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## Bayesian Framework (bayesian + framework)
## Selected Abstracts## A BAYESIAN FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF COSPECIATION EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2000John P. HuelsenbeckAbstract., Information on the history of cospeciation and host switching for a group of host and parasite species is contained in the DNA sequences sampled from each. Here, we develop a Bayesian framework for the analysis of cospeciation. We suggest a simple model of host switching by a parasite on a host phylogeny in which host switching events are assumed to occur at a constant rate over the entire evolutionary history of associated hosts and parasites. The posterior probability density of the parameters of the model of host switching are evaluated numerically using Markov chain Monte Carlo. In particular, the method generates the probability density of the number of host switches and of the host switching rate. Moreover, the method provides information on the probability that an event of host switching is associated with a particular pair of branches. A Bayesian approach has several advantages over other methods for the analysis of cospeciation. In particular, it does not assume that the host or parasite phylogenies are known without error; many alternative phylogenies are sampled in proportion to their probability of being correct. [source] ## Data cloning: easy maximum likelihood estimation for complex ecological models using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 7 2007Subhash R. LeleAbstract We introduce a new statistical computing method, called data cloning, to calculate maximum likelihood estimates and their standard errors for complex ecological models. Although the method uses the Bayesian framework and exploits the computational simplicity of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, it provides valid frequentist inferences such as the maximum likelihood estimates and their standard errors. The inferences are completely invariant to the choice of the prior distributions and therefore avoid the inherent subjectivity of the Bayesian approach. The data cloning method is easily implemented using standard MCMC software. Data cloning is particularly useful for analysing ecological situations in which hierarchical statistical models, such as state-space models and mixed effects models, are appropriate. We illustrate the method by fitting two nonlinear population dynamics models to data in the presence of process and observation noise. [source] ## Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear models for a geographical subset of recovery data ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 2 2002Daniela CocchiAbstract The aim of this work is to check whether modifications in the length of the hunting seasons had an effect on the chance of reproduction of different species of ringed birds. We start from a national data set of ringing-recovered data on three species of game birds. Only data on birds recovered as juveniles are used. Data on recoveries are organized in a 4-way contingency table. Several generalized linear models are proposed for the counts of recovered birds. Bayesian hierarchical modeling is particularly suitable for this kind of data, for which an over-dispersion parameter can be introduced at the second level of the hierarchy. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian solutions are computed for the different models: the Bayesian framework, in particular under an individual modeling of over-dispersion, exhibits the best fit in terms of Bayesian p -value. The results show that the modification in the length of the hunting seasons does not produce equal benefits for the three species considered. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## DETECTING THE HISTORICAL SIGNATURE OF KEY INNOVATIONS USING STOCHASTIC MODELS OF CHARACTER EVOLUTION AND CLADOGENESIS EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2005Richard H. ReeAbstract Phylogenetic evidence for biological traits that increase the net diversification rate of lineages (key innovations) is most commonly drawn from comparisons of clade size. This can work well for ancient, unreversed traits and for correlating multiple trait origins with higher diversification rates, but it is less suitable for unique events, recently evolved innovations, and that exhibit homoplasy. Here I present a new method for detecting the phylogenetic signature of key innovations that tests whethere the evolutionary history of the candidate trait is associated with shorter waiting times between cladogenesis events. The method employs stochastic models of character evolution and cladogenesis and integrates well into a Bayesian framework in which uncertainty in historical inferences (such as phylogenetic relationships) is allowed. Applied to a well-known example in plants, nectar spurs in columbines, the method gives much stronger support to the key innovation hypothesis than previous tests. [source] ## DETECTING CORRELATION BETWEEN CHARACTERS IN A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH UNCERTAIN PHYLOGENY EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2003John P. HuelsenbeckAbstract., The importance of accommodating the phylogenetic history of a group when performing a comparative analysis is now widely recognized. The typical approaches either assume the tree is known without error, or they base inferences on a collection of well-supported trees or on a collection of trees generated under a stochastic model of cladogenesis. However, these approaches do not adequately account for the uncertainty of phylogenetic trees in a comparative analysis, especially when data relevant to the phylogeny of a group are available. Here, we develop a method for performing comparative analyses that is based on an extension of Felsenstein's independent contrasts method. Uncertainties in the phylogeny, branch lengths, and other parameters are accommodated by averaging over all possible trees, weighting each by the probability that the tree is correct. We do this in a Bayesian framework and use Markov chain Monte Carlo to perform the high-dimensional summations and integrations required by the analysis. We illustrate the method using comparative characters sampled from Anolis lizards. [source] ## A BAYESIAN FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF COSPECIATION EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2000John P. HuelsenbeckAbstract., Information on the history of cospeciation and host switching for a group of host and parasite species is contained in the DNA sequences sampled from each. Here, we develop a Bayesian framework for the analysis of cospeciation. We suggest a simple model of host switching by a parasite on a host phylogeny in which host switching events are assumed to occur at a constant rate over the entire evolutionary history of associated hosts and parasites. The posterior probability density of the parameters of the model of host switching are evaluated numerically using Markov chain Monte Carlo. In particular, the method generates the probability density of the number of host switches and of the host switching rate. Moreover, the method provides information on the probability that an event of host switching is associated with a particular pair of branches. A Bayesian approach has several advantages over other methods for the analysis of cospeciation. In particular, it does not assume that the host or parasite phylogenies are known without error; many alternative phylogenies are sampled in proportion to their probability of being correct. [source] ## Analyzing the Relationship Between Smoking and Coronary Heart Disease at the Small Area Level: A Bayesian Approach to Spatial Modeling GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS, Issue 2 2006Jane LawWe model the relationship between coronary heart disease and smoking prevalence and deprivation at the small area level using the Poisson log-linear model with and without random effects. Extra-Poisson variability (overdispersion) is handled through the addition of spatially structured and unstructured random effects in a Bayesian framework. In addition, four different measures of smoking prevalence are assessed because the smoking data are obtained from a survey that resulted in quite large differences in the size of the sample across the census tracts. Two of the methods use Bayes adjustments of standardized smoking ratios (local and global adjustments), and one uses a nonparametric spatial averaging technique. A preferred model is identified based on the deviance information criterion. Both smoking and deprivation are found to be statistically significant risk factors, but the effect of the smoking variable is reduced once the confounding effects of deprivation are taken into account. Maps of the spatial variability in relative risk, and the importance of the underlying covariates and random effects terms, are produced. We also identify areas with excess relative risk. [source] ## Reconstruction of the Water Table from Self-Potential Data: A Bayesian Approach GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2009A. JardaniGround water flow associated with pumping and injection tests generates self-potential signals that can be measured at the ground surface and used to estimate the pattern of ground water flow at depth. We propose an inversion of the self-potential signals that accounts for the heterogeneous nature of the aquifer and a relationship between the electrical resistivity and the streaming current coupling coefficient. We recast the inversion of the self-potential data into a Bayesian framework. Synthetic tests are performed showing the advantage in using self-potential signals in addition to in situ measurements of the potentiometric levels to reconstruct the shape of the water table. This methodology is applied to a new data set from a series of coordinated hydraulic tomography, self-potential, and electrical resistivity tomography experiments performed at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site, Idaho. In particular, we examine one of the dipole hydraulic tests and its reciprocal to show the sensitivity of the self-potential signals to variations of the potentiometric levels under steady-state conditions. However, because of the high pumping rate, the response was also influenced by the Reynolds number, especially near the pumping well for a given test. Ground water flow in the inertial laminar flow regime is responsible for nonlinearity that is not yet accounted for in self-potential tomography. Numerical modeling addresses the sensitivity of the self-potential response to this problem. [source] ## Quantifying the uncertainty about the half-life of deviations from PPP JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMETRICS, Issue 2 2002Lutz KilianWe propose a Bayesian framework in which the uncertainty about the half-life of deviations from purchasing power parity can be quantified. Based on the responses to a survey study, we propose a prior probability distribution for the half-life under the recent float intended to capture widely held views among economists. We derive the posterior probability distribution of the half-life under this consensus prior and confirm the presence of substantial uncertainty about the half-life. We provide for the first time a comprehensive formal evaluation of several nonnested hypotheses of economic interest, including Rogoff's (1996) claim that the half-life is contained in the range of 3 to 5 years. We find that no hypothesis receives strong support from the data. