South India (south + india)

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Selected Abstracts


Philip Finny
Background: Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) remains controversial despite many advances over the past five decades. We attempt to review the presentation, management and prognosis of MTC at our institution over the last two decades. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the records of 40 patients with MTC over a period of 20 years. Results: Ten patients had hereditary MTC and 30 had sporadic MTC. The mean age of presentation was 41 years. Sixty-five per cent of the patients had a definite thyroid swelling and 43% had lymphadenopathy at the time of presentation. Total thyroidectomy with a central neck dissection was carried out in 82.5% of patients. Adjuvant therapy was given in 75% of patients because of extensive/residual disease. Postoperative hypercalcitoninaemia was seen 73% of patients. 131I metaiodobenzylguanidine scanning was carried out in 16 patients with persistent hypercalcitoninaemia; the uptake was positive in 10 and negative in 6, indicating a positivity of 62%. Conclusion: Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 2.5% of thyroid carcinomas. There is a small male preponderance. In our series 131I metaiodobenzylguanidine scan had a better positivity than what has been reported in the published work. Persistent postoperative hypercalcitoninaemia was associated with a poorer prognosis that did not reach statistical significant. [source]

Gender and the Politics of Voice: Colonial Modernity and Classical Music in South India

Amanda Weidman
First page of article [source]

Cyclone Mitigation, Resource Allocation and Post-disaster Reconstruction in South India: Lessons from Two Decades of Research

DISASTERS, Issue 1 2000
Peter Winchester
This paper opens with a history of development and disaster-prevention strategies in a cyclone-prone area of the east coast of India and traces the evolution in the area of British and Indian governments' programmes and policy over a century. Research over the last 20 years has shown however that the programmes and policies have failed to balance economic growth with safety. Resources intended for the benefit of all have been diverted by alliances of powerful people to a small minority, and recent developments have reduced the physical protection of the area. The result is that increasing numbers of people are vulnerable to the effects of cyclones and floods. The findings suggest that the best way to reduce vulnerability is to improve the socio-economic standing of the most vulnerable and for this to happen these people must have an assured income based on assets that will enable them to acquire social and economic credit-worthiness within the local economy. This paper presents evidence that suggests that non-governmental organisation (NGO)-supported co-operatives are the best way to achieve this through self-help and self-employment schemes. It also suggests that NGOs should be encouraged to take up environmentally and ecologically beneficial activities involving the poorest groups in the communities, in this way combining sustained self-employment with environmental protection. [source]

Italy is not a good place for men: narratives of places, marriage and masculinity among Malayali migrants

In this article I explore the relationship between a ,feminization of migration' and the construction of masculine identities among Malayali migrants from Kerala, South India, who experience migration directly or indirectly through marriages with Malayali women living and working in Rome. The interest in focusing on the relation between women's pioneer role as migrants and their husbands' experiences of migration is to show how men's identity is represented through their conjugal bond with migrant women working in the domestic sector and to understand how masculinity is constructed and contested within and with reference to different places. [source]

Resource settings have a major influence on the outcome of maintenance hemodialysis patients in South India

Abstract Chronic kidney disease is reaching epidemic proportions and the number of patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) is increasing worldwide and also in developing countries. To meet the challenge of providing RRT, a few charity organizations provide hemodialysis units for underprivileged patients, as the private hospitals are unaffordable for the majority. There is a paucity of information on the outcome of dialysis in these patients. Here, we describe the outcome of hemodialysis patients comparing the middle- and upper-class income group with the lower class income group. A retrospective analysis was carried out in 558 CKD patients initiated on maintenance hemodialysis in two different dialysis facilities. Group A (n=247) included those who belonged to the lowermost socioeconomic status and were undergoing dialysis in two nonprofit, charity (TANKER)-run dialysis units, and Group B (n=311) was undergoing dialysis in a nonprofit hospital setting where no subsidy was given. Those patients of a low socioeconomic status, especially those who are diabetics, have a higher death rate (Group A-38.1%, Group B-4.2%) and loss to follow-up (Group A-25.9%, Group B-0.3%) compared with those who are in the middle- and high-income group. Higher EPO use and hence higher hemoglobin levels (Group A-6.4±1.2, Group B-8.9±1.5 P<0.001) were observed in those who were in the middle and the higher income group. Lower serum phosphorus level was observed in the low-socioeconomic group (Group A-4.7±1.5, Group B-5.5±1.9, P<0.001). Patients belonging to the middle and higher socioeconomic group undergo more transplantations compared with the lower socioeconomic group (Group A-2.4%, Group B-65.6%). [source]

