Batch Sizes (batch + size)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Optimal design of azeotropic batch distillation

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2006
M. C. Mussati
Abstract This study explores integrating models with different degrees of detail for optimizing azeotropic batch distillation systems. A detailed dynamic model is used from outside the optimization program both to verify feasibility of the design and to update the parameters needed by the optimization model. The updated parameters are the constant relative volatilities between pseudo-components, used in a binary Fenske,Underwood,Gilliland-type model. The approach was used to optimize the design of a batch process for the recovery of spent isopropyl alcohol, which works cyclically to separate the excess water, satisfying an environmentally acceptable specification, and using cyclohexane as entrainer, which in turn is recovered in the same process and recycled. The approach permitted optimizing the batch sizes, number of separation stages, the reflux ratios of a piecewise constant multilevel reflux policy, the extent of each separation, and the size of the intermediate cuts to be recycled, with affordable computation and problem setup times. 2005 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2006 [source]


Replicated batch means for steady-state simulations

NAVAL RESEARCH LOGISTICS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 6 2006
Nilay Tan, k Argon
Abstract This paper studies a new steady-state simulation output analysis method called replicated batch means in which a small number of replications are conducted and the observations in these replications are grouped into batches. This paper also introduces and compares methods for selecting the initial state of each replication. More specifically, we show that confidence intervals constructed by the replicated batch means method are valid for large batch sizes and derive expressions for the expected values and variances of the steady-state mean and variance estimators for stationary processes and large sample sizes. We then use these expressions, analytical examples, and numerical experiments to compare the replicated batch means method with the standard batch means and multiple replications methods. The numerical results, which are obtained from an AR(1) process and a small, nearly-decomposable Markov chain, show that the multiple replications method often gives confidence intervals with poorer coverage than the standard and replicated batch means methods and that the replicated batch means method, implemented with good choices of initialization method and number of replications, provides confidence interval coverages that range from being comparable with to being noticeably better than coverages obtained by the standard batch means method. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics, 2006 [source]


Efficient versus Responsive Supply Chain Choice: An Empirical Examination of Influential Factors

THE JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 6 2003
Taylor R. Randall
Contemporary strategies in operations management suggest that successful firms align supply chain assets with product demand characteristics in order to exploit the profit potential of product lines fully. However, observation suggests that supply chain assets often are longer lived than product line decisions. This suggests that alignment between supply chain assets and demand characteristics is most likely to occur at the time of initial market entry. This article examines the association between product demand characteristics and the initial investment in a supply chain at the time of market entry. We characterize supply chains as responsive or efficient. A responsive supply chain is distinguished by short production lead-times, low set-up costs, and small batch sizes that allow the responsive firm to adapt quickly to market demand, but often at a higher unit cost. An efficient supply chain is distinguished by longer production lead-times, high set-up costs, and larger batch sizes that allow the efficient firm to produce at a low unit cost, but often at the expense of market responsiveness. We hypothesize that a firm's choice of responsive supply chain will be associated with lower industry growth rates, higher contribution margins, higher product variety, and higher demand or technological uncertainty. We further hypothesize that interactions among these variables either can reinforce or can temper the main effects. We report that lower industry growth rates are associated with responsive market entry, but this effect is offset if growth occurs during periods of high variety and high demand uncertainty. We report that higher contribution margins are associated with responsive market entry and that this effect is more pronounced when occurring with periods of high variety. Finally, we report that responsive market entry also is correlated positively with higher technological demand uncertainty. These results are found using data from the North American mountain bike industry. [source]


Purification,chemical structure,electrical property relationship in gold nanoparticle liquids,

APPLIED ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 8 2010
Robert I. MacCuspie
Abstract Macroscopic assemblies of nanoparticles with fluid like characteristics, i.e. nanoparticle liquids (NPLs), are a new class of materials that exhibit unique properties compared with dispersions of nanoparticles in a molecularly distinct matrix phase. By focusing on reaction ratios, techniques to maximize concentration of reactants and quantification of chemical content during washing steps, a high degree of control over the purity of NPLs was maintained while allowing for easy scalability in batch sizes and synthesis throughput. A range of tertiary amines and quaternary ammoniums were used to successfully synthesize Au NPLs from a range of Au nanoparticles with nominal diameters from 6 to 20 nm and initially stabilized with either citrate or dodecanethiol. Stable Au NPLs after purification exhibited a sub-equivalence ratio of canopy to ligand molecules within the corona. This small canopy density most likely arose from the incommensurate areal density of anionic charge within the ligand shell relative to the larger size of the cationic canopy molecule, resulting in a population of cation,anion pairs too weakly bound to be retained in the initial assembly of the canopy post-purification. Finally, increasing either the volume fraction or molecular weight of the canopy was found to increase exponentially the electrical resistance of the bulk NPLs. Removal of excess canopy molecules created a conductive Au NPL that improved hot-current switching durability by at least two orders of magnitude beyond prior reports. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]