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Are the Northern Andes a species pump for Neotropical birds? JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2010Phylogenetics, biogeography of a clade of Neotropical tanagers (Aves: Thraupini)Abstract Aim, We used mitochondrial DNA sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny of a large clade of tanagers (Aves: Thraupini). We used the phylogeny of this Neotropical bird group to identify areas of vicariance, reconstruct ancestral zoogeographical areas and elevational distributions, and to investigate the correspondence of geological events to speciation events. Location, The species investigated are found in 18 of the 22 zoogeographical regions of South America, Central America and the Caribbean islands; therefore, we were able to use the phylogeny to address the biogeographical history of the entire region. Methods, Molecular sequence data were gathered from two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome b and ND2) and analysed using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches. Dispersal,vicariance analysis (DIVA) was used to reconstruct zoogeographical areas and elevational distributions. A Bayesian framework was also used to address changes in elevation during the evolutionary history of the group. Results, Our phylogeny was similar to previous tanager phylogenies constructed using fewer species; however, we identified three genera that are not monophyletic and uncovered high levels of sequence divergence within some species. DIVA identified early diverging nodes as having a Northern Andean distribution, and the most recent common ancestor of the species included in this study occurred at high elevations. Most speciation events occurred either within highland areas or within lowland areas, with few exchanges occurring between the highlands and lowlands. The Northern Andes has been a source for lineages in other regions, with more dispersals out of this area relative to dispersals into this area. Most of the dispersals out of the Northern Andes were dispersals into the Central Andes; however, a few key dispersal events were identified out of the Andes and into other zoogeographical regions. Main conclusions, The timing of diversification of these tanagers correlates well with the main uplift of the Northern Andes, with the highest rate of speciation occurring during this timeframe. Central American tanagers included in this study originated from South American lineages, and the timing of their dispersal into Central America coincides with or post-dates the completion of the Panamanian isthmus. [source] ## Bayesian conformational analysis of ring molecules through reversible jump MCMC JOURNAL OF CHEMOMETRICS, Issue 8 2005Kim NolsřeAbstract In this paper, we address the problem of classifying the conformations of m -membered rings using experimental observations obtained by crystal structure analysis. We formulate a model for the data generation mechanism that consists in a multidimensional mixture model. We perform inference for the proportions and the components in a Bayesian framework, implementing a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) reversible jump algorithm to obtain samples of the posterior distributions. The method is illustrated on a simulated data set and on real data corresponding to cyclo-octane structures. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Volatility forecasting with double Markov switching GARCH models JOURNAL OF FORECASTING, Issue 8 2009Cathy W. S. ChenAbstract This paper investigates inference and volatility forecasting using a Markov switching heteroscedastic model with a fat-tailed error distribution to analyze asymmetric effects on both the conditional mean and conditional volatility of financial time series. The motivation for extending the Markov switching GARCH model, previously developed to capture mean asymmetry, is that the switching variable, assumed to be a first-order Markov process, is unobserved. The proposed model extends this work to incorporate Markov switching in the mean and variance simultaneously. Parameter estimation and inference are performed in a Bayesian framework via a Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme. We compare competing models using Bayesian forecasting in a comparative value-at-risk study. The proposed methods are illustrated using both simulations and eight international stock market return series. The results generally favor the proposed double Markov switching GARCH model with an exogenous variable. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Integrated estimation of measurement error with empirical process modeling,A hierarchical Bayes approach AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 11 2009Hongshu ChenAbstract Advanced empirical process modeling methods such as those used for process monitoring and data reconciliation rely on information about the nature of noise in the measured variables. Because this likelihood information is often unavailable for many practical problems, approaches based on repeated measurements or process constraints have been developed for their estimation. Such approaches are limited by data availability and often lack theoretical rigor. In this article, a novel Bayesian approach is proposed to tackle this problem. Uncertainty about the error variances is incorporated in the Bayesian framework by setting noninformative priors for the noise variances. This general strategy is used to modify the Sampling-based Bayesian Latent Variable Regression (Chen et al., J Chemom., 2007) approach, to make it more robust to inaccurate information about the likelihood functions. Different noninformative priors for the noise variables are discussed and unified in this work. The benefits of this new approach are illustrated via several case studies. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source] ## Joint projections of temperature and precipitation change from multiple climate models: a hierarchical Bayesian approach JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES A (STATISTICS IN SOCIETY), Issue 1 2009Claudia TebaldiSummary., Posterior distributions for the joint projections of future temperature and precipitation trends and changes are derived by applying a Bayesian hierachical model to a rich data set of simulated climate from general circulation models. The simulations that are analysed here constitute the future projections on which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change based its recent summary report on the future of our planet's climate, albeit without any sophisticated statistical handling of the data. Here we quantify the uncertainty that is represented by the variable results of the various models and their limited ability to represent the observed climate both at global and at regional scales. We do so in a Bayesian framework, by estimating posterior distributions of the climate change signals in terms of trends or differences between future and current periods, and we fully characterize the uncertain nature of a suite of other parameters, like biases, correlation terms and model-specific precisions. Besides presenting our results in terms of posterior distributions of the climate signals, we offer as an alternative representation of the uncertainties in climate change projections the use of the posterior predictive distribution of a new model's projections. The results from our analysis can find straightforward applications in impact studies, which necessitate not only best guesses but also a full representation of the uncertainty in climate change projections. For water resource and crop models, for example, it is vital to use joint projections of temperature and precipitation to represent the characteristics of future climate best, and our statistical analysis delivers just that. [source] ## Estimates of human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and proportion diagnosed based on Bayesian multiparameter synthesis of surveillance data JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES A (STATISTICS IN SOCIETY), Issue 3 2008A. GoubarSummary., Estimates of the number of prevalent human immunodeficiency virus infections are used in England and Wales to monitor development of the human immunodeficiency virus,acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic and for planning purposes. The population is split into risk groups, and estimates of risk group size and of risk group prevalence and diagnosis rates are combined to derive estimates of the number of undiagnosed infections and of the overall number of infected individuals. In traditional approaches, each risk group size, prevalence or diagnosis rate parameter must be informed by just one summary statistic. Yet a rich array of surveillance and other data is available, providing information on parameters and on functions of parameters, and raising the possibility of inconsistency between sources of evidence in some parts of the parameter space. We develop a Bayesian framework for synthesis of surveillance and other information, implemented through Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The sources of data are found to be inconsistent under their accepted interpretation, but the inconsistencies can be resolved by introducing additional ,bias adjustment' parameters. The best-fitting model incorporates a hierarchical structure to spread information more evenly over the parameter space. We suggest that multiparameter evidence synthesis opens new avenues in epidemiology based on the coherent summary of available data, assessment of consistency and bias modelling. [source] ## Towards a coherent statistical framework for dense deformable template estimation JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES B (STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY), Issue 1 2007S. AllassonničreSummary., The problem of estimating probabilistic deformable template models in the field of computer vision or of probabilistic atlases in the field of computational anatomy has not yet received a coherent statistical formulation and remains a challenge. We provide a careful definition and analysis of a well-defined statistical model based on dense deformable templates for grey level images of deformable objects. We propose a rigorous Bayesian framework for which we prove asymptotic consistency of the maximum a posteriori estimate and which leads to an effective iterative estimation algorithm of the geometric and photometric parameters in the small sample setting. The model is extended to mixtures of finite numbers of such components leading to a fine description of the photometric and geometric variations of an object class. We illustrate some of the ideas with images of handwritten digits and apply the estimated models to classification through maximum likelihood. [source] ## Bayesian inference in hidden Markov models through the reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo method JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES B (STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY), Issue 1 2000C. P. RobertHidden Markov models form an extension of mixture models which provides a flexible class of models exhibiting dependence and a possibly large degree of variability. We show how reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques can be used to estimate the parameters as well as the number of components of a hidden Markov model in a Bayesian framework. We employ a mixture of zero-mean normal distributions as our main example and apply this model to three sets of data from finance, meteorology and geomagnetism. [source] ## Bayesian geoadditive sample selection models JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES C (APPLIED STATISTICS), Issue 3 2010Manuel WiesenfarthSummary., Sample selection models attempt to correct for non-randomly selected data in a two-model hierarchy where, on the first level, a binary selection equation determines whether a particular observation will be available for the second level, i.e. in the outcome equation. Ignoring the non-random selection mechanism that is induced by the selection equation may result in biased estimation of the coefficients in the outcome equation. In the application that motivated this research, we analyse relief supply in earthquake-affected communities in Pakistan, where the decision to deliver goods represents the dependent variable in the selection equation whereas factors that determine the amount of goods supplied are analysed in the outcome equation. In this application, the inclusion of spatial effects is necessary since the available covariate information on the community level is rather scarce. Moreover, the high temporal dynamics underlying the immediate delivery of relief supply after a natural disaster calls for non-linear, time varying effects. We propose a geoadditive sample selection model that allows us to address these issues in a general Bayesian framework with inference being based on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The model proposed is studied in simulations and applied to the relief supply data from Pakistan. [source] ## Structural and parameter uncertainty in Bayesian cost-effectiveness models JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES C (APPLIED STATISTICS), Issue 2 2010Christopher H. JacksonSummary., Health economic decision models are subject to various forms of uncertainty, including uncertainty about the parameters of the model and about the model structure. These uncertainties can be handled within a Bayesian framework, which also allows evidence from previous studies to be combined with the data. As an example, we consider a Markov model for assessing the cost-effectiveness of implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Using Markov chain Monte Carlo posterior simulation, uncertainty about the parameters of the model is formally incorporated in the estimates of expected cost and effectiveness. We extend these methods to include uncertainty about the choice between plausible model structures. This is accounted for by averaging the posterior distributions from the competing models using weights that are derived from the pseudo-marginal-likelihood and the deviance information criterion, which are measures of expected predictive utility. We also show how these cost-effectiveness calculations can be performed efficiently in the widely used software WinBUGS. [source] ## Segmenting bacterial and viral DNA sequence alignments with a trans-dimensional phylogenetic factorial hidden Markov model JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES C (APPLIED STATISTICS), Issue 3 2009Wolfgang P. LehrachSummary., The traditional approach to phylogenetic inference assumes that a single phylogenetic tree can represent the relationships and divergence between the taxa. However, taxa sequences exhibit varying levels of conservation, e.g. because of regulatory elements and active