Patterns in diversity of anurans along an elevational gradient in the Western Ghats, South India

Rohit Naniwadekar
Abstract Aim, To examine patterns in anuran species richness along an elevation gradient and identify factors that govern anuran species richness on a tropical elevational gradient. Location, Sampling for anurans was carried out in Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) in the southern Western Ghats, India. Methods, Night-time sampling for anuran species richness was carried out from 20 November 2004 to 20 April 2005, during the north-east monsoon and dry seasons, using transects (50 × 2 m) and visual encounter surveys along the streams. The entire gradient was classified into thirteen 100-m elevation zones. Sampling at the alpha (single drainage basin) level was carried out in the Chinnapul River drainage basin (40,1260 m a.s.l.) and at the gamma (landscape) level in four drainage basins. Additionally, published records were used to arrive at an empirical species richness (S) for the entire landscape. Mid-Domain Null software was used to test for the possible influence of geometric constraints on anuran species at both the alpha and gamma levels. The influence of area under each elevation zone on empirical S was tested. The pattern in anuran species richness along the elevational gradient was investigated using: (1) species boundaries in each elevation zone and their habitat correlates, (2) abiotic factors as predictor variables, (3) mean snout vent lengths of anurans, and (4) correlation between the matrices of distance in the elevation zones based on microhabitat parameters and species composition. Cluster analysis on species presence,absence in the elevation zones was used to categorize the entire gradient into high, middle and low elevations. In these three elevation categories, pattern in composition of species was examined for endemism in Western Ghats,Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot, uniqueness to an elevation zone, adaptations of adults and modes of breeding. Results, Species richness at the alpha level increased linearly with elevation, while at the gamma level there were three peaks. Maximum species richness was observed at the highest elevation (1200 m) at both the alpha and the gamma levels. The observed patterns differed significantly from mid-domain null predictions. The multi-modal pattern in species richness was a consequence of overlapping species range boundaries. Soil temperature was the best single measure in explaining the majority of variation in species richness at the alpha level (r2 = 0.846, P < 0.01). However, soil moisture was the best predictor when both the alpha and the gamma sites were pooled (r2 = 0.774, P < 0.01). Anuran body size decreased with an increase in elevation. The highest proportions of endemic and unique species were found at high elevations (> 700 m). The proportion of arboreal anurans increased from low to high elevation. Anurans exhibiting direct development were predominantly found at high elevations. Main conclusions, Geometric constraints did not influence anuran species richness along the elevational gradient. Overlapping range boundaries influenced species richness at the gamma level. Abiotic factors such as soil temperature and moisture influenced anuran species richness in the mountain range. The ,Massenerhebung effect' could be responsible for range restriction and endemism of anurans, differences in guilds and mode of reproduction. These findings highlight the importance of cloud forests for endemic anurans. [source]

The diet of Horabagrus brachysoma (Gunther), an endangered bagrid catfish from Lake Vembanad (South India)

N. Sreeraj
A stomach content analysis of Horabagrus brachysoma from Lake Vembanad, South India, showed that this species was omnivorous and euryphagous, with few qualititative differences in the diet among size classes. Feeding rates changed over the course of a year in response to environmental change associated with the monsoon. [source]


