Basal Respiration (basal + respiration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Ecotoxicological effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine on soil microbial activities,

Ping Gong
Abstract Although hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (also called RDX or hexogen) is a potentially toxic explosive compound that persists in soil, its ecotoxicological effects on soil organisms have rarely been assessed. In this study, two uncontaminated garden soils were spiked with 10 to 12,500 mg RDX/kg dry soil. Soil microbial activities, i.e., potential nitrification, nitrogen fixation, dehydrogenase, basal respiration, and substrate-induced respiration were chosen as bioindicators and were determined after 1-, 4-, and 12-weeks of exposure. Experimental results indicate that RDX showed significant inhibition (up to 36% of control) on indigenous soil microbial communities over the period of this study. All five bioindicators responded similarly to the RDX challenge. The length of exposure also affected the microbial toxicity of RDX, with 12-week exposure exerting more significant effects than the shorter exposure periods, suggesting that soil microorganisms might become more vulnerable to RDX when exposure is extended. The estimated lowest observable adverse effect concentration of RDX was 1,235 mg/kg. No biodegradation products of RDX were detected at all three sampling times. Compared with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), RDX is less toxic to microbes, probably because of its resistance to biodegradation under aerobic conditions, which precludes metabolic activation of nitro groups. [source]

The dynamics of organic matter in rock fragments in soil investigated by 14C dating and measurements of 13C

A. Agnelli
Summary Rock fragments in soil can contain significant amounts of organic carbon. We investigated the nature and dynamics of organic matter in rock fragments in the upper horizons of a forest soil derived from sandstone and compared them with the fine earth fraction (<2 mm). The organic C content and its distribution among humic, humin and non-humic fractions, as well as the isotopic signatures (,14C and ,13C) of organic carbon and of CO2 produced during incubation of samples, all show that altered rock fragments contain a dynamic component of the carbon cycle. Rock fragments, especially the highly altered ones, contributed 4.5% to the total organic C content in the soil. The bulk organic matter in both fine earth and highly altered rock fragments in the A1 horizon contained significant amounts of recent C (bomb 14C), indicating that most of this C is cycled quickly in both fractions. In the A horizons, the mean residence times of humic substances from highly altered rock fragments were shorter than those of the humic substances isolated in the fine earth. Values of ,14C of the CO2 produced during basal respiration confirmed the heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic nature of the organic matter of these rock fragments. The weak 14C signatures of humic substances from the slightly altered rock fragments confirmed the importance of weathering in establishing and improving the interactions between rock fragments and surrounding soil. The progressive enrichment in 13C from components with high- 14C (more recent) to low- 14C (older) indicated that biological activity occurred in both the fine and the coarse fractions. Hence the microflora utilizes energy sources contained in all the soil compartments, and rock fragments are chemically and biologically active in soil, where they form a continuum with the fine earth. [source]

Effects of soil improvement treatments on bacterial community structure and soil processes in an upland grassland soil

Neil D. Gray
Abstract Temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified with primers selective for eubacteria and ,-proteobacterial ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) was used to analyse changes in bacterial and AOB community profiles of an upland pasture following soil improvement treatments (addition of sewage sludge and/or lime). Community structure was compared with changes in activity assessed by laboratory measurements of basal respiration and ammonia oxidation potentials, and with measurements of treatment- and time-related changes in soil characteristics. The predominant bacterial populations had a high degree of similarity under all treatment regimens, which was most pronounced early in the growing season. Most of the differences that occurred between soil samples with time could be accounted for by spatial and temporal variation; however, analysis of variance and cluster analysis of similarities between 16S rDNA TTGE profiles indicated that soil improvement treatments exerted some effect on community structure. Lime application had the greatest influence. The impact of soil improvement treatments on autotrophic ammonia oxidation was significant and sustained, especially in soils which had received sewage sludge and lime treatments in combination. However, despite obvious changes in soil characteristics, e.g. pH and soil nitrogen, increasing heterogeneity in the AOB community structure over time obscured the treatment effects observed at the beginning of the experiment. Nevertheless, time series analysis of AOB TTGE profiles indicated that the AOB community in improved soils was more dynamic than in control soils where populations were found to be relatively stable. These observations suggest that the AOB populations exhibited a degree of functional redundancy. [source]