binding sites. Also, certain bacteria and viruses undergo interspecific recombination, where different strains exchange or transfer DNA subsequences, leading to a tree topology change. We propose a phylogenetic factorial hidden Markov model to detect recombination and rate variation simultaneously. This is applied to two DNA sequence alignments: one bacterial (Neisseria) and another of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus. Inference is carried out in the Bayesian framework, using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. [source] ## A Bayesian model for longitudinal count data with non-ignorable dropout JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES C (APPLIED STATISTICS), Issue 5 2008Niko A. KacirotiSummary., Asthma is an important chronic disease of childhood. An intervention programme for managing asthma was designed on principles of self-regulation and was evaluated by a randomized longitudinal study. The study focused on several outcomes, and, typically, missing data remained a pervasive problem. We develop a pattern,mixture model to evaluate the outcome of intervention on the number of hospitalizations with non-ignorable dropouts. Pattern,mixture models are not generally identifiable as no data may be available to estimate a number of model parameters. Sensitivity analyses are performed by imposing structures on the unidentified parameters. We propose a parameterization which permits sensitivity analyses on clustered longitudinal count data that have missing values due to non-ignorable missing data mechanisms. This parameterization is expressed as ratios between event rates across missing data patterns and the observed data pattern and thus measures departures from an ignorable missing data mechanism. Sensitivity analyses are performed within a Bayesian framework by averaging over different prior distributions on the event ratios. This model has the advantage of providing an intuitive and flexible framework for incorporating the uncertainty of the missing data mechanism in the final analysis. [source] ## Modelling species diversity through species level hierarchical modelling JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES C (APPLIED STATISTICS), Issue 1 2005Alan E. GelfandSummary., Understanding spatial patterns of species diversity and the distributions of individ-ual species is a consuming problem in biogeography and conservation. The Cape floristic region of South Africa is a global hot spot of diversity and endemism, and the Protea atlas project, with about 60 000 site records across the region, provides an extraordinarily rich data set to model patterns of biodiversity. Model development is focused spatially at the scale of 1, grid cells (about 37 000 cells total for the region). We report on results for 23 species of a flowering plant family known as Proteaceae (of about 330 in the Cape floristic region) for a defined subregion. Using a Bayesian framework, we developed a two-stage, spatially explicit, hierarchical logistic regression. Stage 1 models the potential probability of presence or absence for each species at each cell, given species attributes, grid cell (site level) environmental data with species level coefficients, and a spatial random effect. The second level of the hierarchy models the probability of observing each species in each cell given that it is present. Because the atlas data are not evenly distributed across the landscape, grid cells contain variable numbers of sampling localities. Thus this model takes the sampling intensity at each site into account by assuming that the total number of times that a particular species was observed within a site follows a binomial distribution. After assigning prior distributions to all quantities in the model, samples from the posterior distribution were obtained via Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Results are mapped as the model-estimated probability of presence for each species across the domain. This provides an alternative to customary empirical ,range-of-occupancy' displays. Summing yields the predicted richness of species over the region. Summaries of the posterior for each environmental coefficient show which variables are most important in explaining the presence of species. Our initial results describe biogeographical patterns over the modelled region remarkably well. In particular, species local population size and mode of dispersal contribute significantly to predicting patterns, along with annual precipitation, the coefficient of variation in rainfall and elevation. [source] ## Estimation of origin,destination trip rates in Leicester JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES C (APPLIED STATISTICS), Issue 4 2001Martin L. HazeltonThe road system in region RA of Leicester has vehicle detectors embedded in many of the network's road links. Vehicle counts from these detectors can provide transportation researchers with a rich source of data. However, for many projects it is necessary for researchers to have an estimate of origin-to-destination vehicle flow rates. Obtaining such estimates from data observed on individual road links is a non-trivial statistical problem, made more difficult in the present context by non-negligible measurement errors in the vehicle counts collected. The paper uses road link traffic count data from April 1994 to estimate the origin,destination flow rates for region RA. A model for the error prone traffic counts is developed, but the resulting likelihood is not available in closed form. Nevertheless, it can be smoothly approximated by using Monte Carlo integration. The approximate likelihood is combined with prior information from a May 1991 survey in a Bayesian framework. The posterior is explored using the Hastings,Metropolis algorithm, since its normalizing constant is not available. Preliminary findings suggest that the data are overdispersed according to the original model. Results for a revised model indicate that a degree of overdispersion exists, but that the estimates of origin,destination flow rates are quite insensitive to the change in model specification. [source] ## Bayesian analysis of switching ARCH models JOURNAL OF TIME SERIES ANALYSIS, Issue 4 2002SYLVIA KAUFMANNWe consider a time series model with autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity that is subject to changes in regime. The regimes evolve according to a multistate latent Markov switching process with unknown transition probabilities, and it is the constant in the variance process of the innovations that is subject to regime shifts. The joint estimation of the latent process and all model parameters is performed within a Bayesian framework using the method of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. We perform model selection with respect to the number of states and the number of autoregressive parameters in the variance process using Bayes factors and model likelihoods. To this aim, the model likelihood is estimated by the method of bridge sampling. The usefulness of the sampler is demonstrated by applying it to the data set previously used by Hamilton and Susmel (1994) who investigated models with switching autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity using maximum likelihood methods. The paper concludes with some issues related to maximum likelihood methods, to classical model selection, and to potential straightforward extensions of the model presented here. [source] ## Bayesian longitudinal plateau model of adult grip strength AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2010Ramzi W. NahhasObjectives: This article illustrates the use of applied Bayesian statistical methods in modeling the trajectory of adult grip strength and in evaluating potential risk factors that may influence that trajectory. Methods: The data consist of from 1 to 11 repeated grip strength measurements from each of 498 men and 533 women age 18,96 years in the Fels Longitudinal Study (Roche AF. 1992. Growth, maturation and body composition: the Fels longitudinal study 1929,1991. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). In this analysis, the Bayesian framework was particularly useful for fitting a nonlinear mixed effects plateau model with two unknown change points and for the joint modeling of a time-varying covariate. Multiple imputation (MI) was used to handle missing values with posterior inferences appropriately adjusted to account for between-imputation variability. Results: On average, men and women attain peak grip strength at the same age (36 years), women begin to decline in grip strength sooner (age 50 years for women and 56 years for men), and men lose grip strength at a faster rate relative to their peak; there is an increasing secular trend in peak grip strength that is not attributable to concurrent secular trends in body size, and the grip strength trajectory varies with birth weight (men only), smoking (men only), alcohol consumption (men and women), and sports activity (women only). Conclusions: Longitudinal data analysis requires handling not only serial correlation but often also time-varying covariates, missing data, and unknown change points. Bayesian methods, combined with MI, are useful in handling these issues. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 22:648,656, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source] ## Correcting for Survey Misreports Using Auxiliary Information with an Application to Estimating Turnout AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2010Jonathan N. KatzMisreporting is a problem that plagues researchers who use survey data. In this article, we develop a parametric model that corrects for misclassified binary responses using information on the misreporting patterns obtained from auxiliary data sources. The model is implemented within the Bayesian framework via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods and can be easily extended to address other problems exhibited by survey data, such as missing response and/or covariate values. While the model is fully general, we illustrate its application in the context of estimating models of turnout using data from the American National Elections Studies. [source] ## A data assimilation method for log-normally distributed observational errors THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, Issue 621 2006S. J. FletcherAbstract In this paper we change the standard assumption made in the Bayesian framework of variational data assimilation to allow for observational errors that are log-normally distributed. We address the question of which statistic best describes the distribution for the univariate and multivariate cases to justify our choice of the mode. From this choice we derive the associated cost function, Jacobian and Hessian with a normal background. We also find the solution to the Jacobian equal to zero in both model and observational space. Given the Hessian that we derive, we define a preconditioner to aid in the minimization of the cost function. We extend this to define a general form for the preconditioner, given a certain type of cost function. Copyright © 2006 Royal Meteorological Society [source] ## European Mathematical Genetics Meeting, Heidelberg, Germany, 12th,13th April 2007 ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 4 2007Article first published online: 28 MAY 200Saurabh Ghosh 11 Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India High correlations between two quantitative traits may be either due to common genetic factors or common environmental factors or a combination of both. In this study, we develop statistical methods to extract the contribution of a common QTL to the total correlation between the components of a bivariate phenotype. Using data on bivariate phenotypes and marker genotypes for sib-pairs, we propose a test for linkage between a common QTL and a marker locus based on the conditional cross-sib trait correlations (trait 1 of sib 1 , trait 2 of sib 2 and conversely) given the identity-by-descent sharing at the marker locus. The null hypothesis cannot be rejected unless there exists a common QTL. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed test under different trait parameters and quantitative trait distributions. An application of the method is illustrated using data on two alcohol-related phenotypes from the Collaborative Study On The Genetics Of Alcoholism project. Rémi Kazma 1 , Catherine Bonaďti-Pellié 1 , Emmanuelle Génin 12 INSERM UMR-S535 and Université Paris Sud, Villejuif, 94817, France Keywords: Gene-environment interaction, sibling recurrence risk, exposure correlation Gene-environment interactions may play important roles in complex disease susceptibility but their detection is often difficult. Here we show how gene-environment interactions can be detected by investigating the degree of familial aggregation according to the exposure of the probands. In case of gene-environment interaction, the distribution of genotypes of affected individuals, and consequently the risk in relatives, depends on their exposure. We developed a test comparing the risks in sibs according to the proband exposure. To evaluate the properties of this new test, we derived the formulas for calculating the expected risks in sibs according to the exposure of probands for various values of exposure frequency, relative risk due to exposure alone, frequencies of latent susceptibility genotypes, genetic relative risks and interaction coefficients. We find that the ratio of risks when the proband is exposed and not exposed is a good indicator of the interaction effect. We evaluate the power of the test for various sample sizes of affected individuals. We conclude that this test is valuable for diseases with moderate familial aggregation, only when the role of the exposure has been clearly evidenced. Since a correlation for exposure among sibs might lead to a difference in risks among sibs in the different proband exposure strata, we also add an exposure correlation coefficient in the model. Interestingly, we find that when this correlation is correctly accounted for, the power of the test is not decreased and might even be significantly increased. Andrea Callegaro 1 , Hans J.C. Van Houwelingen 1 , Jeanine Houwing-Duistermaat 13 Dept. of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands Keywords: Survival analysis, age at onset, score test, linkage analysis Non parametric linkage (NPL) analysis compares the identical by descent (IBD) sharing in sibling pairs to the expected IBD sharing under the hypothesis of no linkage. Often information is available on the marginal cumulative hazards (for example breast cancer incidence curves). Our aim is to extend the NPL methods by taking into account the age at onset of selected sibling pairs using these known marginal hazards. Li and Zhong (2002) proposed a (retrospective) likelihood ratio test based on an additive frailty model for genetic linkage analysis. From their model we derive a score statistic for selected samples which turns out to be a weighed NPL method. The weights depend on the marginal cumulative hazards and on the frailty parameter. A second approach is based on a simple gamma shared frailty model. Here, we simply test whether the score function of the frailty parameter depends on the excess IBD. We compare the performance of these methods using simulated data. Céline Bellenguez 1 , Carole Ober 2 , Catherine Bourgain 14 INSERM U535 and University Paris Sud, Villejuif, France 5 Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, USA Keywords: Linkage analysis, linkage disequilibrium, high density SNP data Compared with microsatellite markers, high density SNP maps should be more informative for linkage analyses. However, because they are much closer, SNPs present important linkage disequilibrium (LD), which biases classical nonparametric multipoint analyses. This problem is even stronger in population isolates where LD extends over larger regions with a more stochastic pattern. We investigate the issue of linkage analysis with a 500K SNP map in a large and inbred 1840-member Hutterite pedigree, phenotyped for asthma. Using an efficient pedigree breaking strategy, we first identified linked regions with a 5cM microsatellite map, on which we focused to evaluate the SNP map. The only method that models LD in the NPL analysis is limited in both the pedigree size and the number of markers (Abecasis and Wigginton, 2005) and therefore could not be used. Instead, we studied methods that identify sets of SNPs with maximum linkage information content in our pedigree and no LD-driven bias. Both algorithms that directly remove pairs of SNPs in high LD and clustering methods were evaluated. Null simulations were performed to control that Zlr calculated with the SNP sets were not falsely inflated. Preliminary results suggest that although LD is strong in such populations, linkage information content slightly better than that of microsatellite maps can be extracted from dense SNP maps, provided that a careful marker selection is conducted. In particular, we show that the specific LD pattern requires considering LD between a wide range of marker pairs rather than only in predefined blocks. Peter Van Loo 1,2,3 , Stein Aerts 1,2 , Diether Lambrechts 4,5 , Bernard Thienpont 2 , Sunit Maity 4,5 , Bert Coessens 3 , Frederik De Smet 4,5 , Leon-Charles Tranchevent 3 , Bart De Moor 2 , Koen Devriendt 3 , Peter Marynen 1,2 , Bassem Hassan 1,2 , Peter Carmeliet 4,5 , Yves Moreau 36 Department of Molecular and Developmental Genetics, VIB, Belgium 7 Department of Human Genetics, University of Leuven, Belgium 8 Bioinformatics group, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Leuven, Belgium 9 Department of Transgene Technology and Gene Therapy, VIB, Belgium 10 Center for Transgene Technology and Gene Therapy, University of Leuven, Belgium Keywords: Bioinformatics, gene prioritization, data fusion The identification of genes involved in health and disease remains a formidable challenge. Here, we describe a novel bioinformatics method to prioritize candidate genes underlying pathways or diseases, based on their similarity to genes known to be involved in these processes. It is freely accessible as an interactive software tool, ENDEAVOUR, at http://www.esat.kuleuven.be/endeavour. Unlike previous methods, ENDEAVOUR generates distinct prioritizations from multiple heterogeneous data sources, which are then integrated, or fused, into one global ranking using order statistics. ENDEAVOUR prioritizes candidate genes in a three-step process. First, information about a disease or pathway is gathered from a set of known "training" genes by consulting multiple data sources. Next, the candidate genes are ranked based on similarity with the training properties obtained in the first step, resulting in one prioritized list for each data source. Finally, ENDEAVOUR fuses each of these rankings into a single global ranking, providing an overall prioritization of the candidate genes. Validation of ENDEAVOUR revealed it was able to efficiently prioritize 627 genes in disease data sets and 76 genes in biological pathway sets, identify candidates of 16 mono- or polygenic diseases, and discover regulatory genes of myeloid differentiation. Furthermore, the approach identified YPEL1 as a novel gene involved in craniofacial development from a 2-Mb chromosomal region, deleted in some patients with DiGeorge-like birth defects. Finally, we are currently evaluating a pipeline combining array-CGH, ENDEAVOUR and in vivo validation in zebrafish to identify novel genes involved in congenital heart defects. Mark Broom 1 , Graeme Ruxton 2 , Rebecca Kilner 311 Mathematics Dept., University of Sussex, UK 12 Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, University of Glasgow, UK 13 Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK Keywords: Evolutionarily stable strategy, parasitism, asymmetric game Brood parasites chicks vary in the harm that they do to their companions in the nest. In this presentation we use game-theoretic methods to model this variation. Our model considers hosts which potentially abandon single nestlings and instead choose to re-allocate their reproductive effort to future breeding, irrespective of whether the abandoned chick is the host's young or a brood parasite's. The parasite chick must decide whether or not to kill host young by balancing the benefits from reduced competition in the nest against the risk of desertion by host parents. The model predicts that three different types of evolutionarily stable strategies can exist. (1) Hosts routinely rear depleted broods, the brood parasite always kills host young and the host never then abandons the nest. (2) When adult survival after deserting single offspring is very high, hosts always abandon broods of a single nestling and the parasite never kills host offspring, effectively holding them as hostages to prevent nest desertion. (3) Intermediate strategies, in which parasites sometimes kill their nest-mates and host parents sometimes desert nests that contain only a single chick, can also be evolutionarily stable. We provide quantitative descriptions of how the values given to ecological and behavioral parameters of the host-parasite system influence the likelihood of each strategy and compare our results with real host-brood parasite associations in nature. Martin Harrison 114 Mathematics Dept, University of Sussex, UK Keywords: Brood parasitism, games, host, parasite The interaction between hosts and parasites in bird populations has been studied extensively. Game theoretical methods have been used to model this interaction previously, but this has not been studied extensively taking into account the sequential nature of this game. We consider a model allowing the host and parasite to make a number of decisions, which depend on a number of natural factors. The host lays an egg, a parasite bird will arrive at the nest with a certain probability and then chooses to destroy a number of the host eggs and lay one of it's own. With some destruction occurring, either natural or through the actions of the parasite, the host chooses to continue, eject an egg (hoping to eject the parasite) or abandon the nest. Once the eggs have hatched the game then falls to the parasite chick versus the host. The chick chooses to destroy or eject a number of eggs. The final decision is made by the host, choosing whether to raise or abandon the chicks that are in the nest. We consider various natural parameters and probabilities which influence these decisions. We then use this model to look at real-world situations of the interactions of the Reed Warbler and two different parasites, the Common Cuckoo and the Brown-Headed Cowbird. These two parasites have different methods in the way that they parasitize the nests of their hosts. The hosts in turn have a different reaction to these parasites. Arne Jochens 1 , Amke Caliebe 2 , Uwe Roesler 1 , Michael Krawczak 215 Mathematical Seminar, University of Kiel, Germany 16 Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics, University of Kiel, Germany Keywords: Stepwise mutation model, microsatellite, recursion equation, temporal behaviour We consider the stepwise mutation model which occurs, e.g., in microsatellite loci. Let X(t,i) denote the allelic state of individual i at time t. We compute expectation, variance and covariance of X(t,i), i=1,,,N, and provide a recursion equation for P(X(t,i)=z). Because the variance of X(t,i) goes to infinity as t grows, for the description of the temporal behaviour, we regard the scaled process X(t,i)-X(t,1). The results furnish a better understanding of the behaviour of the stepwise mutation model and may in future be used to derive tests for neutrality under this model. Paul O'Reilly 1 , Ewan Birney 2 , David Balding 117 Statistical Genetics, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial, College London, UK 18 European Bioinformatics Institute, EMBL, Cambridge, UK Keywords: Positive selection, Recombination rate, LD, Genome-wide, Natural Selection In recent years efforts to develop population genetics methods that estimate rates of recombination and levels of natural selection in the human genome have intensified. However, since the two processes have an intimately related impact on genetic variation their inference is vulnerable to confounding. Genomic regions subject to recent selection are likely to have a relatively recent common ancestor and consequently less opportunity for historical recombinations that are detectable in contemporary populations. Here we show that selection can reduce the population-based recombination rate estimate substantially. In genome-wide studies for detecting selection we observe a tendency to highlight loci that are subject to low levels of recombination. We find that the outlier approach commonly adopted in such studies may have low power unless variable recombination is accounted for. We introduce a new genome-wide method for detecting selection that exploits the sensitivity to recent selection of methods for estimating recombination rates, while accounting for variable recombination using pedigree data. Through simulations we demonstrate the high power of the Ped/Pop approach to discriminate between neutral and adaptive evolution, particularly in the context of choosing outliers from a genome-wide distribution. Although methods have been developed showing good power to detect selection ,in action', the corresponding window of opportunity is small. In contrast, the power of the Ped/Pop method is maintained for many generations after the fixation of an advantageous variant Sarah Griffiths 1 , Frank Dudbridge 120 MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK Keywords: Genetic association, multimarker tag, haplotype, likelihood analysis In association studies it is generally too expensive to genotype all variants in all subjects. We can exploit linkage disequilibrium between SNPs to select a subset that captures the variation in a training data set obtained either through direct resequencing or a public resource such as the HapMap. These ,tag SNPs' are then genotyped in the whole sample. Multimarker tagging is a more aggressive adaptation of pairwise tagging that allows for combinations of two or more tag SNPs to predict an untyped SNP. Here we describe a new method for directly testing the association of an untyped SNP using a multimarker tag. Previously, other investigators have suggested testing a specific tag haplotype, or performing a weighted analysis using weights derived from the training data. However these approaches do not