ABSTRACT Idli is a traditional fermented rice and black gram-based breakfast food of South India. Idli batter was prepared from soaking polished parboiled rice and decorticated black gram for 4 h at 30 ± 1C in water. The soaked mass was ground to 0.5- to 0.7-mm particle size batter using wet grinder with adequate amount of water. The blend ratios of 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 (v/v) batter were allowed for fermentation (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h) adding 2% of salt. The idli batter parameters viz. bulk density, pH, percent total acidity, flow behavior index and consistency coefficient were studied for different fermentation times and blend ratios. The bulk density, pH and percentage total acidity of batter during different fermentation times and blend ratios ranged between 0.94 and 0.59 g/cm3, 5.9 and 4.1 and 0.443 and 0.910%, respectively. The consistency coefficient at any fermentation time shows increasing trend as the rice to black gram ratio increased. The flow behavior index indicated strong non-Newtonian fluid behavior (pseudoplastic) of idli batter at different fermentation times and blend ratios. [source]


ABSTRACT Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most important foodborne pathogens causing illness in humans and animals. Thus, a study was undertaken to investigate the incidence of Listeria species in fresh and dry fish samples marketed in Mysore, India. A total of 164 fresh and dry fish samples collected from retail outlet shops of Mysore, South India, during the period August 2005 through August 2006 were examined for the presence of Listeria species by using ISO 11290 protocol. The incidence of Listeria species was positive in 62 samples (37.8%), and L. monocytogenes was isolated from only three (1.83%) fresh fish samples. Listeria species in seafood were predominant in the order of Listeria innocua (50) (30.49%), Listeria grayi (eight) (4.9%), L. monocytogenes (three) (1.83%) and Listeria seeligeri (one) (0.6%). All isolates of Listeria species were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and confirmed with the genus-specific set of primers, and special emphasis was given for detection of L. monocytogenes using a species-specific set of primers. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR were in good correlation with the cultural methods. The results indicated a high incidence of Listeria species and L. monocytogenes in fresh fish samples. This warrants the need for appropriate control measures as this would pose a serious threat to human health. [source]

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: A clinico-radiologic review from a single centre in South India

A Singh
Summary Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare tumours but are the commonest mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, there is no large case series in Asian countries in which a clinico-radiological descriptive analysis of these tumours has been carried out. In this retrospective study, we analysed our experience of 70 patients with histopathologically proven GISTs, who were presurgically investigated by using CT, and describe the demography, anatomical distribution, imaging features and clinical course of the GIST. We found an unusually large predominance of males in our study, stomach and small bowel appeared to have been involved similarly and small bowel tumours had a higher rate of metastases. We also highlight some unusual CT features of these tumours that we encountered during the study, such as the presence of metastatic lymphadenopathy and satellite nodules, relapse in appendices epiploicae of the bowel, metachronous liposarcoma, adrenal and lung metastases, multiplicity of lesions and aneurysmal dilatation of the bowel. Two of our patients also had multiple neurofibromas, whose association with GIST has been seen in earlier reports. To the best of our knowledge, this article presents one of the largest series of articles on GISTs, to date, in Asian countries. We conclude with a differential diagnosis of GIST, with salient features distinguishing each entity. [source]

Evidence of intrafamilial transmission of rotavirus in a birth cohort in South India

Indrani Banerjee
Abstract Transmission of rotavirus infection was studied in a birth cohort of children based in an urban slum in Vellore and their familial contacts. Contemporaneous samples from index patients and their familial contacts were collected for analysis in three different settings. Firstly, samples were collected from familial contacts during a period of rotavirus infection in children from the cohort. Secondly, on occasions when a family member had rotavirus diarrhea, samples from the cohort child were taken for analysis. Lastly, asymptomatic surveillance samples collected at predetermined time points from both the cohort child and familial contacts were analyzed. From 560 samples collected from family members during symptomatic and asymptomatic rotavirus infections in these children, three rotavirus transmissions were identified, accounting for a secondary attack rate of 0.54%. In four instances of rotavirus diarrhea in a family member, one infection was transmitted to the cohort child. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a high degree of similarity in all these pairs ranging between 99% and 100% at both the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid levels, highly suggestive of person-to-person transmission of rotavirus infection. There was complete concordance of rotavirus genotyping between these pairs. No transmission events were noted from 14 asymptomatic rotavirus infections identified during routine surveillance of family members. This study is the first to use phylogenetic analysis to study the intrafamilial spread of rotavirus infection. J. Med. Virol. 80:1858,1863, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Melt-producing and melt-consuming reactions in the Achankovil cordierite gneisses, South India