Threshold elemental ratios for carbon versus phosphorus limitation in Daphnia

Summary 1. The transition from carbon (C) to phosphorus (P) limited growth in Daphnia depends not only on the C : P ratio in seston, i.e. food quality, but also on food quantity. Carbon is commonly believed to be limiting at low food because of the energetic demands of basal metabolism. The critical C : P ratio in seston (otherwise known as the threshold elemental ratio, TER) above which P is limiting would then be high when food is scarce. 2. A new model that differentiates between the C : P requirements for growth and maintenance is presented that includes terms for both C and P in basal metabolism. At low food the calculated TERs for Daphnia of around 230 are only slightly higher than values of 200 or so at high intake. Seston C : P often exceeds 230, particularly in oligotrophic lakes where phytoplankton concentration is low and detritus dominates the diet, indicating the potential for limitation by P. 3. The analysis highlights the importance of P, as well as C, in maintenance metabolism and the overall metabolic budget, such that food quality is of importance even when intake is low. Further measurements of C and P metabolism at low food, in particular basal respiration and excretion rates, are needed in order to improve our understanding of the interacting roles of food quantity and quality in zooplankton nutrition. [source]

Methods for evaluating human impact on soil microorganisms based on their activity, biomass, and diversity in agricultural soils

Rainer Georg Joergensen
Abstract The present review is focused on microbiological methods used in agricultural soils accustomed to human disturbance. Recent developments in soil biology are analyzed with the aim of highlighting gaps in knowledge, unsolved research questions, and controversial results. Activity rates (basal respiration, N mineralization) and biomass are used as overall indices for assessing microbial functions in soil and can be supplemented by biomass ratios (C : N, C : P, and C : S) and eco-physiological ratios (soil organic C : microbial-biomass C, qCO2, qNmin). The community structure can be characterized by functional groups of the soil microbial biomass such as fungi and bacteria, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, or by biotic diversity. Methodological aspects of soil microbial indices are assessed, such as sampling, pretreatment of samples, and conversion factors of data into biomass values. Microbial-biomass C (µg (g soil),1) can be estimated by multiplying total PLFA (nmol (g soil),1) by the FPLFA -factor of 5.8 and DNA (µg (g soil),1) by the FDNA -factor of 6.0. In addition, the turnover of the soil microbial biomass is appreciated as a key process for maintaining nutrient cycles in soil. Examples are briefly presented that show the direction of human impact on soil microorganisms by the methods evaluated. These examples are taken from research on organic farming, reduced tillage, de-intensification of land-use management, degradation of peatland, slurry application, salinization, heavy-metal contamination, lignite deposition, pesticide application, antibiotics, TNT, and genetically modified plants. [source]

Soil biochemical and chemical changes in relation to mature spruce (Picea abies) forest conversion and regeneration