properly account for the imperfect correlation between the tag haplotype and the untyped SNP. Here we describe a straightforward approach to testing untyped SNPs using a missing-data likelihood analysis, including the tag markers as nuisance parameters. The training data is stacked on top of the main body of genotype data so there is information on how the tag markers predict the genotype of the untyped SNP. The uncertainty in this prediction is automatically taken into account in the likelihood analysis. This approach yields more power and also a more accurate prediction of the odds ratio of the untyped SNP. Anke Schulz 1 , Christine Fischer 2 , Jenny Chang-Claude 1 , Lars Beckmann 121 Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Germany 22 Institute of Human Genetics, University of Heidelberg, Germany Keywords: Haplotype, haplotype sharing, entropy, Mantel statistics, marker selection We previously introduced a new method to map genes involved in complex diseases, using haplotype sharing-based Mantel statistics to correlate genetic and phenotypic similarity. Although the Mantel statistic is powerful in narrowing down candidate regions, the precise localization of a gene is hampered in genomic regions where linkage disequilibrium is so high that neighboring markers are found to be significant at similar magnitude and we are not able to discriminate between them. Here, we present a new approach to localize susceptibility genes by combining haplotype sharing-based Mantel statistics with an iterative entropy-based marker selection algorithm. For each marker at which the Mantel statistic is evaluated, the algorithm selects a subset of surrounding markers. The subset is chosen to maximize multilocus linkage disequilibrium, which is measured by the normalized entropy difference introduced by Nothnagel et al. (2002). We evaluated the algorithm with respect to type I error and power. Its ability to localize the disease variant was compared to the localization (i) without marker selection and (ii) considering haplotype block structure. Case-control samples were simulated from a set of 18 haplotypes, consisting of 15 SNPs in two haplotype blocks. The new algorithm gave correct type I error and yielded similar power to detect the disease locus compared to the alternative approaches. The neighboring markers were clearly less often significant than the causal locus, and also less often significant compared to the alternative approaches. Thus the new algorithm improved the precision of the localization of susceptibility genes. Mark M. Iles 123 Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, LIMM, University of Leeds, UK Keywords: tSNP, tagging, association, HapMap Tagging SNPs (tSNPs) are commonly used to capture genetic diversity cost-effectively. However, it is important that the efficacy of tSNPs is correctly estimated, otherwise coverage may be insufficient. If the pilot sample from which tSNPs are chosen is too small or the initial marker map too sparse, tSNP efficacy may be overestimated. An existing estimation method based on bootstrapping goes some way to correct for insufficient sample size and overfitting, but does not completely solve the problem. We describe a novel method, based on exclusion of haplotypes, that improves on the bootstrap approach. Using simulated data, the extent of the sample size problem is investigated and the performance of the bootstrap and the novel method are compared. We incorporate an existing method adjusting for marker density by ,SNP-dropping'. We find that insufficient sample size can cause large overestimates in tSNP efficacy, even with as many as 100 individuals, and the problem worsens as the region studied increases in size. Both the bootstrap and novel method correct much of this overestimate, with our novel method consistently outperforming the bootstrap method. We conclude that a combination of insufficient sample size and overfitting may lead to overestimation of tSNP efficacy and underpowering of studies based on tSNPs. Our novel approach corrects for much of this bias and is superior to the previous method. Sample sizes larger than previously suggested may still be required for accurate estimation of tSNP efficacy. This has obvious ramifications for the selection of tSNPs from HapMap data. Claudio Verzilli 1 , Juliet Chapman 1 , Aroon Hingorani 2 , Juan Pablo-Casas 1 , Tina Shah 2 , Liam Smeeth 1 , John Whittaker 124 Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK 25 Division of Medicine, University College London, UK Keywords: Meta-analysis, Genetic association studies We present a Bayesian hierarchical model for the meta-analysis of candidate gene studies with a continuous outcome. Such studies often report results from association tests for different, possibly study-specific and non-overlapping markers (typically SNPs) in the same genetic region. Meta analyses of the results at each marker in isolation are seldom appropriate as they ignore the correlation that may exist between markers due to linkage disequlibrium (LD) and cannot assess the relative importance of variants at each marker. Also such marker-wise meta analyses are restricted to only those studies that have typed the marker in question, with a potential loss of power. A better strategy is one which incorporates information about the LD between markers so that any combined estimate of the effect of each variant is corrected for the effect of other variants, as in multiple regression. Here we develop a Bayesian hierarchical linear regression that models the observed genotype group means and uses pairwise LD measurements between markers as prior information to make posterior inference on adjusted effects. The approach is applied to the meta analysis of 24 studies assessing the effect of 7 variants in the C-reactive protein (CRP) gene region on plasma CRP levels, an inflammatory biomarker shown in observational studies to be positively associated with cardiovascular disease. Cathryn M. Lewis 1 , Christopher G. Mathew 1 , Theresa M. Marteau 226 Dept. of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, UK 27 Department of Psychology, King's College London, UK Keywords: Risk, genetics, CARD15, smoking, model Recently progress has been made in identifying mutations that confer susceptibility to complex diseases, with the potential to use these mutations in determining disease risk. We developed methods to estimate disease risk based on genotype relative risks (for a gene G), exposure to an environmental factor (E), and family history (with recurrence risk ,R for a relative of type R). ,R must be partitioned into the risk due to G (which is modelled independently) and the residual risk. The risk model was then applied to Crohn's disease (CD), a severe gastrointestinal disease for which smoking increases disease risk approximately 2-fold, and mutations in CARD15 confer increased risks of 2.25 (for carriers of a single mutation) and 9.3 (for carriers of two mutations). CARD15 accounts for only a small proportion of the genetic component of CD, with a gene-specific ,S, CARD15 of 1.16, from a total sibling relative risk of ,S= 27. CD risks were estimated for high-risk individuals who are siblings of a CD case, and who also smoke. The CD risk to such individuals who carry two CARD15 mutations is approximately 0.34, and for those carrying a single CARD15 mutation the risk is 0.08, compared to a population prevalence of approximately 0.001. These results imply that complex disease genes may be valuable in estimating with greater precision than has hitherto been possible disease risks in specific, easily identified subgroups of the population with a view to prevention. Yurii Aulchenko 128 Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam, The Netherlands Keywords: Compression, information, bzip2, genome-wide SNP data, statistical genetics With advances in molecular technology, studies accessing millions of genetic polymorphisms in thousands of study subjects will soon become common. Such studies generate large amounts of data, whose effective storage and management is a challenge to the modern statistical genetics. Standard file compression utilities, such as Zip, Gzip and Bzip2, may be helpful to minimise the storage requirements. Less obvious is the fact that the data compression techniques may be also used in the analysis of genetic data. It is known that the efficiency of a particular compression algorithm depends on the probability structure of the data. In this work, we compared different standard and customised tools using the data from human HapMap project. Secondly, we investigate the potential uses of data compression techniques for the analysis of linkage, association and linkage disequilibrium Suzanne Leal 1 , Bingshan Li 129 Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA Keywords: Consanguineous pedigrees, missing genotype data Missing genotype data can increase false-positive evidence for linkage when either parametric or nonparametric analysis is carried out ignoring intermarker linkage disequilibrium (LD). Previously it was demonstrated by Huang et al (2005) that no bias occurs in this situation for affected sib-pairs with unrelated parents when either both parents are genotyped or genotype data is available for two additional unaffected siblings when parental genotypes are missing. However, this is not the case for consanguineous pedigrees, where missing genotype data for any pedigree member within a consanguinity loop can increase false-positive evidence of linkage. The false-positive evidence for linkage is further increased when cryptic consanguinity is present. The amount of false-positive evidence for linkage is highly dependent on which family members are genotyped. When parental genotype data is available, the false-positive evidence for linkage is usually not as strong as when parental genotype data is unavailable. Which family members will aid in the reduction of false-positive evidence of linkage is highly dependent on which other family members are genotyped. For a pedigree with an affected proband whose first-cousin parents have been genotyped, further reduction in the false-positive evidence of linkage can be obtained by including genotype data from additional affected siblings of the proband or genotype data from the proband's sibling-grandparents. When parental genotypes are not available, false-positive evidence for linkage can be reduced by including in the analysis genotype data from either unaffected siblings of the proband or the proband's married-in-grandparents. Najaf Amin 1 , Yurii Aulchenko 130 Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam, The Netherlands Keywords: Genomic Control, pedigree structure, quantitative traits The Genomic Control (GC) method was originally developed to control for population stratification and cryptic relatedness in association studies. This method assumes that the effect of population substructure on the test statistics is essentially constant across the genome, and therefore unassociated markers can be used to estimate the effect of confounding onto the test statistic. The properties of GC method were extensively investigated for different stratification scenarios, and compared to alternative methods, such as the transmission-disequilibrium test. The potential of this method to correct not for occasional cryptic relations, but for regular pedigree structure, however, was not investigated before. In this work we investigate the potential of the GC method for pedigree-based association analysis of quantitative traits. The power and type one error of the method was compared to standard methods, such as the measured genotype (MG) approach and quantitative trait transmission-disequilibrium test. In human pedigrees, with trait heritability varying from 30 to 80%, the power of MG and GC approach was always higher than that of TDT. GC had correct type 1 error and its power was close to that of MG under moderate heritability (30%), but decreased with higher heritability. William Astle 1 , Chris Holmes 2 , David Balding 131 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, UK 32 Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, UK Keywords: Population structure, association studies, genetic epidemiology, statistical genetics In the analysis of population association studies, Genomic Control (Devlin & Roeder, 1999) (GC) adjusts the Armitage test statistic to correct the type I error for the effects of population substructure, but its power is often sub-optimal. Turbo Genomic Control (TGC) generalises GC to incorporate co-variation of relatedness and phenotype, retaining control over type I error while improving power. TGC is similar to the method of Yu et al. (2006), but we extend it to binary (case-control) in addition to quantitative phenotypes, we implement improved estimation of relatedness coefficients, and we derive an explicit statistic that generalizes the Armitage test statistic and is fast to compute. TGC also has similarities to EIGENSTRAT (Price et al., 2006) which is a new method based on principle components analysis. The problems of population structure(Clayton et al., 2005) and cryptic relatedness (Voight & Pritchard, 2005) are essentially the same: if patterns of shared ancestry differ between cases and controls, whether distant (coancestry) or