B. Cenki
Abstract Migmatitic cordierite gneisses within the Achankovil Zone (AZ) of southern Pan-African India record melt-producing and subsequent melt-consuming mineral reactions. Early mineral assemblages Bt-Sil-Qtz and Bt-Sil-Spl, deduced from inclusion textures in garnet prophyroblasts, break down via successive dehydration melting reactions to high- T phase assemblages (e.g. Grt-Crd-Liq, Opx-Liq, Spl-Crd-Liq). Later back reactions between the restite and the in situ crystallizing melt resulted in thin cordierite coronas separating garnet from the leucosome, and partial resorption of garnet to Opx-Crd or Crd-Bt-Qtz symplectites. Leucosomes generally display a moderate (low-strain gneisses) to strong (high-strain gneisses) depletion of alkali feldspar attributed to mineral-melt back reactions partly controlled by the degree of melt segregation. Using a KFMASH partial petrogenetic grid that includes a melt phase, and qualitative pseudosections for microdomains of high and low Al/Si ratios, the successive phase assemblages and reaction textures are interpreted in terms of a clockwise P,T path culminating at about 6,7 kbar and 900,950 °C. This P,T path is consistent with, but more detailed than published results, which suggests that taking a melt phase into account is not only a valid, but also a useful approach. Comparing P,T data and lithological and isotopic data for the AZ with adjacent East Gondwana fragments, suggests the presence of a coherent metasedimentary unit exposed from southern Madagascar via South India (AZ) and Sri Lanka (Wanni Complex) to the Lützow,Holm Bay in Eastern Antarctica. [source]

Clinicopathologic profile of normocomplementemic and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis: a study from South India

CVP Dincy
Abstract Background, This study aims to study the clinical and histopathological characteristics of hypocomplementemic and normocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis (HUVS and NUV) among dermatology clinic attendees in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Patients and methods, A prospective study was conducted in the dermatology department from February 2003 to May 2004. Seventy-five patients met the inclusion criteria for UV. Sixty-eight patients in whom complement levels were available were classified into either NUV or HUVS groups. Clinical features, laboratory parameters and histological features were compared, and the significance of differences was established using Pearson's Chi-squared test. Results, There was a female preponderance among patients with HUVS. Wheals > 24 h were seen in 90% of patients, and in 54.4% of patients, the wheals were partially blanching or non-blanching. Angioedema was more prevalent in patients with NUV than HUVS (44.4% vs. 21.4%). Systemic involvement was seen in 64.3% of patients with HUVS and 44.4% of patients with NUV. Fever, ANA positivity and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were significantly associated with HUVS. In most cases of UV, a provoking factor could not be identified. Neutrophilic small vessel vasculitis was seen in 42.9% of patients with HUVS and 16.6% patients with NUV. Direct immunofluorescence test showing immunoreactants at the dermo-epidermal junction were present in 60% of patients with HUVS and 33.3% patients with NUV. Conclusion, The clinical features of Indian patients with UV were similar to those reported from the West. Fever, ANA positivity and SLE were significantly associated with HUVS. [source]

Ultrastructure of cyst shell and underlying membranes of three strains of the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from South India

V. Sugumar
Abstract The cyst of Artemia has shell and membranous coverings over the embryo. The membranous coverings have special adaptive features to allow the physical changes accompanying repeated hydration and dehydration cycles that might occur and adversely influence postembryonic development. Whole and slices of cryptobiotic cysts were processed for electron microscopy to study the internal details and to compare the morphological architecture of three Artemia strains of South India. Surface topography of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies revealed distinct button shaped structures on the cyst of Puthalam strain. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies of the cysts displayed the conventional pattern of anostracan crustaceans with outer cortex and alveolar layer, cuticular membranes, and the cytoplasmic inclusions namely nucleus, yolk droplets, lipoid bodies, and mitochondria. The prominent wavy outer cortex layer of Puthalam cysts corroborates the results of SEM studies. Microsc. Res. Tech. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genetic variation and relationships among eight Indian riverine buffalo breeds