Zheke Zhong
Abstract To investigate soil changes from forest conversion and regeneration, soil net N mineralization, potential nitrification, microbial biomass N, L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase, and other chemical and biological properties were examined in three adjacent stands: mature pure and dense Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) (110 yr) (stand I), mature Norway spruce mixed with young beech (Fagus sylvatica) (5 yr) (stand II), and young Norway spruce (16 yr) (stand III). The latter two stands were converted or regenerated from the mature Norway spruce stand as former. The studied soils were characterized as having a very low pH value (2.9 , 3.5 in 0.01 M CaCl2), a high total N content (1.06 , 1.94,%), a high metabolic quotient (qCO2) (6.7 , 16.9 g CO2 kg,1 h,1), a low microbial biomass N (1.1 , 3.3,% of total N, except LOf1 at stand III), and a relatively high net N mineralization (175 , 1213 mg N kg,1 in LOf1 and Of2, 4 weeks incubation). In the converted forest (stand II), C,:,N ratio and qCO2 values in the LOf1 layer decreased significantly, and base saturation and exchangeable Ca showed a somewhat increment in mineral soil. In the regenerated forest (stand III), the total N storage in the surface layers decreased by 30,%. The surface organic layers (LOf1, Of2) possessed a very high net N mineralization (1.5 , 3 times higher than those in other two stands), high microbial biomass (C, N), and high basal respiration and qCO2 values. Meanwhile, in the Oh layer, the base saturation and the exchangeable Ca decreased. All studied substrates showed little net nitrification after the first period of incubation (2 weeks). In the later period of incubation (7 , 11 weeks), a considerable amount of NO3 -N accumulated (20 , 100,% of total cumulative mineral N) in the soils from the two pure spruce stands (I, III). In contrast, there was almost no net NO3 -N accumulation in the soils from the converted mixed stand (II) indicating that there was a difference in microorganisms in the two types of forest ecosystems. Soil microbial biomass N, mineral N, net N mineralization, L-asparaginase, and L-glutaminase were correlated and associated with forest management. Chemische und biochemische Veränderungen der Bodeneigenschaften durch Verjüngung und Waldumbau eines Fichtenaltbestandes Um die durch den Waldumbau und die Regeneration bedingten Standortsveränderungen zu untersuchen, wurden die Netto-Stickstoffmineralisierung, die potenzielle Nitrifikation, der mikrobiell gebundene Stickstoff (Nmic), L-Asparaginase, L-Glutaminase sowie weitere chemische und biologische Parameter an drei benachbarten Standorten untersucht: Standort I, reiner Fichtenaltbestand (Picea abies (L.) Karst ,110 Jahre); Standort II, Fichtenaltbestand mit Buchenunterbau (Fagus sylvatica , 5 Jahre); Standort III, reine Fichtenaufforstung (16 Jahre). Die Standorte II und III entstanden infolge des Waldumbaus aus reinen Fichtenaltbeständen. Die untersuchten Böden sind gekennzeichnet durch sehr niedrige pH-Werte (pH(H2O) 3, 7 , 4, 2, pH (CaCl2) 2, 9 , 3, 5), hohe Gesamtstickstoffgehalte (1, 06 , 1, 94,%), hohe metabolische Quotienten (6, 7,16, 9g CO2 kg,1 h,1), geringe Nmic -Gehalte (1, 1 , 3, 3,% des Gesamt-N, ausgenommen LOf1 von Standort III) und eine relativ hohe N-Nettomineralisation (175 , 1213 mg N Kg,1 in LOf1 und Of2, nach 4 Wochen Inkubation). Am Standort II nahm das C,:,N-Verhältnis und der qCO2 im LOf1 -Horizont deutlich ab, wohingegen der Gehalt an austauschbarem Ca sowie die Basensättigung im Mineralboden geringfügig zunahmen. Am Standort III nahm der N-Vorrat (Auflagehumus + Mineralboden 0 , 10,cm) um 30,% ab. In den LOf1 - und Of2 -Lagen des Auflagehumus dieses Standortes traten eine hohe N-Nettomineralisation (1, 5- bis 3fach höher als in den Standorten I und II), hohe Gehalte an mikrobiell gebundenem C und N, eine erhöhte Basalatmung sowie erhöhte qCO2 -Werte auf. In den Oh-Lagen hingegen nahm die Basensättigung ab. Alle untersuchten Standorte zeigten in der ersten Periode der Inkubation (0 bis 2 Wochen) eine geringe Netto-Nitrifikation. An den Standorten I und III fand in der späteren Periode (7. bis 11. Woche) eine Anreicherung an NO3 (20 , 100,% des gesamten mineralischen N-Vorrates) statt. Im Gegensatz dazu wurde am Standort II keine NO3 -N- Anreicherung festgestellt. Dies deutet auf einen Unterschied in der Zusammensetzung der mikrobiellen Gemeinschaften in den zwei verschiedenen Forstökosystemen hin. Nmic, N-Nettomineralisation, L-Asparaginase und L-Glutaminase korrelieren miteinander und zeigen eine enge Beziehung zu den Bewirtschaftungsformen. [source]

Charcoal as a habitat for microbes and its effect on the microbial community of the underlying humus

OIKOS, Issue 2 2000
Janna Pietikäinen
Wildfires produce a charcoal layer, which has an adsorbing capacity resembling activated carbon. After the fire a new litter layer starts to accumulate on top of the charcoal layer, which liberates water-soluble compounds that percolate through the charcoal and the unburned humus layer. We first hypothesized that since charcoal has the capacity to adsorb organic compounds it may form a new habitat for microbes, which decompose the adsorbed compounds. Secondly, we hypothesized that the charcoal may cause depletion of decomposable organic carbon in the underlying humus and thus reduce the microbial biomass. To test our hypotheses we prepared microcosms, where we placed non-heated humus and on top one of the adsorbents: non-adsorptive pumice (Pum), charcoal from Empetrum nigrum (EmpCh), charcoal from humus (HuCh) or activated carbon (ActC). We watered them with birch leaf litter extract. The adsorbing capacity increased in the order Pumbasal respiration was largest in EmpCh and HuCh, and smallest in Pum. In addition, different kinds of microbial communities with respect to their phospholipid fatty acid and substrate utilization patterns were formed in the adsorbents. The amount of microbial biomass and number of bacteria did not differ between humus under different adsorbents, although different microbial communities developed in humus under EmpCh compared with Pum, which is obviously related to the increased pH of the humus under EmpCh, and also ActC. We suggest that charcoal from burning can support microbial communities, which are small in size but have a higher specific growth rate than those of the humus. Although the charcoal layer induces changes in the microbial community of the humus, it does not reduce the amount of humus microbes. [source]