recent (cryptic relatedness), false positives can arise and power can be diminished. With large numbers of widely-spaced genetic markers, coancestry can now be measured accurately for each pair of individuals via patterns of allele-sharing. Instead of modelling subpopulations, we work instead with a coancestry coefficient for each pair of individuals in the study. We explain the relationships between TGC, GC and EIGENSTRAT. We present simulation studies and real data analyses to illustrate the power advantage of TGC in a range of scenarios incorporating both substructure and cryptic relatedness. References Clayton, D. G.et al. (2005) Population structure, differential bias and genomic control in a large-scale case-control association study. Nature Genetics37(11) November 2005. Devlin, B. & Roeder, K. (1999) Genomic control for association studies. Biometics55(4) December 1999. Price, A. L.et al. (2006) Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies. Nature Genetics38(8) (August 2006). Voight, B. J. & Pritchard, J. K. (2005) Confounding from cryptic relatedness in case-control association studies. Public Library of Science Genetics1(3) September 2005. Yu, J.et al. (2006) A unified mixed-model method for association mapping that accounts for multiple levels of relatedness. Nature Genetics38(2) February 2006. Hervé Perdry 1 , Marie-Claude Babron 1 , Françoise Clerget-Darpoux 133 INSERM U535 and Univ. Paris Sud, UMR-S 535, Villejuif, France Keywords: Modifier genes, case-parents trios, ordered transmission disequilibrium test A modifying locus is a polymorphic locus, distinct from the disease locus, which leads to differences in the disease phenotype, either by modifying the penetrance of the disease allele, or by modifying the expression of the disease. The effect of such a locus is a clinical heterogeneity that can be reflected by the values of an appropriate covariate, such as the age of onset, or the severity of the disease. We designed the Ordered Transmission Disequilibrium Test (OTDT) to test for a relation between the clinical heterogeneity, expressed by the covariate, and marker genotypes of a candidate gene. The method applies to trio families with one affected child and his parents. Each family member is genotyped at a bi-allelic marker M of a candidate gene. To each of the families is associated a covariate value; the families are ordered on the values of this covariate. As the TDT (Spielman et al. 1993), the OTDT is based on the observation of the transmission rate T of a given allele at M. The OTDT aims to find a critical value of the covariate which separates the sample of families in two subsamples in which the transmission rates are significantly different. We investigate the power of the method by simulations under various genetic models and covariate distributions. Acknowledgments H Perdry is funded by ARSEP. Pascal Croiseau 1 , Heather Cordell 2 , Emmanuelle Génin 134 INSERM U535 and University Paris Sud, UMR-S535, Villejuif, France 35 Institute of Human Genetics, Newcastle University, UK Keywords: Association, missing data, conditionnal logistic regression Missing data is an important problem in association studies. Several methods used to test for association need that individuals be genotyped at the full set of markers. Individuals with missing data need to be excluded from the analysis. This could involve an important decrease in sample size and a loss of information. If the disease susceptibility locus (DSL) is poorly typed, it is also possible that a marker in linkage disequilibrium gives a stronger association signal than the DSL. One may then falsely conclude that the marker is more likely to be the DSL. We recently developed a Multiple Imputation method to infer missing data on case-parent trios Starting from the observed data, a few number of complete data sets are generated by Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach. These complete datasets are analysed using standard statistical package and the results are combined as described in Little & Rubin (2002). Here we report the results of simulations performed to examine, for different patterns of missing data, how often the true DSL gives the highest association score among different loci in LD. We found that multiple imputation usually correctly detect the DSL site even if the percentage of missing data is high. This is not the case for the naďve approach that consists in discarding trios with missing data. In conclusion, Multiple imputation presents the advantage of being easy to use and flexible and is therefore a promising tool in the search for DSL involved in complex diseases. Salma Kotti 1 , Heike Bickeböller 2 , Françoise Clerget-Darpoux 136 University Paris Sud, UMR-S535, Villejuif, France 37 Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Göttingen, Germany Keywords: Genotype relative risk, internal controls, Family based analyses Family based analyses using internal controls are very popular both for detecting the effect of a genetic factor and for estimating the relative disease risk on the corresponding genotypes. Two different procedures are often applied to reconstitute internal controls. The first one considers one pseudocontrol genotype formed by the parental non-transmitted alleles called also 1:1 matching of alleles, while the second corresponds to three pseudocontrols corresponding to all genotypes formed by the parental alleles except the one of the case (1:3 matching). Many studies have compared between the two procedures in terms of the power and have concluded that the difference depends on the underlying genetic model and the allele frequencies. However, the estimation of the Genotype Relative Risk (GRR) under the two procedures has not been studied. Based on the fact that on the 1:1 matching, the control group is composed of the alleles untransmitted to the affected child and on the 1:3 matching, the control group is composed amongst alleles already transmitted to the affected child, we expect a difference on the GRR estimation. In fact, we suspect that the second procedure leads to biased estimation of the GRRs. We will analytically derive the GRR estimators for the 1:1 and 1:3 matching and will present the results at the meeting. Family based analyses using internal controls are very popular both for detecting the effect of a genetic factor and for estimating the relative disease risk on the corresponding genotypes. Two different procedures are often applied to reconstitute internal controls. The first one considers one pseudocontrol genotype formed by the parental non-transmitted alleles called also 1:1 matching of alleles, while the second corresponds to three pseudocontrols corresponding to all genotypes formed by the parental alleles except the one of the case (1:3 matching). Many studies have compared between the two procedures in terms of the power and have concluded that the difference depends on the underlying genetic model and the allele frequencies. However, the estimation of the Genotype Relative Risk (GRR) under the two procedures has not been studied. Based on the fact that on the 1:1 matching, the control group is composed of the alleles untransmitted to the affected child and on the 1:3 matching, the control group is composed amongst alleles already transmitted to the affected child, we expect a difference on the GRR estimation. In fact, we suspect that the second procedure leads to biased estimation of the GRR. We will analytically derive the GRR estimator for the 1:1 and 1:3 matching and will present the results at the meeting. Luigi Palla 1 , David Siegmund 239 Department of Mathematics,Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands 40 Department of Statistics, Stanford University, California, USA Keywords: TDT, assortative mating, inbreeding, statistical power A substantial amount of Assortative Mating (AM) is often recorded on physical and psychological, dichotomous as well as quantitative traits that are supposed to have a multifactorial genetic component. In particular AM has the effect of increasing the genetic variance, even more than inbreeding because it acts across loci beside within loci, when the trait has a multifactorial origin. Under the assumption of a polygenic model for AM dating back to Wright (1921) and refined by Crow and Felsenstein (1968,1982), the effect of assortative mating on the power to detect genetic association in the Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) is explored as parameters, such as the effective number of genes and the allelic frequency vary. The power is reflected by the non centrality parameter of the TDT and is expressed as a function of the number of trios, the relative risk of the heterozygous genotype and the allele frequency (Siegmund and Yakir, 2007). The noncentrality parameter of the relevant score statistic is updated considering the effect of AM which is expressed in terms of an ,effective' inbreeding coefficient. In particular, for dichotomous traits it is apparent that the higher the number of genes involved in the trait, the lower the loss in power due to AM. Finally an attempt is made to extend this relation to the Q-TDT (Rabinowitz, 1997), which involves considering the effect of AM also on the phenotypic variance of the trait of interest, under the assumption that AM affects only its additive genetic component. References Crow, & Felsenstein, (1968). The effect of assortative mating on the genetic composition of a population. Eugen.Quart.15, 87,97. Rabinowitz,, 1997. A Transmission Disequilibrium Test for Quantitative Trait Loci. Human Heredity47, 342,350. Siegmund, & Yakir, (2007) Statistics of gene mapping, Springer. Wright, (1921). System of mating.III. Assortative mating based on somatic resemblance. Genetics6, 144,161. Jérémie Nsengimana 1 , Ben D Brown 2 , Alistair S Hall 2 , Jenny H Barrett 141 Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, UK 42 Leeds Institute for Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, UK Keywords: Inflammatory genes, haplotype, coronary artery disease Genetic Risk of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) is an initiative to collect cases of coronary artery disease (CAD) and their unaffected siblings in the UK and to use them to map genetic variants increasing disease risk. The aim of the present study was to test the association between CAD and 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes from 35 inflammatory genes. Genotype data were available for 1154 persons affected before age 66 (including 48% before age 50) and their 1545 unaffected siblings (891 discordant families). Each SNP was tested for association to CAD, and haplotypes within genes or gene clusters were tested using FBAT (Rabinowitz & Laird, 2000). For the most significant results, genetic effect size was estimated using conditional logistic regression (CLR) within STATA adjusting for other risk factors. Haplotypes were assigned using HAPLORE (Zhang et al., 2005), which considers all parental mating types consistent with offspring genotypes and assigns them a probability of occurence. This probability was used in CLR to weight the haplotypes. In the single SNP analysis, several SNPs showed some evidence for association, including one SNP in the interleukin-1A gene. Analysing haplotypes in the interleukin-1 gene cluster, a common 3-SNP haplotype was found to increase the risk of CAD (P = 0.009). In an additive genetic model adjusting for covariates the odds ratio (OR) for this haplotype is 1.56 (95% CI: 1.16-2.10, p = 0.004) for early-onset CAD (before age 50). This study illustrates the utility of haplotype analysis in family-based association studies to investigate candidate genes. References Rabinowitz, D. & Laird, N. M. (2000) Hum Hered50, 211,223. Zhang, K., Sun, F. & Zhao, H. (2005) Bioinformatics21, 90,103. Andrea Foulkes 1 , Recai Yucel 1 , Xiaohong Li 143 Division of Biostatistics, University of Massachusetts, USA Keywords: Haploytpe, high-dimensional, mixed modeling The explosion of molecular level information coupled with large epidemiological studies presents an exciting opportunity to uncover the genetic underpinnings of complex diseases; however, several analytical challenges remain to be addressed. Characterizing the components to complex diseases inevitably requires consideration of synergies across multiple genetic loci and environmental and demographic factors. In addition, it is critical to capture information on allelic phase, that is whether alleles within a gene are in cis (on the same chromosome) or in trans (on different chromosomes.) In associations studies of unrelated individuals, this alignment of alleles within a chromosomal copy is generally not observed. We address the potential ambiguity in allelic phase in this high dimensional data setting using mixed effects models. Both a semi-parametric and fully likelihood-based approach to estimation are considered to account for missingness in cluster identifiers. In the first case, we apply a multiple imputation procedure coupled with a first stage expectation maximization algorithm for parameter estimation. A bootstrap approach is employed to assess sensitivity to variability induced by parameter estimation. Secondly, a fully likelihood-based approach using an expectation conditional maximization algorithm is described. Notably, these