Abstract Twenty-seven microsatellite loci were used to define genetic variation and relationships among eight Indian riverine buffalo breeds. The total number of alleles ranged from 166 in the Toda breed to 194 each in the Mehsana and the Murrah. Significant departures from the Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium were observed for 26 locus-breed combinations due to heterozygote deficiency. Breed differentiation was analysed by estimation of FST index (values ranging from 0.75% to 6.00%) for various breed combinations. The neighbour-joining tree constructed from chord distances, multidimensional scaling (MDS) display of FST values and Bayesian clustering approach consistently identified the Toda, Jaffarabadi, and Pandharpuri breeds as one lineage each, and the Bhadawari, Nagpuri, Surati, Mehsana and Murrah breeds as admixture. Analysis of molecular variance refuted the earlier classification of these breeds proposed on the basis of morphological and geographical parameters. The Toda buffaloes, reared by a tribe of the same name, represent an endangered breed from the Nilgiri hills in South India. Divergence time of the Toda buffaloes from the other main breeds, calculated from Nei's standard genetic distances based on genotyping data on seven breeds and 20 microsatellite loci, suggested separation of this breed approximately 1800,2700 years ago. The results of the present study will be useful for development of rational breeding and conservation strategies for Indian buffaloes. [source]

Book Reviews: Crooked Stalks: Cultivating Virtue in South India by Anand Pandian

John Harriss
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Shorelines: Space and Rights in South India by Ajantha Subramanian

Mary Hancock
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Stigmas of the Tamil Stage: An Ethnography of Special Drama Artists in South India by Susan Seizer

No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Socio-economic changes and sacred groves in South India: Protecting a community-based resource management institution

M.G. Chandrakanth
Abstract The sacred groves along the forest belts of south India, which were traditionally managed by village communities, are gradually disappearing. This study conducts an analysis of how this community-based resource management institution has evolved over time and what socio-economic factors have caused its gradual disintegration. Commercial agriculture, changing demographics and weak property-rights systems are found to be some of the enabling factors. While the grass-roots enthusiasm to save the sacred groves is still alive, government action is needed to strengthen the traditional village organizations, which are still perhaps in the best position to manage local resources. Several economic and financial incentive mechanisms at the local level that might lead to more efficient and equitable resource use outcomes are suggested. [source]

Birth on the Threshold: Childbirth and Modernity in South India by Cecilia Van Hollen

No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Recipes for Immortality: Medicine, Religion, and Community in South India by Richard S. Weiss

No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Testing three evolutionary models of the demographic transition: Patterns of fertility and age at marriage in urban South India

Mary K. Shenk
Over the last three decades many authors have addressed the demographic transition from the perspective of evolutionary theory. Some authors have emphasized parental investment factors such as the costs of raising children, others have emphasized the effects of mortality and other forms of risk, and others have emphasized the biased transmission of cultural norms from people of high status. Yet the literature says little about the relative strengths of each of these types of motivations or about which ones are more likely to serve as the primary impetus for large-scale demographic change. In this paper, I examine how each of these factors has influenced the demographic transition in urban South India during the course of the 20th century using two measures of fertility transition: number of surviving children and age at marriage. I find that investment-related, risk-related, and cultural transmission predictors all have significant individual effects on the outcome variables, which persist when they are entered in combination. When the three types of predictors are compared, however, investment-related models appear to provide more robust explanations for patterns in both fertility and age of marriage. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ethnobiology of the Nilgiri Hills, India

S. Rajan
Abstract The Nilgiri is a popular massif towering high in the Western Ghats in South India with an altitude of 2623,m. Nature has been magnanimous in bestowing Nilgiri district with rich evergreen temperate to tropical forests. A high degree of biodiversity, marked by varied flora and fauna of good therapeutic potential as well as the varied number of indigenous groups of people in this area, makes it very popular among herbalists. The district has six anthropologically well defined ethnic groups namely Todas, Kotas, Kurumbas, Irulas, Paniyas and Kattunayakas living here possibly since 1200 B.C. The present review highlights the ethnobiological profile of six indigenous populations and their dependence on ambient flora and fauna for traditional health care needs. It has been observed that about 2700 therapeutically potent plant species are available in this hill station of which almost all have come from local medicine. Some have been explored scientifically. However, about 150 plant species are still to be explored for their therapeutic potential. The ethnography, phytochemical and therapeutic uses as well as the anthropological perspectives of the local medicines have been discussed in this review. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Determinants of Gender Equity in India: Examining Dyson and Moore's Thesis with New Data

