asks whether Auroville can keep its architectural culture of innovation and experimentation alight. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Making Place in Bangalore

Anooradha Iyer Siddiqi
Abstract In the city of Bangalore in southern India, the predominant architectural language is that of conventional global commerce. ,Bland high-rise developments' jostle with shanties and urban sprawl. Anooradha Iyer Siddiqi, AIA, explores an alternative way, by Shilpa Sindoor Architects and Planners. The practice invests in a sense of place, but also uses a knowledge of the local construction market and materials to its economic advantage. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]