models allow for characterizing high-order gene-gene interactions while providing a flexible statistical framework to account for the confounding or mediating role of person specific covariates. The proposed method is applied to data arising from a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals at risk for therapy associated dyslipidemia. Simulation studies demonstrate reasonable power and control of family-wise type 1 error rates. Vivien Marquard 1 , Lars Beckmann 1 , Jenny Chang-Claude 144 Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Germany Keywords: Genotyping errors, type I error, haplotype-based association methods It has been shown in several simulation studies that genotyping errors may have a great impact on the type I error of statistical methods used in genetic association analysis of complex diseases. Our aim was to investigate type I error rates in a case-control study, when differential and non-differential genotyping errors were introduced in realistic scenarios. We simulated case-control data sets, where individual genotypes were drawn from a haplotype distribution of 18 haplotypes with 15 markers in the APM1 gene. Genotyping errors were introduced following the unrestricted and symmetric with 0 edges error models described by Heid et al. (2006). In six scenarios, errors resulted from changes of one allele to another with predefined probabilities of 1%, 2.5% or 10%, respectively. A multiple number of errors per haplotype was possible and could vary between 0 and 15, the number of markers investigated. We examined three association methods: Mantel statistics using haplotype-sharing; a haplotype-specific score test; and Armitage trend test for single markers. The type I error rates were not influenced for any of all the three methods for a genotyping error rate of less than 1%. For higher error rates and differential errors, the type I error of the Mantel statistic was only slightly and of the Armitage trend test moderately increased. The type I error rates of the score test were highly increased. The type I error rates were correct for all three methods for non-differential errors. Further investigations will be carried out with different frequencies of differential error rates and focus on power. Arne Neumann 1 , Dörthe Malzahn 1 , Martina Müller 2 , Heike Bickeböller 145 Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Göttingen, Germany 46 GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg & IBE-Institute of Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians University München, Germany Keywords: Interaction, longitudinal, nonparametric Longitudinal data show the time dependent course of phenotypic traits. In this contribution, we consider longitudinal cohort studies and investigate the association between two candidate genes and a dependent quantitative longitudinal phenotype. The set-up defines a factorial design which allows us to test simultaneously for the overall gene effect of the loci as well as for possible gene-gene and gene time interaction. The latter would induce genetically based time-profile differences in the longitudinal phenotype. We adopt a non-parametric statistical test to genetic epidemiological cohort studies and investigate its performance by simulation studies. The statistical test was originally developed for longitudinal clinical studies (Brunner, Munzel, Puri, 1999 J Multivariate Anal 70:286-317). It is non-parametric in the sense that no assumptions are made about the underlying distribution of the quantitative phenotype. Longitudinal observations belonging to the same individual can be arbitrarily dependent on one another for the different time points whereas trait observations of different individuals are independent. The two loci are assumed to be statistically independent. Our simulations show that the nonparametric test is comparable with ANOVA in terms of power of detecting gene-gene and gene-time interaction in an ANOVA favourable setting. Rebecca Hein 1 , Lars Beckmann 1 , Jenny Chang-Claude 147 Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Germany Keywords: Indirect association studies, interaction effects, linkage disequilibrium, marker allele frequency Association studies accounting for gene-environment interactions (GxE) may be useful for detecting genetic effects and identifying important environmental effect modifiers. Current technology facilitates very dense marker spacing in genetic association studies; however, the true disease variant(s) may not be genotyped. In this situation, an association between a gene and a phenotype may still be detectable, using genetic markers associated with the true disease variant(s) (indirect association). Zondervan and Cardon [2004] showed that the odds ratios (OR) of markers which are associated with the disease variant depend highly on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the variant and the markers, and whether the allele frequencies match and thereby influence the sample size needed to detect genetic association. We examined the influence of LD and allele frequencies on the sample size needed to detect GxE in indirect association studies, and provide tables for sample size estimation. For discordant allele frequencies and incomplete LD, sample sizes can be unfeasibly large. The influence of both factors is stronger for disease loci with small rather than moderate to high disease allele frequencies. A decline in D' of e.g. 5% has less impact on sample size than increasing the difference in allele frequencies by the same percentage. Assuming 80% power, large interaction effects can be detected using smaller sample sizes than those needed for the detection of main effects. The detection of interaction effects involving rare alleles may not be possible. Focussing only on marker density can be a limited strategy in indirect association studies for GxE. Cyril Dalmasso 1 , Emmanuelle Génin 2 , Catherine Bourgain 2 , Philippe Broët 148 JE 2492 , Univ. Paris-Sud, France 49 INSERM UMR-S 535 and University Paris Sud, Villejuif, France Keywords: Linkage analysis, Multiple testing, False Discovery Rate, Mixture model In the context of genome-wide linkage analyses, where a large number of statistical tests are simultaneously performed, the False Discovery Rate (FDR) that is defined as the expected proportion of false discoveries among all discoveries is nowadays widely used for taking into account the multiple testing problem. Other related criteria have been considered such as the local False Discovery Rate (lFDR) that is a variant of the FDR giving to each test its own measure of significance. The lFDR is defined as the posterior probability that a null hypothesis is true. Most of the proposed methods for estimating the lFDR or the FDR rely on distributional assumption under the null hypothesis. However, in observational studies, the empirical null distribution may be very different from the theoretical one. In this work, we propose a mixture model based approach that provides estimates of the lFDR and the FDR in the context of large-scale variance component linkage analyses. In particular, this approach allows estimating the empirical null distribution, this latter being a key quantity for any simultaneous inference procedure. The proposed method is applied on a real dataset. Arief Gusnanto 1 , Frank Dudbridge 150 MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge UK Keywords: Significance, genome-wide, association, permutation, multiplicity Genome-wide association scans have introduced statistical challenges, mainly in the multiplicity of thousands of tests. The question of what constitutes a significant finding remains somewhat unresolved. Permutation testing is very time-consuming, whereas Bayesian arguments struggle to distinguish direct from indirect association. It seems attractive to summarise the multiplicity in a simple form that allows users to avoid time-consuming permutations. A standard significance level would facilitate reporting of results and reduce the need for permutation tests. This is potentially important because current scans do not have full coverage of the whole genome, and yet, the implicit multiplicity is genome-wide. We discuss some proposed summaries, with reference to the empirical null distribution of the multiple tests, approximated through a large number of random permutations. Using genome-wide data from the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium, we use a sub-sampling approach with increasing density to estimate the nominal p-value to obtain family-wise significance of 5%. The results indicate that the significance level is converging to about 1e-7 as the marker spacing becomes infinitely dense. We considered the concept of an effective number of independent tests, and showed that when used in a Bonferroni correction, the number varies with the overall significance level, but is roughly constant in the region of interest. We compared several estimators of the effective number of tests, and showed that in the region of significance of interest, Patterson's eigenvalue based estimator gives approximately the right family-wise error rate. Michael Nothnagel 1 , Amke Caliebe 1 , Michael Krawczak 151 Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics, University Clinic Schleswig-Holstein, University of Kiel, Germany Keywords: Association scans, Bayesian framework, posterior odds, genetic risk, multiplicative model Whole-genome association scans have been suggested to be a cost-efficient way to survey genetic variation and to map genetic disease factors. We used a Bayesian framework to investigate the posterior odds of a genuine association under multiplicative disease models. We demonstrate that the p value alone is not a sufficient means to evaluate the findings in association studies. We suggest that likelihood ratios should accompany p values in association reports. We argue, that, given the reported results of whole-genome scans, more associations should have been successfully replicated if the consistently made assumptions about considerable genetic risks were correct. We conclude that it is very likely that the vast majority of relative genetic risks are only of the order of 1.2 or lower. Clive Hoggart 1 , Maria De Iorio 1 , John Whittakker 2 , David Balding 152 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, UK 53 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK Keywords: Genome-wide association analyses, shrinkage priors, Lasso Testing one SNP at a time does not fully realise the potential of genome-wide association studies to identify multiple causal variants of small effect, which is a plausible scenario for many complex diseases. Moreover, many simulation studies assume a single causal variant and so more complex realities are ignored. Analysing large numbers of variants simultaneously is now becoming feasible, thanks to developments in Bayesian stochastic search methods. We pose the problem of SNP selection as variable selection in a regression model. In contrast to single SNP tests this approach simultaneously models the effect of all SNPs. SNPs are selected by a Bayesian interpretation of the lasso (Tibshirani, 1996); the maximum a posterior (MAP) estimate of the regression coefficients, which have been given independent, double exponential prior distributions. The double exponential distribution is an example of a shrinkage prior, MAP estimates with shrinkage priors can be zero, thus all SNPs with non zero regression coefficients are selected. In addition to the commonly-used double exponential (Laplace) prior, we also implement the normal exponential gamma prior distribution. We show that use of the Laplace prior improves SNP selection in comparison with single -SNP tests, and that the normal exponential gamma prior leads to a further improvement. Our method is fast and can handle very large numbers of SNPs: we demonstrate its performance using both simulated and real genome-wide data sets with 500 K SNPs, which can be analysed in 2 hours on a desktop workstation. Mickael Guedj 1,2 , Jerome Wojcik 2 , Gregory Nuel 154 Laboratoire Statistique et Génome, Université d'Evry, Evry France 55 Serono Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Plan-les-Ouates, Switzerland Keywords: Local Replication, Local Score, Association In gene-mapping, replication of initial findings has been put forwards as the approach of choice for filtering false-positives from true signals for underlying loci. In practice, such replications are however too poorly observed. Besides the statistical and technical-related factors (lack of power, multiple-testing, stratification, quality control,) inconsistent conclusions obtained from independent populations might result from real biological differences. In particular, the high degree of variation in the strength of LD among populations of different origins is a major challenge to the discovery of genes. Seeking for Local Replications (defined as the presence of a signal of association in a same genomic region among populations) instead of strict replications (same locus, same risk allele) may lead to more reliable results. Recently, a multi-markers approach based on the Local Score statistic has been proposed as a simple and efficient way to select candidate genomic regions at the first stage of genome-wide