Lupin Rahman
In revisiting the influential Dyson and Moore (1983) hypothesis as to why women in South India enjoy relatively more agency than in the North, we conducted an econometric analysis of the determinants of women's mobility and decisionmaking authority. Data for the study come from a household data survey carried out in the Northern state of Uttar Pradesh and in the Southern state of Karnataka in 1995. We find that cross-cousin and uncle-niece marriage is more prevalent in Karnataka as expected. Contrary to Dyson and Moore, however, by 1995 a majority of communities in both North and South practiced village exogamy, and dowries in the two regions were of similar size. Reduced-form, multivariate regressions show that cultural factors affect women's autonomy in ways not earlier predicted. The impact of village exogamy is mixed rather than negative, while that of consanguinity is strongly negative rather than positive as Dyson and Moore surmised. These authors correctly identified the negative effect purdah has on female mobility. Consistent with economic theory, our data show that higher wages for women consistently improve their mobility and authority, while higher male wages decrease them. Improvements in infrastructure,particularly the presence of street lights and schools in the village,are associated with increased women's agency. We conclude, therefore, that economic factors, state action, and restrictions on mobility seem more powerful than kinship structures as explanations of differences in female autonomy between North and South India. [source]

Converting Women: Gender and Protestant Christianity in Colonial South India , By Eliza F. Kent

Will Sweetman
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Host range, vector relationships and sequence comparison of a begomovirus infecting hibiscus in India

R. Rajeshwari
Abstract Hibiscus leaf curl disease (HLCuD) occurs widely in India. Infected hibiscus plants show vein thickening, upward curling of leaves and enations on the abaxial leaf surface, reduction in leaf size and stunting. The commonly-occurring weeds (Ageratum conyzoides, Croton bonplandianum and Euphorbia geniculata), Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa and Nicotiana tabacum (var. Samsun, Xanthi), cotton and tomato were shown to be susceptible to HLCuD. One of the four species of hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) and 75 of the 101 commercial hybrids/varieties grown in the Bangalore area of southern India were also susceptible. Two virus isolates associated with HLCuD from Bangalore, South India (Ban), and Bhubaneswar, North India (Bhu), were detected serologically and by PCR-mediated amplification of virus genomes. The isolates were characterised by sequencing a fragment of DNA-A component (1288 nucleotides) and an associated satellite DNA molecule of 682 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses of these DNA-A sequences clustered them with Old World cotton-infecting begomoviruses and closest to Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV) at 95,97% DNA-A nucleotide identities. The 682-nucleotide satellite DNA molecules associated with the HLCuD samples Ban and Bhu shared 96.9% sequence identity with each other and maximum identity (93.1,93.9% over positions 158,682) with ,1350-nucleotide DNA-, satellite molecules associated with cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan and India (accession nos AJ298903, AJ316038). HLCuD in India, therefore, appears to be associated with strains of CLCuMV, a cotton-infecting begomovirus from Pakistan, which is transmitted in a persistent manner by Bemisia tabaci. [source]

,Damsel in distress'- The tale of Miss Kerala, Puntius denisonii (Day), an endemic and endangered cyprinid of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot (South India)

Rajeev Raghavan
Abstract 1.Denison's Barb, Puntius denisonii (Day) is an endemic and endangered cyprinid fish of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in peninsular India, which is the focus of an organized yet undocumented fishery targeting juveniles for the international aquarium trade. 2.Research on P. denisonii has been very limited and there has been no systematic effort to assess and monitor their abundance, distribution and populations. 3.Anecdotal and circumstantial evidence indicates a highly restricted distribution, low abundance, declining populations, low catch per unit effort and increasing market prices, providing evidence of an impending conservation crisis and the need for urgent management of wild stocks. 4.This paper reviews current knowledge, provides results from the authors' field study and suggests priorities for conservation and management actions for P. denisonii in the streams of Kerala. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prevalence of menopausal symptoms and quality of life after menopause in women from South India