association studies. Here we propose an extension of this approach adapted to replicated association studies. Based on simulations, this method appears promising. In particular it outperforms classical simple-marker strategies to detect modest-effect genes. Additionally it constitutes, to our knowledge, a first framework dedicated to the detection of such Local Replications. Juliet Chapman 1 , Claudio Verzilli 1 , John Whittaker 156 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK Keywords: FDR, Association studies, Bayesian model selection As genomewide association studies become commonplace there is debate as to how such studies might be analysed and what we might hope to gain from the data. It is clear that standard single locus approaches are limited in that they do not adjust for the effects of other loci and problematic since it is not obvious how to adjust for multiple comparisons. False discovery rates have been suggested, but it is unclear how well these will cope with highly correlated genetic data. We consider the validity of standard false discovery rates in large scale association studies. We also show that a Bayesian procedure has advantages in detecting causal loci amongst a large number of dependant SNPs and investigate properties of a Bayesian FDR. Peter Kraft 157 Harvard School of Public Health, Boston USA Keywords: Gene-environment interaction, genome-wide association scans Appropriately analyzed two-stage designs,where a subset of available subjects are genotyped on a genome-wide panel of markers at the first stage and then a much smaller subset of the most promising markers are genotyped on the remaining subjects,can have nearly as much power as a single-stage study where all subjects are genotyped on the genome-wide panel yet can be much less expensive. Typically, the "most promising" markers are selected based on evidence for a marginal association between genotypes and disease. Subsequently, the few markers found to be associated with disease at the end of the second stage are interrogated for evidence of gene-environment interaction, mainly to understand their impact on disease etiology and public health impact. However, this approach may miss variants which have a sizeable effect restricted to one exposure stratum and therefore only a modest marginal effect. We have proposed to use information on the joint effects of genes and a discrete list of environmental exposures at the initial screening stage to select promising markers for the second stage [Kraft et al Hum Hered 2007]. This approach optimizes power to detect variants that have a sizeable marginal effect and variants that have a small marginal effect but a sizeable effect in a stratum defined by an environmental exposure. As an example, I discuss a proposed genome-wide association scan for Type II diabetes susceptibility variants based in several large nested case-control studies. Beate Glaser 1 , Peter Holmans 158 Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Unit, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK Keywords: Combined case-control and trios analysis, Power, False-positive rate, Simulation, Association studies The statistical power of genetic association studies can be enhanced by combining the analysis of case-control with parent-offspring trio samples. Various combined analysis techniques have been recently developed; as yet, there have been no comparisons of their power. This work was performed with the aim of identifying the most powerful method among available combined techniques including test statistics developed by Kazeem and Farrall (2005), Nagelkerke and colleagues (2004) and Dudbridge (2006), as well as a simple combination of ,2-statistics from single samples. Simulation studies were performed to investigate their power under different additive, multiplicative, dominant and recessive disease models. False-positive rates were determined by studying the type I error rates under null models including models with unequal allele frequencies between the single case-control and trios samples. We identified three techniques with equivalent power and false-positive rates, which included modifications of the three main approaches: 1) the unmodified combined Odds ratio estimate by Kazeem & Farrall (2005), 2) a modified approach of the combined risk ratio estimate by Nagelkerke & colleagues (2004) and 3) a modified technique for a combined risk ratio estimate by Dudbridge (2006). Our work highlights the importance of studies investigating test performance criteria of novel methods, as they will help users to select the optimal approach within a range of available analysis techniques. David Almorza 1 , M.V. Kandus 2 , Juan Carlos Salerno 2 , Rafael Boggio 359 Facultad de Ciencias del Trabajo, University of Cádiz, Spain 60 Instituto de Genética IGEAF, Buenos Aires, Argentina 61 Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina Keywords: Principal component analysis, maize, ear weight, inbred lines The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship among different traits of the ear of maize inbred lines and to group genotypes according to its performance. Ten inbred lines developed at IGEAF (INTA Castelar) and five public inbred lines as checks were used. A field trial was carried out in Castelar, Buenos Aires (34° 36' S , 58° 39' W) using a complete randomize design with three replications. At harvest, individual weight (P.E.), diameter (D.E.), row number (N.H.) and length (L.E.) of the ear were assessed. A principal component analysis, PCA, (Infostat 2005) was used, and the variability of the data was depicted with a biplot. Principal components 1 and 2 (CP1 and CP2) explained 90% of the data variability. CP1 was correlated with P.E., L.E. and D.E., meanwhile CP2 was correlated with N.H. We found that individual weight (P.E.) was more correlated with diameter of the ear (D.E.) than with length (L.E). Five groups of inbred lines were distinguished: with high P.E. and mean N.H. (04-70, 04-73, 04-101 and MO17), with high P.E. but less N.H. (04-61 and B14), with mean P.E. and N.H. (B73, 04-123 and 04-96), with high N.H. but less P.E. (LP109, 04-8, 04-91 and 04-76) and with low P.E. and low N.H. (LP521 and 04-104). The use of PCA showed which variables had more incidence in ear weight and how is the correlation among them. Moreover, the different groups found with this analysis allow the evaluation of inbred lines by several traits simultaneously. Sven Knüppel 1 , Anja Bauerfeind 1 , Klaus Rohde 162 Department of Bioinformatics, MDC Berlin, Germany Keywords: Haplotypes, association studies, case-control, nuclear families The area of gene chip technology provides a plethora of phase-unknown SNP genotypes in order to find significant association to some genetic trait. To circumvent possibly low information content of a single SNP one groups successive SNPs and estimates haplotypes. Haplotype estimation, however, may reveal ambiguous haplotype pairs and bias the application of statistical methods. Zaykin et al. (Hum Hered, 53:79-91, 2002) proposed the construction of a design matrix to take this ambiguity into account. Here we present a set of functions written for the Statistical package R, which carries out haplotype estimation on the basis of the EM-algorithm for individuals (case-control) or nuclear families. The construction of a design matrix on basis of estimated haplotypes or haplotype pairs allows application of standard methods for association studies (linear, logistic regression), as well as statistical methods as haplotype sharing statistics and TDT-Test. Applications of these methods to genome-wide association screens will be demonstrated. Manuela Zucknick 1 , Chris Holmes 2 , Sylvia Richardson 163 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, UK 64 Department of Statistics, Oxford Center for Gene Function, University of Oxford, UK Keywords: Bayesian, variable selection, MCMC, large p, small n, structured dependence In large-scale genomic applications vast numbers of markers or genes are scanned to find a few candidates which are linked to a particular phenotype. Statistically, this is a variable selection problem in the "large p, small n" situation where many more variables than samples are available. An additional feature is the complex dependence structure which is often observed among the markers/genes due to linkage disequilibrium or their joint involvement in biological processes. Bayesian variable selection methods using indicator variables are well suited to the problem. Binary phenotypes like disease status are common and both Bayesian probit and logistic regression can be applied in this context. We argue that logistic regression models are both easier to tune and to interpret than probit models and implement the approach by Holmes & Held (2006). Because the model space is vast, MCMC methods are used as stochastic search algorithms with the aim to quickly find regions of high posterior probability. In a trade-off between fast-updating but slow-moving single-gene Metropolis-Hastings samplers and computationally expensive full Gibbs sampling, we propose to employ the dependence structure among the genes/markers to help decide which variables to update together. Also, parallel tempering methods are used to aid bold moves and help avoid getting trapped in local optima. Mixing and convergence of the resulting Markov chains are evaluated and compared to standard samplers in both a simulation study and in an application to a gene expression data set. Reference Holmes, C. C. & Held, L. (2006) Bayesian auxiliary variable models for binary and multinomial regression. Bayesian Analysis1, 145,168. Dawn Teare 165 MMGE, University of Sheffield, UK Keywords: CNP, family-based analysis, MCMC Evidence is accumulating that segmental copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) may represent a significant portion of human genetic variation. These highly polymorphic systems require handling as phenotypes rather than co-dominant markers, placing new demands on family-based analyses. We present an integrated approach to meet these challenges in the form of a graphical model, where the underlying discrete CNP phenotype is inferred from the (single or replicate) quantitative measure within the analysis, whilst assuming an allele based system segregating through the pedigree. [source] ## Quantifying successional changes in response to forest disturbances APPLIED VEGETATION SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008Trent D. PenmanQuestion: Can dissimilarity measures of individual plots be used to forecast the driving factors among various anthropogenic disturbances influencing understorey successional changes? Location: Yambulla State Forest, south-eastern Australia (37°14'S, 149°38'E). Methods: Assessments of understorey vegetation communities were taken prior to anthropogenic disturbances and at three subsequent time periods representing a period of 15 years post-disturbance. Dissimilarities were calculated from the original assessment and modelled in a Bayesian framework to examine the influence of logging, number of prescribed burns and time. Results: All sites underwent significant changes over time independently of the imposed management regimes. Logging resulted in an immediate change in vegetation assemblage which decreased in the subsequent assessments. The number of prescribed fires brought greater change in the shrub vegetation assemblages, but less change in the ground species vegetation assemblages. Conclusions: The anthropogenic disturbances did have some role in the changes of vegetation assemblages but these were minimal. The ongoing changes appear to be a natural response to the last wildfire, which passed through the study area in 1973 (13 years prior to the study). Forest management practices should consider the influence of wildfire succession when planning for the conservation of biodiversity. [source] ## A COMPARISON OF THE IMPRECISE BETA CLASS, THE RANDOMIZED PLAY-THE-WINNER RULE AND THE TRIANGULAR TEST FOR CLINICAL TRIALS WITH BINARY RESPONSES AUSTRALIAN & NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF STATISTICS, Issue 1 2007Lyle C. Gurrin Summary This paper develops clinical trial designs that compare two treatments with a binary outcome. The imprecise beta class (IBC), a class of beta probability distributions, is used in a robust Bayesian framework to calculate posterior upper and lower expectations for treatment success rates using accumulating data. The posterior expectation for the difference in success rates can be used to decide when there is sufficient evidence for randomized treatment allocation to cease. This design is formally related to the randomized play-the-winner (RPW) design, an adaptive allocation scheme where randomization probabilities are updated sequentially to favour the treatment with the higher observed success rate. A connection is also made between the IBC and the sequential clinical trial design based on the triangular test. Theoretical and simulation results are presented to show that the expected sample sizes on the truly inferior arm are lower using the IBC compared with either the triangular test or the RPW design, and that the IBC performs well against established criteria involving error rates and the expected number of treatment failures. [source] |