Laxminarayana BAIRY
Objectives: This study was carried out to establish the age at onset of menopause and the prevalence of menopause and menopausal symptoms in South Indian women. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fifty-two postmenopausal women attending the outpatient clinics of obstetrics and gynaecology department of Dr TMA Pai Hospital, a tertiary care Hospital in South India, were included in the study. The Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was used in the study. Data were presented as percentages for qualitative variable. Results: The mean age at menopause was 48.7 years. Most frequent menopausal symptoms were aching in muscle and joints, feeling tired, poor memory, lower backache and difficulty in sleeping. The vasomotor and sexual domains were less frequently complained when compared to physical and psychological domains. Conclusion: The age at onset of menopause in southern Karnataka (India) is 48.7 years which is four years more than the mean menopause age for Indian women. This could be attributed to better socioeconomic and health-care facility in this region. [source]

Prevalence of idiopathic macular hole in adult rural and urban south Indian population

Parveen Sen MS
Abstract Background:, This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of idiopathic macular hole in a defined community in Southern India. Methods:, In all, 7774 of the 9546 enumerated (81.43%) subjects availed themselves for an ophthalmic assessment which included a detailed ophthalmic examination and fundus photography. All data were entered and stored in a secure computerized database and statistical analysis was performed using spss for Windows. Results:, Thirteen subjects comprising six males and seven females were diagnosed with macular holes equating to a risk of 0.17%. Bilateral macular holes were found in two subjects. The mean age of subjects with a macular hole was 67 years. Increasing age and history of cataract surgery was strongly associated with an increased prevalence of macular holes (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in the prevalence of macular hole between the rural and urban communities. The mean logMAR visual acuity of subjects in the eye with a macular hole was 1.31 ± 0.45 whereas the acuity in the unaffected fellow eye was 0.70 ± 0.51. The mean spherical equivalent in the subjects with macular hole was ,0.56 ± 1.92 (,4.25 to +1.00). Conclusion:, Prevalence rate of idiopathic macular hole in South India appears to be comparable to that seen worldwide. [source]

Relationship of lipoprotein(a) with intimal medial thickness of the carotid artery in Type 2 diabetic patients in south India

K. Velmurugan
Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels with intimal medial thickness (IMT) in Type 2 diabetic patients in south India. Study design We studied 587 consecutive Type 2 diabetic patients at the M.V. Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai. The mean age of the study group was 55 ± 10 years and 71.2% were males. IMT of the right common carotid artery was determined using high-resolution B mode ultrasonography. Lp(a) levels were measured using ELISA. Since the frequency distribution of Lp(a) was skewed, Lp(a) values were log transformed and the geometric mean was used for statistical analysis. The tertiles of IMT were determined to analyse the association of Lp(a) and other factors with IMT. Result The mean Lp(a) level in the study patients was 18.9 ± 3.1 mg/dl (geometric mean ± sd) and the mean IMT of the study subjects was 0.93 ± 0.19 mm (mean ± sd). The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis (defined as IMT > 1.1 mm) among subjects with elevated Lp(a) levels > 20 mg/dl was significantly higher compared with those with Lp(a) levels , 20 mg/dl (26.9% vs. 16.3%, P = 0.003). Lp(a) levels increased with increase in tertiles of IMT (anova, P < 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis of carotid IMT with other cardiovascular risk factors revealed strong correlation of IMT with age (P < 0.0001), duration of diabetes (P < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.006), LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.023), HbA1c (P = 0.017) and Lp(a) (P < 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed age (P = 0.010), LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.032) and Lp(a) (P = 0.021) to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Conclusion The results suggest that Lp(a) has a strong association with IMT of carotid arteries in Type 2 diabetic subjects in south India. Diabet. Med. 20, 455,461 (2003) [source]